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JOTJENAL 


11 


STATISTICAL  SOCIETY. 


(jf0unbjeb   1834.) 


Vol.    XLIIL— Ybab   1880. 


LONDON: 
KDWABD  STANFORD,  55,  CHARING    CROSS,  S.W. 

1880. 

Digitized  byCjOOQlC 


/StO,   <L.(/i^<iO^^   /^^^,  c^^-//. 


^^>?  i^^  'fff  /  H'/y. 


NOTICE. 

The  CJouncil  of  the  Statistical  Society  wish  it  to  be  understood, 
that,  while  they  consider  it  their  duty  to  adopt  every  means  within 
their  power  to  test  the  facts  inserted  in  this  Joumaly  they  do  not 
hold  themselves  responsible  for  their  accuracy,  which  must  rest 
upon  the  authority  of  the  several  Contributors. 


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STATISTICAL    SOCIETY. 


HIS  BOTAL  HIGHNESS  THE  PBINCE  OF  WALES,  KG. 


COUNCIL    AND    OFFICERS.— 1880-81. 


{having  filled  the 

Thb  Bight  Hovottbablb  Thb  Eabl  of 

SHAPTBSBirBY,  K.G.,  D.C.L. 
Thb  Bight  Honoubablb  Thb  Eabl  op 

Habeowby,  K.G.,  D.C.L. 
Thb  Bight  Honoubablb   Thb    Lobd 

Otbrstonb,  M.A.,  F.B.a.S. 
The  Bight  Honoubablb  The  Eabl  of 

Dbbby,  D.C.L.,  F.B.a. 
Thb   Bight   Hokoitbablb   Thb   Lobd 

Houghton,  D.C.L.,  F.B.S. 


Office  of  Fresiden^). 

William  Nbwmaboh,  Esq.,  F.B.S.,  F.I.A. 

(Corr.  Member  Inst,  of  France). 
WiLUAM  Fabb,  Esq.,  M.D.,  C.B.,  D.O.L., 

F.B.S.  (Corr.  Member  Inst,  of  France). 
William  A.  Guy,  Esq.,  M.B.,  F.B:C.P., 

F.B.S. 
James  Heywood,  Esq.,  F.B.S.,  F.G.S. 
The  Bight  Honoubablb  Gbobgb  Shaw 

Lbfbybb,  M.P. 
Thomas  Bbassby,  Esq.,  M.P. 


JAMES    CAIBD,    ESQ.,   C.B.,  F.B.S. 

Hyde  Claeke,  F.H.S.  I       Peoe.  W.  S.  Jevons,  LL.D.,  F.B.S. 

Fbedbbice  Hendbiks.  I       Fbedebio  John  Mouat,  M.D. 

James  Heywood,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.B.S.     |  Sib  John  Lubbock,  Babt.,  M.P.,  F.B.S. 
William  Kewmaboh,  Esq.,  F.B.S. 

Bichabd  Biddulfh  Mabtin,  M.P. 


Coundt 


Abthub  H.  Bailey,  F.I.A. 

T.  Gbaham  Balfoub,  M.D.,  F.B.S*. 

A.  E.  Bateman. 

a.  Phillifs  Bbvan,  F.a.S. 

Stbfhen  Boubne. 

Edwabd  William  Bbabbooe,  F.S.A. 

Sib  Geobge  Campbell,  E.C.S.I.,  M.P. 

J.  Oldfield  Chadwick,  F.B.G.S. 

Hammond  Chubb,  B.A. 

Hyde_Clabke,  F.H.S. 

Lionel  L.  Cohen. 

Majob  Patbioe  Gt.  Cbaigie. 

JULAND   DaNYBBS. 

Bobebt  Giffen. 
Fbedebick  Hbndbiks. 


Noel  A.  Humfhbeyb. 

Pbof.  W.  S.  Jevons,  LL.D.,  F.B.S. 

Bobebt  Lawson. 

Pbofessob  Leone  Leyi,  LL.D. 

Sib  John  Lubbock,  Babt.,  M.P.,  F.HS. 

John  B.  Mabtin,  M.A. 

Bichabd  Biddulfh  Mabtin,  M.P. 

Fbedebio  John  Mouat,  M.D.,  F.B.C.S. 

Fbancis  G.  p.  Neison. 

Bobebt  Hogabth  Pattbbson. 

Henby  D.  Poohin. 

Fbedebick  Pubdy. 

Sib  Bawson  W.  Bawson,  C.B.,  K.C.M.G. 

CoBNELius  Walfobd,  F.I.A. 

Thomas  A.  Wblton. 


Hammokd  Chubb.  |  Bobebt  Giffen. 

John  B.  Mabtin. 


Jfottiun  g^ttxttsqn* 
Fbedebio  J.  Mouat. 


I  Bobebt  Giffen. 

Joseph  Whittall. 


3Bail&mf.  -MBseBS.  Dbummond  and  Co.,  Chasing  Csosb,  S.W.,  London. 

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^.  '^ 


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CONTENTS. 

Vol.   XLIIL— Year   1880. 


March,  1880. 


PAGE 


Is  the  Value  of  Money  Bising  in  England  and  throughout  the 
World  ?  With  Bemarks  on  the  Effect  of  the  Fluctuating 
Conditions  of  Trade  upon  the  Value  of  Money.    By  R  H. 

Pattjerson,  Esq.  1—26 

Discussion  on  Mr.  Patterson's  Paper 27 — 34 

The  Strikes  of  the  Past  Ten  Years.      By  Geobob  Philups 

Bkvah,  Esq.,  F.G.S 35—64 

Discussion  on  Mr.  Bevan's  Paper  55 — 64 

On  Certain  Changes  in  the  English  Bates  of  Mortality.    By 

Thoicas  a.  Welton,  Esq. 65—83 

Discussion  on  Mr.  Welton's  Paper 84 — 94 


Miscbllakea: — 

I. — Financial  and  Commercial  History  of  1879   95— 109 

n. — ^Fires    in  the  Metropolis  during  1879,  and  the  Fire 

Brigade 109—114 

in.— English  Literature  in  1879    114—116 

IV.— German  Literature  of  1878  and  1879 116,   117 

V. — ^Emigration  and  Immigration  in  the  Year  1879 117 — 123 

VI. — ^Bates  of  Life  Insurance  Premiums 123 — 134 

Vll. — ^Beport  of  a  Committee  with  reference  to  the  Census  of 

1881   . 134—139 

VUL— Notes  on  Economical  and  Statistical  Works  139—143 

IX.— Notes  on  some  of  the  Additions  to  the  Library 143 — 147 

X. — ^Additions  to  the  Library  during  the  Quarter. 147 — 158 


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vi  CONTENTS,    VOL.    XLIIT,    YKAR    1880. 

PAQC 

Periodical  Returns  : — 

Registrar-General's  Report,  and  Meteorolo^cal  Table  for 
England  and  Wales  for  the  Year  ending  1879. — ^The  same 
for  Scotland. — Births,  Deaths,  and  Marriages  of  the  United 
Ejugdom. — Foreign  and  Colonial  Produce  Exported,  1878-74. 
— Trade  of  the  United  Kingdom,  1879-78-77. — Imports  and 
Exports. — Shipping. — Gold  and  Silver  Bullion  and  Specie. 
Average  Prices  of  Com  in  England  and  Wales. — Bank  of 
England  Returns. — Revenue  Returns. — The  London  Clear- 
ances and  Country  Bank  (Note)  Circulation  in  United 
Kingdom. — Foreign  Exchanges  159—182 


.June,  1880. 

On  the  Education  and  Training  of  the  Children  of  the  Poor. 

By  Frederic  J.  Mouat,  M.D.,  F.RC.S 183-  243 

Discussion  on  Dr.  Mouat's  Paper  244 — 260 

Vital  Statistics  of  Cavalry  Horses.    By  Surgeon-General  T. 

Graham  Balfour,  M.D.,  F.RS 251—271 

Discussion  on  Surgeon-General  Balfour's  Paper  271 — 274 

Ten  Years'  Statistics  of  British  Agriculture,  1870-79.  By 
Captain  Patrick  Georob  Craigie,  Secretaiy  of  the  Central 
Chamber  of  Agriculture * 275—312 

On  the  Home  Produce,  Imports,  Consumption,  and  Price  of 
Wheat,  over  the  Harvest- Years  1852-53  to  1879-80,  inclu- 
sive. By  J.  B.  Lawes,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  F.C.S.,  and  J. 
H.  Gilbert,  Ph.D.,  F.RS.,  F.C.S 313-331 

Discussion  on  the  two  Papers  by  Captain  Craigie,  and  by 

Lawes  and  Gilbert 332—340 


Miscellanea  : — 

I. — General  Results  of  the  Commercial  and  Financial  Histoiy 

of  the  Year  1879  341—355 

II. — ^The  Movement  of  the  Population  in  Russia  during  the 

Four  Years  1867-70 356—364 

III.— Lloyd's  Statistics  of  Marine  Casualties  for  the  Year  1879  366 — 379 

IV.— An  Iron  Trade  Chart  for  the  past  Fifty  Years    380,   381 

v.— Notes  on  Economical  and  Statistical  Works 382—388 

VI. — ^Notes  on  some  of  the  Additions  to  the  Library 388—393 

VII.— A  Quarterly  List  of  the  Additions  to  the  Library 393—404 


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OONTBUTS,  VOL.  XLIII,  TEAR  1880.  vil 


September,  1880. 

TACE 

Report  of  the  Council  to  the  Forty-Sixth  Anniversary  Meeting 

of  the  Statistical  Society 405- -416 

Proceedings  of  the  Forty-Sixth  Anniversary  Meeting  417 — 422 

A  Survey  of  Indictable  and  Summary  Jurisdiction  Oflfences  in 
England  and  Wales,  from  1857  to  1876,  in  Quinquennial 
Periods,  and  in  1877  and  1878.  By  Professor  Leone 
Levi,  F.S.A.,  LL.D.,  &c 423—456 

Discussion  on  Professor  Leone  Levi's  Paper 456 — 461 

On  the  Increase  of  Population  in  England  and  Wales.    By  R. 

Price  Williams,  M.  Inst.  C.E 462—496 

Discussion  on  Mr.  R.  Price  Williams's  Paper  497 — 608 

Mortality  in  Remote  Comers  of   the  World.      By  Harald 

Westbroaard,  of  Copenhagen  509 — 520 


Miscellanea  : — 

I.— Ten  Years'  Railway  Statistics 521—531 

II. — Notes  on  Economical  and  Statistical  Works 531 — 547 

III. — Notes  on  some  Additions  to  the  Library 547,   548 

IV. — list  of  Additions  to  the  Library    548 — 558 


December,  1880. 

The  Inaugural  Address  of  Jakes  Caird,  Esq.,  C.B.,  F.RS., 
President  of  the  Statistical  Society,  delivered  on  Tuesday, 
the  16th  of  November,  1880   559—572 

Proceedings  on  the  16th  November,  1880 572 

Note  on  the  Tenth  Census  of  the  United  States  of  America. 
By  F.  J.  MouAT,  M.D.,  F.R.C.S.,  Vice-President  and 
Foreign  Secretary 573—602 

Discussion  on  Dr.  Mouat's  Paper   602 — 604 

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Vlii  C0NTBKT8,  VOL.  XLIU,   YEAR  1880. 


PAOB 


^'  The  Oriental  Plague  in  its  Social,  Economical,  Political,  and 
"  Intamational  Belations,  special  Bef  erence  being  made  to 
"  the  Labours  of  John  Howard  on  the  subject."  A  Prize 
Essay.  By  Hrnrt  Percy  Potter,  Esq.,  RRCS.,  to 
whom  the  Howard  Medal  of  1880  was  awarded 606—642 


Miscellanea  : — 

I.— Agricultural  Eetums  for  the  Year  1880 643—664 

II.— The  Com  Crops  of  1880 664—670 

III.— Ten  Years'  Eesults  of  the  London  School  Board  670—682 

rV.— The  Annual  Local  Taxation  Betums  of  1878-79  683—687 

v.— Ten  Years'  Telegraphy  687—690 

VI.— The  Population  of  the  Earth    690—697 

VII.— Statistics  of  Australasian  Colonies  698,   699 

VIII.— Agricultural  Diatress  and  Bills  of  Sale  700—705 

IX. — Notes  on  Economical  and  Statistical  Works  705 — 709 

X. — ^Notes  on  some  Additions  to  the  Library 709 — 711 

XI.— List  of  Additions  to  the  Library 711—720 

Index  to  vol.  xliii  (1880) 721—743 


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(Corrected  to  31st  December,  1880.) 

STATISTICAL  SOCIETY. 

(Founded  1834,) 
SOMERSST  HOUSE  TERRACE  (King's  College  Entrance), 

STRAND,  W.C,   LONDON. 


PAas 

Council  and  Officers 2 

Objects  of  the  Society  8 

Calendar  for  Session  1880-81 4 

Programme  of  the  Session  1880-81 5  " 

Howard  Medal  of  1881,  Subject  of  Essay  for.  .  6 

List  of  the  former  Patron  and  Presidents.  ...  7 

Do.      Fellows    • 8 

Do.      Honorary  Members   43 

Index  to  Rui.es 48 

Rules  of  the  Society 49 

Regulations  of  the  Library 53 

Donors  to  the  Library  during  the  Year  1880. .  54 

Cost  of  Back  Nos.  of  Journal  (if  not  out  of  Print).  60 

Odd  Numbers,  Parts  and  Volumes  wanting  in 

THE   Library 61 

Form  of  Bequest 62 


LONDON : 

PBIKTBD  POB  THB  BOOIETT, 

BY  HABBISON  AND  SONS,  45  and  46,  ST.  MARTIN'S  LANE, 
IPrmttrs  in  ®rbimarg  ia  $tr  Pajtstg. 

1881, 


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STATISTICAL   SOCIETY. 


HIS  ROYAL  HIGHNESS  THE  PBINCE  OF  WALES,  K.Q. 
COUNCIL    AND    OFFICERS.— 1880-8L 

QMving  fitted  the  Office  of  Preeident), 


Thb  Bight  HoirorBABLE  Ths  Babl  of 

Shaftbsbttbt,  K.G-.,  D.C.L. 
Thb  Bight  Honoxtbablb  Thb  Eabl  op 

Habeowbt,  K.a.,  D.O.L. 
Thb   Bight   Honoubablb    Thb    Lobd 

OvBESTONB,  M.A.,  F.B.a.S. 
Thb  Bight  Honottbablb  The  Eibl  of 

Dbbby,  D.C.L.,  F.B.S. 
Thb   Bight   Honoubablb   Thb    Lobd 

Hovghtok,  D.O.L.,  F.B.S. 


William  Newmabch,  Esq.,  F.B.S.,  F.IJL. 

(Corr.  Member  Inst,  of  France). 
William  Fabb,  Esq.,  M.D.,  C.B.,  D.O.L., 

F.E.S.  (Corr.  Member  Inst,  of  France.) 
WiLLLiM  A.  auT,  Esq.,  M.B.,  F.B.C.P., 

F.B.S. 
James  Hetwood,  Esq.,  F.B.S.,  F.G.S. 
The  Bight  Honoubable  Qbobgb  Shaw 

Lefevbe,  M.P. 
Thomas  Bbasset,  Esq.,  M.P. 


JAMES  OAIBD,  ESQ.,  C.B.,  F.B.S. 

Hyde  Clabkb,  F.H.S.  |     Peof.  W.  S.  Jevoits,  LL.D.,  F.B.S. 

Fbedebiok  Hbkdbiks.         I     Fbbdbbio  John  Mouat,  M.D. 

Jambs  Hbtwoop,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.B.S.     |  Sib  John  Lxtbboos,  Babt.,  M.P.,  •F.B.S. 
William  Newmabch,  Esq.,  F.B.S. 

ZxtKiuxtx. 
Biohabd  BiDDtrLPH  Mabtik,  M.P. 


€ottndl. 


Abthitb  H.  Bailey,  F.I.A. 

T.  asAHAM  Balfoitb,  M.D.,  F.B.S. 

A.  E.  Batemin. 

G.  Phillifs  Bevan,  F.G.S. 

Stephen  BouBim. 

Edwabd  William  Bbabbook,  F.S.A. 

Sib  Geobgb  Campbell,  E.O.S.L,  M.P. 

J.  Oldfield  Ohadwick,  F.B.G.S. 

Hammond  Chitbb,  B.A. 

Hyde  Clabkb,  F.H.S. 

Lionel  L.  Cohen. 

Majob  Patbick  G-.  Cbaigib. 

Juland  Dantebs. 

BOBEBT  GiFFBN. 

Fbedbbiok  Hbndbizb. 


Noel  A.  Hitmphbbys. 

Peof.  W.  S.  Jbyons,  LL.D.,  P.BJ3. 

Bobebt  Lawson. 

Pbofbssob  Leone  Lbti,  LL.D. 

SiB  John  Litbbook,  Baet.,  M.P.,  F.B.S. 

John  B.  Mabtin,  M.A. 

Biohabd  Biddulfh  Mabtin,  M.P. 

Fbedeeio  John  Mouat,  M.D.,  F.B.C.S. 

Feanois  G.  p.  Neison. 

Bobebt  Hogabth  Pattebsok. 

Henby  D.  Pochin. 

Fbedebiok  Pttbdy. 

Sib  Bawson  W.  Bawson,  C.B.,  E.C.M.G. 

CoBNELius  Walfobd,  F.I.A. 

Thomas  A  Wklton. 


^ttxttnxiti. 

Hammond  Chtbb.  |  Bobbbt  Giffbn. 

John  B.  Mabtin. 


Jfaxtisn  gptattxxui. 
Fbbdbbio  J.  Movat. 


etsitax  Of  t^t  SmxntO. 

Bobebt  Giffen. 


Joseph  Whittall. 
JBan&n3f*^MBSSBS.  Dbfmkond  aiitd  Co.,  Chabing  Cboss,  S.W.,  London. 


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3 
AN  OUTUNB  OF 

THE  OBJECTS  OF  THE  STATISTICAI  SOCIETT. 


Thb  Statistical  Society  of  London  was  founded,  in  pursuance  of 
a  reoommendation  of  the  British  Association  for  the  Advancement 
of  Scienoe,  on  the  15th  of  March,  1834 ;  its  object  being,  the  careful 
collection,  arrangement,  discussion  and  publication,  of  facts  bearing 
on  and  illustrating  ihe  complex  relations  of  modem  society 
in  its  social,  economical,  and  political  aspects,-— especially  facts 
which  can  be  stated  numerically  and  arranged  in  tables ; — and  also, 
to  form  a  Statistical  Library  as  rapidly  as  its  funds  would  permit. 

The  Soci6tv  from  its  inception  has  steadily  progressed.  It  now 
possesses  a  valuable  Library  and  a  Reading  Koom ;  ordinary  meet- 
mgs  are  held  monthly  from  November  to  June,  which  are  well 
attended,  and  cultivate  among  its  Fellows  an  active  spirit  of  inves- 
tigation :  the  papers  read  before  the  Society  are,  with  an  abstract 
of  the  discussions  thereon,  published  in  its  Journal^  which  now 
consists  of  43  annual  volumes,  and  forms  of  itself  a  valuable  library 
of  reference. 

The  Society  has  originated  and  statistically  conducted  many 
spedal  inquiries  on  subjects  of  economic  or  sodal  interest,  of  which 
the  results  have  been  published  in  the  Journal  or  issued  separately ; 
the  latest  instance  being  the  institution  of  the  ^^  Howard  Med^ '' 
Prize  Essay. 

To  enable  the  Society  to  extend  its  sphere  of  useful  activity,  and 
accomplish  in  a  yet  greater  degree  the  various  ends  indicated,  an 
increase  in  its  numbers  and  revenue  is  desirable.  With  the  desired 
increase  in  the  number  of  Fellows,  the  Society  will  be  enabled  to 
publish  standard  works  on  Economic  Science  and  Statistics, 
especially  such  as  are  out  of  print  or  scarce,  and  also  greatly  extend 
its  collection  of  Foreign  works.  Such  a  well-arranged  Library  for 
reference,  as  would  result,  does  not  at  present  exist  m  England,  and 
is  obviously  a  great  desideratum. 

The  Society  is  cosmopolitan,  and  consists  of  Fellows  and 
Honorary  Members,  forming  together  a  body,  at  the  present  time, 
of  between  eight  and  nine  hundred  Members. 

The  Annual  Subscription  to  the  Society  is  Two  Guineas^  and 
at  present  there  is  no  entrance  fee.  Fellows  may,  on  joining  the 
Society,  or  afterwards,  compound  for  all  future  Annual  Subscriptions 
by  a  payment  of  Twenty  Guineas. 

The  Fellows  of  the  Society  receive  gratuitously  a  copy  of  each 
part  of  the  Journal  as  published  Quarterly,  and  have  the  privilege 
of  purchasing  back  numbers  at  a  reduced  rate.  The  Library 
(reference  and  circulating),  and  the  Reading  Room,  are  open  d^y, 
for  the  convenience  of  Members. 

Nomination  Forms  and  any  further  information  will  be  fur- 
nished, on  application  to  the  Assistant  Secretary. 

B  2 


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CALENDAR  FOR  SESSION  1880-81. 


S 

fii 

. 

. 

1880 

i 

u 

i 

i 

i 

1 

i 

1881 

i 

i 

1 

I 

i 

1 

NOV. 

I 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

MAY 

... 

... 

... 

... 

I 

8 

9 

10 

II 

12 

13 

14 

2 

3 

4 

5 

"e 

7 

8 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

9 

10 

II 

12 

13 

»4 

15 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

29 

30 

... 

... 

... 

... 

... 

23 

30 

24 
31 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

DEC. 

*. . 

• . . 

I 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

II 

12 

JUNE 

... 

... 

I 

2 

3 

4 

5 

13 

14 

IS 

16 

17 

18 

19 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

II 

12 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

... 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

1881 

27 

28 

29 

30 

... 

JAN. 

... 

... 

... 

... 

... 

I 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

JULY 

... 

... 

... 

... 

I 

3 

3 

10 

II 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

4 

S 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

»7 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

II 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

31 

... 

... 

... 

... 

... 

... 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

FEB. 

... 

I 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

AUG. 

I 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

7 

8 

9 

10 

II 

12 

13 

8 

9 

10 

II 

12 

13 

14 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

28 

... 

•.. 

... 

... 

... 

... 

29 

30 

31 

... 

... 

... 

... 

MAR. 

... 

I 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

SEP. 

. .. 

..  . 

.. . 

I 

2 

3 

4 

7 

8 

9 

10 

II 

12 

13 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

II 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

21 

22 

'23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

28 

29 

30 

31 

... 

... 

... 

36 

27 

28 

29 

30 

... 

APR. 

I 

2 

3 

OCT. 

... 

I 

2 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

ti 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

10 

II 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

.. . 

24 
31 

25 

26 

27 

38 

29 

30 

The  Ordinanr  Meetings  of  the  Society,  at  which  Papers  are  read  and  discassed,  are 
marked  in  the  Calendar  above  by  Black  Figures. 

TA^  Chair  will  be  taken  at  7*45  /.«.,  precisely. 

Visitors  may  attend  the  Ordinary  Meetings  on  the  introduction  of  a  Fellow. 


THE   ANNIVERSART   MBETINO 

Will  be  held  on  the  28th  June,  1881,  at  4  p.m. 


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5 

MONTHLY    meetings-Session  1880-81. 

HELD   ON  THE 

Third  Tubsdat  m  the  MoNtHs  op  Noyembbe — June. 

{Bxoeptimg  April) 


Tuesday,  Nov.  16. 

„         Dec  21, 

„        Jan.  18. 

Feb.  15. 


Tuesday,  March  15. 

„         April    12. 

May     17. 

„        Judo    21. 


The  Council  have  reason  to  expect  that  in  the  course 
of  the  Session  the  foUovnng  Papers  will,  among  others, 
be  communicated  to  the  Society : — 

The  PBEsmEMT's  Inaugural  Address.  By  James  Caibd,  Esq., 
C.B.,F.R.S.  ^ 

**  Note  on  the  Tenth  Census  of  the  United  States  of  America  .V 
By  Dr.  F.  J.  Mouat,  F.R.C.S. 

"  The  Growth  of  the  Human  Body."    By  J.  T.  Danson,  Esq. 

"  The  Methods  of  Electing  Representatives."  By  Hbnbt  R. 
Droop,  Esq. 

"  The  Influence  of  Expenditure  on  Intoxicating  Liquors  on  the 
Trade  and  Conmierce  of  the  Country."    By  Wm.  Hotle,  Esq. 

"The  Question  of  the  Reduction  of  the  Present  Postal  Tele- 
graph Tariff."    By  R-  Price  Williams,  Esq.,  C.E. 

"  The  Method  of  Statistics."    By  Wtnnard  Hooper,  Esq. 

"  The  Comparative  Taxation  of  the  Principal  European  Countries." 
By  Robert  Oiffen,  Esq. 

"The  Relative  Mortality  of  Large  and  Small  Hospitals;  their 
advantages  and  disadvantages  considered."  By  H.  C.  Bur- 
DKTT,  E^. 

"  The  History  and  Statistics  of  the  Irish  Incumbered  Estates 
Court,  with  Suggestions  for  a  Tribimal  with  similar  Juris- 
diction in  England."  By  R.  Denny  Urun,  Esq.  (lately 
Examiner  under  "The  Landed  Estates  Act — Ireland  ). 

"  On  the  Development  of  the  Hill  Regions  of  India."  By  Hyde 
Clarke,  Esq. 

"A  Statistical  Chronology  of  the  Plagues  and  Pestilences  of  the 
World."    By  C.  Walford,  Esq.,  F.SA. 


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HOWARD  MEDAL. 


The  following  is  the  title  of  the  Eseay  to  which  the  Medal  will 
be  awarded  in  November,  1881.  The  Essays  to  be  sent  in  on  or 
before  SOth  June,  1881. 

^^  On  the  Jcdl  Fever ,  from  the  earliest  Black  Assize  to  the  last 
''  recorded  outbreak  in  recent  times  f 

The  Council  have  decided  to  grant  the  sum  of  £20  to  the  writer 
who  may  gain  the  *'  Howard  Meikl"  in  November,  1881. 

(The  Medal  is  of  bronze^  having  on  one  side  a  portrait  of  John 
Howard^  on  the  other  a  wheatsheaf  with  suitable  inscription.) 

The  following  are  the  principal  conditions : — 

Each  Essay  to  bear  a  motto,  and  be  accompanied  by  a  sealed 
letter,  marked  with  the  like  motto,  and  containing  the  name  and 
address  of  the  author ;  such  letter  not  to  be  opened,  except  in  the 
case  of  the  successful  Essay. 

No  Essay  to  exceed  in  length  150  pages  (8vo.)  of  the  Journal  of 
the  Statistical  Society. 

The  Council  shall,  if  they  see  fit,  cause  the  successful  Essay,  or 
an  abridgment  thereof,  to  be  read  at  a  Meeting  of  the  Statistical 
Society ;  and  shall  have  the  right  of  publishing  the  Essay  in  their 
Journal  one  month  before  its  appearance  in  any  separate  indepen- 
dent form ;  this  right  of  publication  to  continue  till  three  months 
after  the  award  of  the  Prize. 

The  President  shall  place  the  Medal  in  the  hands  of  the  suc- 
cessful Candidate,  at  the  conclusion  of  his  Annual  Address,  at  the 
ordinary  Meeting  in  November,  when  he  shall  also  re-announce  the 
subject  of  the  Prize  Essay  for  the  following  year. 

Competition  for  this  Medal  shall  not  be  limited  to  the  Fellows 
of  the  Statistical  Society,  but  shall  be  open  to  any  competitor, 
providing  the  Essay  be  written  in  the  English  language. 

The  Council  shall  not  award  the  Prize,  except  to  the  author  of 
an  Essay,  in  their  opinion,  of  a  sufficient  standc^d  of  merit;  no 
Essay  shall  be  deemed  to  be  of  sufficient  merit  that  does  not  set 
forth  the  facts  with  which  it  deals,  in  part,  at  least,  in  the  language 
of  figures  and  tables ;  and  distinct  references  should  be  miule  to 
such  authorities  as  may  be  quoted  or  referred  to. 

Further  particulars  or  explanations  may  be  obtained  from  the 
Assistant  Secretary,  at  the  Office  of  the  Society,  King's  College 
Entrance,  Strand,  London,  W.C. 


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LIST  OP  THE  FORMER 


OF  THl 

STATISTICAL   SOCIETY, 

From   Us   Foundation,   on   I5ih  March,    1834. 


patron. 

1840-61 — 'H3S  KoTAL  Highness  The  Pbincb  Consort,  K.G, 


1834-36 
1836-38 
1838-40 
1840-42 

1842-43 
1843-45 

1845-47 
1847-49 
1849-51 
1851-53 
1853-55 
1855-57 
1857-59 

1859-61 

1861-63 

1863-65 
1865-67 
1867-69 
1869-71 
1871-73 
1873-75 
1875-77 
1877-79 
1879-80 


The  Most  Noble  the  Marquis  of  Lansdowne,  F.RS. 

Sir  Charles  LemoD,  Bart.,  M.P.,  F.R.S.,  LL.D. 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Earl  Fitzwilliam,  F.R.S. 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Viscount  Sandon,  M.P. 
(now  Earl  of  Harrowby.) 

The  Most  Noble  the  Marquis  of  Lansdowne,  E.G.,  F.R^. 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Viscount  Ashley,  M.P, 
(now  Earl  of  Shaftesbury.) 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Lord  Monteagle. 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Earl  Mtzwilliam,  F.RA 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Earl  of  Harrowby, 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Lord  Overstone. 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Earl  Fitzwilliam,  K.G.,  F.R.S. 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Earl  of  Harrowby,  F.R.S. 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Lord  Stanley,  M.P. 
(now  Earl  of  Derby.) 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Lord  John  Russell,  M.P.,  F.R.S. 
(afterwards  Earl  Russell.) 

The  Right  Hon.  Sir  J.  S.  Pakington,  Bart.,  M.P.,  G.C.B. 
(afterwards  Lord  Hampton.) 

Colonel  W.  H.  Sykes,  M.P.,  F.R.S. 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Lord  Houghton. 

The  Right  Hon.  W.  E.  Gladstone,  M.P.,  D.C.L. 

W.  Newmarch,  Esq.,  F.R.S.,  Corr.  Mem.  Inst,  of  France. 

WiUiam  Farr,  Esq.,  M.D.,  C.B.,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S. 

WiDiam  A.  Guy,  Esq.,  M.B.,  F.R.S. 

James  Heywood,  Esq.,  Mji.,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S. 

The  Right  Hon.  George  Shaw  Lefevre,  M.P. 

Thomas  Brassey,  Esq.,  M J*. 


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LIST  OF  FELLOWS. 


Tho*e  marked  thui  *  have  compounded  for  their  Annual  SubecnpiUme. 
The  namee  rfMembere  rf  Council  ure  printed  in  Small  Capitals. 


Tmt  of 
Election. 

1878 


1876 
1870 
1862 
1869 
1879 
1867 
1873 
1880 
1876 
1879 
1841 
1876 
1847 
1872 
1876 
1876 


Abdiir  Eabman,  Moulvie  Syud,  F.E.C.S.  (BarrUter-at'Laiojy 

42,  Talfollah-lane,  Calcutta,  India, 
Abrahams,  Israel,  F.KG-.S., 

56,  Bussell-square,  W,0. 
Absolon,  Eugene, 

12,  Wellingtan'Square,  Kina^s-road,  Chehea,  S.W. 
Acland,  Henry  Wentworth,  M.D.,  F.E.S., 

Oxford, 
Acland,  Sir  Thomas  Dyke,  Bart.,  M.P.,  F.E.S., 

Sprt/doncote,  Exeter  ;  and  AthentBum  Club,  S,  W 
Adam,  Eobert  {City  Chamberlain), 

City  Chambers,  Edinburgh, 
Addison,  John, 

6,  Delahay'Street,  Great  Oeorye-street,  8,W, 
♦Airlie,  The  Eight  Hon.  the  Earl  of,  K.T., 

36,  Chesham-place,  S.W. 
Aitchison,  David, 

5,  Fembridge-square,  W, 
Aitchison,  William  John, 

2,  Princes-street,  E.C, 
Akers-Douglas,  Aretas,  M.P.,  J.P., 

ChiUton  Fark,  Maidstone,  Kent, 
Aldam,  "William,  F.E.8., 

Frichley  Hall,  Doncaster, 
Aldwinckle,  Thomas  Williams, 

7,  Fast  India-avenue,  LeadenhalUstreet,  F,C, 
Alexander,  George  William, 

The  Willows,  Church-street,  Stoke  Newington,  N, 
Alexander,  Eobert  Henry, 

24,  Lomhard-street,  F,C, 
Allen,  John  T.  E., 

North  Bailey,  Durham, 
Allen,  Joseph, 

8t,  Mldred's  House,  FouUry,  KC, 


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Tmvoi 

1877 


1878 
1878 
1871 
1871 
1834 
1872 
1871 
1870 
1871 


1872 
1872 
1875 
1879 
1855 
1858 
1879 
1878 
1879 
1848 
1873 
1865 


LIST  OP  FELLOWS. 


Allen,  Joseph,  ( West  Riding  ChambenY 

21,  Jraterhouse-ttreetf  Jffalifaa,  Yorkshire, 
Anderson,  A.  E., 

131,  Mount  Pleasant^  Idverpool. 
Anderson,  Edward  C,  M.A.,  M.D., 

TotD-Law,  Darlington. 
Anderson,  Sir  James,  E.E.G.S.,  F.G.S., 

66,  Old  Broad-street,  E.G. 
Angus,  B.  6., 

Montreal,  Canada. 
♦AnseD,  Charles,  F.E.S., 

92,  Cheapside,  U.O. 
♦Archibalcl,  "William  Frederick  A.,  M.A, 

3,  AmershamrToad,  Putney,  S.  W, 
Atkinson,  George  "W., 

1,  Begent-street,  Bamsley, 
Averj,  Thomas, 

Church-road,  JEdghaston,  Birmingham.     . 
Axon,  William  E.  A., 

Bank  Cottage,  Patricroft,  Manchester, 


•Babbage,  Major-General  Henry  P., 

d)ainton  House,  Bromley,  Kent. 
'Backhouse,  Edmund, 

Middleton  Lodge,  Richmond,  York. ;  Reform  Club,  S.  W. 
Baddelej,  Samuel, 

JPreeland^s-road,  Bromley,  Kent. 
Baden- Powell,  George  S.,  M.A.,  F.RA.S., 

8,  St.  George^ solace,  Hyde  Park  Corner,  S.  W, 
Bailit,  Abthub  Htjtchesok,  F.I.A., 

7,  Royal  Exchange,  E,C. 
Baines,  Sir  Edward, 

St,  Ann's'hill,  Burley,  Leeds. 
Baker,  W.  Mills, 

Stoke  Bishop,  near  Bristol. 
Balfour,  Arthur  James,  M.P., 

4,  Carlton -gardens,  S.  W. 
Balfour,  Cecil  Charles, 

7,  Park-square,  Regenfs-park,  N.W. 
Balfour,  General  Sir  George,  M.P.,  D.L.,  K.C.B., 

6,  Cleveland-gardens,  Bayswater,  W. 
Balfour,  Jabez  Spencer,  M.P., 

20,  Budge-row,  Cannon-street,  E.C. 
Balfoub,  Thomas  Gbaham,  M.D.,  F.R.S., 

Ooombe  Lodge,  Wimbledon  Park,  S.W. 


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10  STATISTICAL  SOCIETY: 


Tear  of 
Klection. 

1879 


18l>9 

1877 
1873 
1880 
1878 
1878 
1879 
1872 
1836 
1873 
1877 
1877 
1876 
1877 
1873 
1871 
1877 
1875 
1878 
1876 
1880 
1863 
1872 
1879 


Bamber,  Edward  Fisher,  C.B., 

67,  8hqft68hufy»road,  Ravenseourt-parky  W. 
BamptoD,  James, 

13,  St,  JameM^B-tquare^  SL  W, 
Barbour,  William  B., 

196,  Haverstock'Ull,  N.W. 
Barham,  Francis  F., 

Bank  of  England,  Birmingham. 
*Baring,  Thomas  Charles,  M.P., 

Hiah  Beach,  Loughton, 
Barr,  John  Colemant  L.R.C.  P., 

Oranmore  Villas^  AldershoL 
Barry,  Francis  Tress, 

St,  Leonard* 8'hill,  Wind$or. 
Barry,  Frederick  "W.,  M.D.  {Sanitary  Oommisnoner)^ 

Nicosea,  Cyprus, 
♦Bass,  Michael  Arthur,  M.P., 

IQl,  Eaton-square,  S,  W,;  Bangemore,  Burton-on-Trenf. 
Bass,  Michael  Thomas,  M.P., 

101,  Eaton^square,  S,W.;  Bangemorey  Burton-on-JVenU 
Bate,  George, 

10,  City-road^  E,0. 
Bateman,  a.  £., 

1,  Whitehall  S.IF. 

Battye,  Eichard  Fawcett,  M.R  C.P., 

123,  St,  George' s-roady  S,W. 
Baxter,  Bobert, 

6  and  6,  Victoria^reeiy  Westminster,  8.W. 
Bayfield,  Arthur, 

32,  Temple-row,  Birmingham. 
♦Baynes,  Alfred  Henry,  F.R.G.S., 

19,  Gastle-street,  Holhom,  E.C. 
♦Baynes,  William  Wilberforce,  F.I.A., 
32,  Moorgate-street,  E,0, 
Beadel,  William  J., 

Springfield  Lyons,  Chelmsford, 
♦Beardsall,  Francis  E.  M., 

64,  Cross-street,  Manchester, 
*Beauchamp,  The  Eight  Hon.  Earl, 

13,  Belgrave-square,  S.  W, 
♦Beaufort,  William  Morris,  F.E.A.S.,  F.B.G.S.,  &c., 
18,  Piccadilly,  W. 
Beddell,  Charles, 

5,  Lothbury,  E.C, 
Beddoe,  John,  B.A.,  M.D.,  F.E.S., 

2,  Lansdowne-place,  Clifton, 
•Bedford,  His  Grace,  the  Duke  of, 

Wohum  Abbey,  Oakley,  Bedford. 
Beggs,  Thomas, 

Razeldene,  Shortlands,  Kent, 


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YmtoT 

SlMCloil. 

1880 


1878 
1856 
1879 
1875 
1869 
1879 
1866 
1877 
1877 
1873 
1860 
1877 
1880 
1879 
1879 
1875 
1871 
1877 
1860 
1876 
1879 
1880 
1874 
1876 


LI8T  OF  #£LLOW8.  ]  1 


Bell,  Isaac  Lowthian,  J.  P^ 

Rounton  Orange^  Nbrthallerton^  Yorky  N.R. 
Bellew,  The  Bight  Hon.  Lord, 

Barmeathy  Dunleer,  Ireland, 
•Bereaford-Hope,  The  Eight  Hon.  A.  J.,  M.P.,  D.C.L., 

1,  Connaught-placey  W. 
Bb^ait,  Geobgb  Phillips,  F.G.S., 

ZTplandSf  Richmond,  Surrey, 
Beyan,  Thomas, 

Sione  Fork,  near  Dartford,  Kent 
•Beyerley,  Henry, 

27,  Theatre-road,  Oaleutta. 
♦Bickford-Smith,  W.,  J.P.,  D.L.,  Ac, 

Trevamo^  HeUton,  Cornwall, 
Bik^las,  D^m6triu8, 

Athene,  Greece, 
Bishop,  Gborge  Houlton,  M.B.O.S., 

Wesihoume  Gheen,  Harrow  road,  W, 
Boddj,  Evan  Marlett,  L.E.C.P.,  {Lifford  Home,  Dart/brd), 

111,  CambervoeUrroad,  SJS, 
Bogie,  James, 

5,  Spenee-^ireet,  Newington,  EdinbwrgK 
Bohn,  Henry  George,  F.B.A.S.,  F.L.S., 

18,  Henrietta^reet,  Covent  Oarden^  W,0,;  Twickenham. 
Bolam,  Harry  Oeorge, 

IMle  Ingettre,  Stafford, 
Bolton,  Joseph  C,  M.P., 

Oarhrookf  Larhert,  StirUngehire, 
Borchardt,  Louis,  M.D., 

Swinton  House,  FalUmfield^  Maneheefer, 
Bordman,  Thomas  Joseph  Clarence  Linden, 

Victoria  House,  Trinity-street,  Southtoark,  U,0, 
Borthwick,  The  Eight  Hon.  Lord, 

Ravenstone,  Whithorn,  N.B, 
BoTTBurE,  Stephen, 

H,M,  Oustom  House,  JE,  tt  ;  Ahherleg,  Wallington,  Surrey, 
Boutcher,  Emanuel, 

12,  Oarford^square,  Hyde  Park,  W, 
BoTill,  William  John,  Q.C., 

32,  James^treet,  Buckingham-gate,  S,  W, 
Bowen,  Horace  George, 

Bank  of  England^  BurHngton-gardens,  W, 
Bowley,  Edwin, 

Burnt  Ash'hill,  Lee,  Kent. 
Bowser,  Wilfred  Arthur, 

72,  Bishopsgate-street  Within,  E,C,, 
Bbabbook,  Edwabd  William,  F.S.A.,  M.E.S.L., 

28,  JUngdon-street,  S.W. 
Braby,  James,  J.  P., 

Maybanks,  Rudgwick,  Susses, 


Digitized  by 


Google 


12  STATISTICAL  SOCIETY: 


TMTOf 

BiMtloa 

1874 
1855 
1873 
1864 
1876 
1874 
1878 
1872 
1876 
1876 
1865 
1880 
1878 
1872 
1874 
1877 
1880 


1880 
1857 

1880 
1879 
1874 

1877 


Bramley-Moore,  John,  D.L., 

GerrartPs-cro8$^  Bucks, 
Brand,  The  Eight  Hon.  Henry  Bouverie  William,  M.P., 

Speaker' 8  Court,  House  of  Commons^  8.  W, 
BsASBET,  Thomas,  M.P.,  {Honorary  Vice-President), 

4,  Great  Q^orge-street,  8.  W.;  and  24,  Fark-lane^  W. 
•Braye,  The  Eight  tiLon.  the  Lord, 

40,  Lovoer  Grosvenor-street ;  Stanford  HaU^  Bugbv. 
Brodhurst,  Bernard  Edward,  F.E.C.S., 

20,  Grosvenor-street,  Grosvenor-square,  W. 
Broom,  Andrew, 

104,  Grove»lane,  Camberwell. 
Brown,  Alexander  Hargreavee,  M.P., 

12,  Grosvenor-gardens,  8.W. 
Brown,  James  Bryce,  F.E.(i.S., 

90,  Cannon-street,  E.C;  and  Bromley,  Kent. 
Browne,  Thomas  Gillespie  C,  F.I.A., 

11,  Lombard-street,  E.C, 
Bruton,  Leonard, 

8t,  Stephen's  Buildings,  Bristol. 
Bunce,  John  Thackray, 

Longworth,  Priory'road,  Edgbasion,  Birmingham. 
Burdett,  Henry  Charles,    . 

Seamen's  Hospital  Greenwich,  S.E. 
*Bnrdett-CouttB,  The  Eight  Hon.  the  Baroness, 

1,  Siration-street,  W.;  and  Molly  Lodge,  Highgate,  N. 
Bums,  The  Eev.  Dawson,  M.A., 

52,  Parliament-street,  8.  W. 
Burr,  William, 

42,  Poultry,  E.C. 
Burrell,  Alexander. 

Burt,  Frederick,  F.E.G.S., 

Woodstock,  Crouch  End,  N. 


Caine,  William  S.,M.P., 

1,  Ihe  Terrace,  Clapham  Common,  S.W. 
Caibd,  Jamks,  C.B.,  F.E.S.,  (President), 

8,  Queen' s-gate-gardens.  South  Kensington,  S.W.;  and 
Cassencary,  Creetoum,  N.B. 
Caird,  Eobert  Henryson, 

6,  Petersham^terrace,  S.W, 
Campbell,  Lord  Colin,  M.P., 

Argyll  Lodge,  Kensington,  W.,  and  Inverary  Castle. 
Campbell,  Sib  Geobgb,  K.C.S.I.,  M.P.,D.C.L., 

13,  ComwalUaardens,  South  Kensington,  8.  W. 
Campbell,  George  Lamb, 

Market'Street,  Wigan. 


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Google 


T«tf  of 
Blsotton. 

1879 


1862 
1872 
1871 
1876 
1877 
1848 
1878 
1880 
1858 
1834 
1869 
1876 
1880 
1873 
1863 
1851 
1877 
1853 
1862 
1869 
1877 
1849 
1856 
1871 


LIST  OF  FELLOWS.  13 

Campbell-Colauhoun,  Eev.  John  Erskme, 

Chartwell,  Weeterham^  KmU. 
Cape,  George  A., 

8,  Old  Jewry,  E.O. 
♦Carillon,  J.  Wilson,  P.S.A.,  F.B.G.S., 

Wbrmhill,  Buxton. 
Camac,  Harry  Rivett-, 

Oaleutta,  Bengal,  India. 
Carphin,  James  Bhind,  C.  A.., 

187,  Oearge-gtreet,  Edinburgh. 
Carter,  E.  Harold, 

33,  Waterloo-ttreet,  Birmingham. 
Carter,  John  Bonham, 

25,  Ashley-place,  Vtotoria-Btreet,  S.W. 
♦Casley,  Eeginald  Kennedy,  M.D., 

ITbrthgat&street,  Ipsvnch. 
Castle,  Eobert, 

18,  Merton^treet,  Oxford. 
Chadwiek,  David, 

The  Boplars,  Heme  Rill^  Bulvoich,  S.K 
Chadwiek,  Edwin,  C.B., 

Bark  OoUage,  East  Sheen,  Mortlake,  S.  W. 
Chadwiok,  John  Oldfield,  F.E.G.S., 

2,  Moorgatestreet,  E.G. 
Challen,  George  Caleb, 

St.  Mildred's  House,  Boultry,  E.O. 
♦Chamberlain,  The  Eight  Honourable  Joseph,  M.P., 
72,  Brince's  Gate,  S.W. 
Charlesworth,  Frederic, 

Widmore,  Bromk^,  Kent. 
Charlton,  W.  H., 

Hesleyside,  near  Hexham,  Northumberland^ 
♦Cheshire,  Edward, 

3,  Vanbrugh  Bark,  Blackheath,  S.E. 
Child,  Eobert  Carlyle, 

Chisholm,  David,  F.LA., 

64,  Brinces-street,  Edinburgh. 
Christie,  Chancellor  Eichard  Copley,  M.A. 

2,  St,  James' s-square,  Manchester. 
Chxtbb,  Hammond,  B.A.,  (Secretary), 

Bickley,  Kent. 
Clapham,  Crochley,  L.E.C.P., 

Muriel  House,  Beak  Hill,  Sydenham,  S.E. 
Clark,  Gordon  Wyatt, 

Mickleham  Hall,  near  Dorking,  Surrey. 
Clark,  Sir  John  Forbes,  Bart., 

TiUvpronie,  Tarland,  Aberdeen. 
Clarke,  Ebenezer,  jun., 

52,  Cannon-street,  E.G. 


Digitized  by 


Google 


14  STATISTICAL  80CIETT  : 


Tew  of 
Electloo, 

1880 


1877 
1876 
1856 
1869 
1850 
1858 
1877 
1873 
1877 
1888 
1859 
1879 
1874 
1877 
1874 
1867 
1878 
1879 
1879 
1874 
1879 
1843 
1874 
1873 


Clarke,  Frederick  Nevill, 

Eccleshoume^  Thicket-raad,  Upper  Norwood,  S,I!. 
♦Clarke,  Henry,  L.B.aP., 

H.M,  Prison,  Wakefield,  Torks. 
Clarke,  Henry  Harcourt  Hyde, 

32,  St.  Oeorge'8'8^re,  8.W. 
♦Clabke,  Htdb,  (Vtce-Fresident), 

32,  8t,  Qeorge's-square,  S.W. 
Clegbom,  John, 

3,  Spriruji-gardens,  8.  W. 
♦Clevelana,  His  Grace  the  Duke  of,  K.G^ 

17,  St.  Jamee's^quare,  S.  W. 
Clirehugh,  William  Palin,  F.I.A., 

158,  LeadenhalUtreet,  E.G. 
Cobb,  B.  Francis, 

79,  Oomhill,  E.O. 
Cockle,  Captain  George,  F.RG.S., 

9,  Bolton-gardens,  South  Kensington,  S.  W. 
Cohen,  Lionel  Louis, 

9,  Ryde  Fark-Terraoe,  W. 
Colebrooke,  Sir  Thomas  Edward,  Bart.,  M.P,, 

14,  South-street,  W. 
Coles,  John,  F.I.A., 

39,  Throgmorton-street,  E.O. 
CoUinga,  Jesse,  M.P.,  J. P.,  Ac. 

TheWoodlands,  H  eUington-road,Edghaston, Birmingham. 
Collins,  Eugene,  M.P., 

38,  Forehester-terrace,  Syde  Fork,  W. 
Collins,  J.  Wright,  J.P.  {Golonial  Ih-easurer), 

Stanley,  Falkland  Islands. 
CoUinson,  John,  F.B.G.S., 

13,  Falace-gate,  W. 
Colman,  Jeremiah  James,  M.P., 

Carrow  House,  Norunch. 
Colomb,  Captain  J.C.R.,  E.M.A.,  J.P., 

Ihronrnquinnae,  Kenmare,  Kerry. 
Cooke,  H.  Bibton, 

27,  Fenchureh'Streety  E.G. 
Cooke,  Isaac  B., 

19,  Froum^s-huildings,  Liverpool. 
•Cookson,  Faithful,  F.B.G.S., 

35,  Grand  Farade,  Brighton. 
Cooper,  William  John, 

7,  Westminster-chambers,  Vtctoria-street,  8.W. 
♦Copperthwaite,  William  Charles, 

New  Malton,  Yorkshire. 
Corbett,  John, 

6a,  Waterloo-place,  Fall  Mall,  8.W. 
Cork,  Nathaniel,  F.K.G.S., 

89,  Lombard-street,  E.G. 


Digitized  by 


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Tear  of 
Btectton 

1878 


1862 
1873 
1880 
1880 
1874 
1870 
1872 
1878 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1876 
1878 
1877 
1876 
1879 
1876 
1879 
1848 
1873 

1860 
1880 
1880 


LIST  OF  FELLOWS.  15 


Comish,  Waiiam  Eobert,  r.E.C.S.  {Surgeon  Major)^ 

Sanitary  Chmmistioner,  Madras, 
Courtney,  Leonard  Henry,  M.A.,  M.P., 

15,  Quemi  Anne* 9  Oate,  Westminster,  S,  W. 
Cowper,  The  Hon.  Henry  Frederick,  M.P., 

4,  St.  Jameses-square,  S.  W. 
Cox,  William  John, 

53,  Arthur-road,  Homsey-road,  N, 
Craig,  William  Young,  M.P., 

JPalace  Chambers,  St.  Stephen%  Westminster,  S,  W. 
Cbaigib,  Ma  job  Pateick  G-soboe,  (21,  Arundel-^treet,  W.C), 

Hartley  House,  Lower  Heath,  Hampstead,  N.  W. 
Craik,  George  Lillie, 

29,  Bedford-street,  Strand,  W.O. 
Crellin,  Philip, 

83,  Ohancen/'lane,  W.O. 
Crowd  son,  Ernest, 

6,  Norfolk-street,  Manchester. 
Crickmay,  Herbert  John, 

Bank  of  England,  E.G. 
Crisford,  George  S.,  F.I.A., 

West  of  England  Insurance  Company,  Exeter. 
*Crompton-Eobert8,  Charles  H. 

16,  Belgrave-square,  S.  W. 
Crosse,  John  Burton  St.  Croix,  r.E.C.S., 

Boyal  Military  Asylum,  Chelsea,  S.  W. 
Grossman,  James  H.,  J.P., 

Union  Club,  Trafalgar-square,  S,  W. 
Crothers,  Eobert,  M.D.,  M.E.C.P., 

2,  Warrior-square-terrace,  St.  Leonard^ s-on^Sem. 
Crowe,  William  Eussell, 

Stanly  House,  Carshalton,  Swrrey^ 
Cunningham,  Charles  L.,  M.E.C.S.,  &c. 

Cunningham,  David,  C.E., 

Works'  Office,  Harbour-chambers,  Dundee. 
Curtis,  Eobert  Leabon, 

15  and  16,  Blonifield-street,  E.C. 
Cutcliffe,  George,  F.I.A., 

13,  St.  James' S'Square,  S.W. 
Czamikow,  C»sar, 

Mitcham,  Surrey. 


DalyeU,  The  Hon.  Eobert  Anstruther,  C.S.I., 
India  OJice,  Westminster,  S.  W. 

Danson.  John  Towne, 

Woodland  Crag,  Orasmere. 

Danyers,  Frederick  Charles, 

India  Office,  Westminster,  S.W. 


Digitized  by 


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16  STATISTICAL  SOCI&TT : 


Tear  of 
K«cilon. 

1878 


1869 
1874 
1878 
1855 
1878 
1876 
1880 
1879 
1878 
1877 
1873 
1873 
1855 

1877 
1877 
1866 
1873 
1876 
1877 
1875 
1878 
1875 
1872 


Daitviebs,  Juland, 

India  Office,  WeitmntUr,  S.W. 
Dayies,  James  Mair, 

65,  West  Begentstreety  Glasgow. 
Davies,  William  Henry, 

61,  TregwUer-roady  S.W. 
Dayis,  James, 

82,  VillierS'Street,  Oharing-eross,  S.W, 
•Dawbarn,  William, 

Elmswood  Hall,  Aighwrih^  Liverpool. 
Dawson,  James  Thomas, 

79,  Comhill,  JE.O. 
Day,  William  Ansell, 

Lyndhurst  House,  Hendon,  N.W. 
Debenham,  Frank, 

26,  Upper  Hamilton-plaee,  St.  John's  Wood,  N.W. 
*De  Fenieres,  The  Baron  Va  Bois,  M.P.,  J.P. 

Bag*S'hill  House,  Cheltenham. 
Delahunty,  James, 

2,  Satile-row,  W. 
Deloitte,  William  Welch, 

4,  Lothburg,  E.O. 
Dent,  Clinton  Thomas,  F.E.C.S. 

29,  Chesham-street,  S.W. 
Dent,  Edward, 

Femacres,  Fulmer^  near  Slough,  Bucks. 
*Debbt,  The  Right  Honourable  the  Eabl  of,  P.O.,  F.E.S., 
(Honorarg  Vice-President)^ 

23,  St.  James'S'Sguare;  and  Knowsley,Frescot, Lancashire. 
Dever,  Henry, 

4,  Lothburg,  E.C. 
De  Worms,  Baron  Henry,  M.P.,  F.R.A.S., 

J? 2,  Albany,  Ficcadillg,  W. 
♦Dilke,  Sir  Charles  Wentworth,  Bart.,  M.P.,  LL.M., 

76,  Sloane^treet,  S.  W. 
Dixon,  George, 

The  Dales,  Edgbaston,  Birmingham. 
Dowden,  Major  Thomas  Freeman,  li.E., 

71,  Old  Broad  Street,  E.C. 
Downs,  Henry, 

Manor  House,  Basingstoke. 
Doxsey,  Kev.  Isaac, 

The  Orove,  Oamberwell,  S.E. 
Doyle,  Patrick,  C.  E., 

O'Brien  Villa,  21,  North-road,  Entally,  Calcutta. 
Drimmie,  David, 

41,  Lower  Sackville-street,  Dublin. 
Droop,  Henry  Bichmond, 

la,  New-square,  Lincoln' s-inn,  W.O. 


Digitized  by 


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TMTOf 

KleeUon. 

1878 


1875 
1870 
1878 
1875 


1836 
1869 
1876 
1880 
1872 
1874 
1842 
1877 
1873 
1873 
1877 
1879 
1880 
1862 
1875 
1834 


LIST   OP   FELLOWS,  l7 


Duignan,  William  Henry, 

Walsall,  Staffordshire. 
Dun,  John, 

Parr^s  Banking  Company ,  Limited^  Warrington, 
Duncan,  James, 

9,  Mincing-lane,  B.C. 
♦Dunraven,  The  Right  Hon.  Earl  of,  K.P., 

Kenry  House,  Putney  Vale,  8,  W. 
Dyer,  Sir  Swinnerton  Halliday,  Bart.,  J. P., 

Westcrojt,  Cholham,  Woking  Station,  Surrey. 


Edmonds,  Thomas  Bowe,  B.A., 

72,  Portsdoum-road,  Maida-vale,  W. 
Edmonds,  William, 

Annesley  Rouse,  Southsea. 
Edwards,  Samuel, 

4,  Eliot  Park,  Lewisham,  S.K 
Egerton,  Honourable  Wilbraham,  M.P  , 

23,  Rutland  Gate,  S.W. 
Elliot,  Sir  George,  Bart., 

Park-street,  Park-lane,  W. 
Elliot,  Eobert,  M.D.,  F.E.C.P., 

35,  Lowther- street,  Carlisle. 
Elliott,  John  Hawkins, 

4,  Martin' s-lane,  E.C. 
Ellis,  Arthur, 

11,  Park-villas,  Crouch-end,  N. 
Elsey,  John  Green,  J.P., 

Morant  House,  Addison-road,  Kensington,  W. 
Emanuel,  Lewis, 

36,  Pinshury-circus,  E.C 
Emmott,  W.  T., 

Newfield  Rouse,  near  Lymm,  Cheshire. 
Evans,  Henry  J  ones,  J.P., 

Brecon  Old  Bank,  Cardiff, 
Evans,  Henry  Russell,  (Mayor  of  JVewport), 

Newport,  Monmouth. 
Evens,  John  Henry, 

Ericht  Lodge,  Dulwich,  S.E. 
Everett,  The  Hon.  H.  Sidney,  M.A., 

United  States  Legation,  4,  Alsenstrasse,  Berlin. 
Eversley,  The  Right  Honourable  Viscount,  D.C.L.,  LL.D., 

114,  Eaton-square,  S.W,;  and  Winohjield,  Hants. 


Digitized  by 


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18 


STATISTIC Ali   SOCIETY: 


Tear  of 

Election. 

1875 


1874 
1839 

1868 
1878 
1878 
1876 
1864 
1874 
1877 
1880 
1834 
1880 
1880 
1873 
1876 
1879 
1878 
J  875 
1841 
1871 
1880 
1877 


Faraday,  Frederick  J., 

17,  Brazenose-sireet,  Manchester. 
Farmer,  James, 

6,  Pordietter-gate,  Hyde  Park,  W. 
Fabe,   William,  M.D.,  C.B.,  D.C.L.,  F.E.S., 
{Honorary    Vice-Fresiden t) , 

78,  Portsdown-road,  Maida  Vale,  W. 
Farrell,  John  Douglas, 

Bank  of  England,  West  Branch,  Bwrlington-garden*,  W, 
Farren,  George,  M.I.C.E., 

Carnarvon, 
Farrer,  Thomas  Henry, 

Board  of  Trade,  Whitehall,  8.  W. 
Feamside,  Henry,  M3.,  F.E.C.P., 

49,  Leinster-gardens,  Bayswater^  W, 
Fellows,  Frank  P., 

8,  The  Oreen,  Hampstead,  N.  W. 
Ferguson,  A.M., 

"  Ceylon  Observer^*  Office,  Colombo,  Ceylon, 
Ferrier,  John, 

Bosslyn  House,  New  Bamet,  Herts, 
Finch,  George  Henry,  M.P., 

Burley-on^thc'liill,  Oakham. 
Finch,  John, 

Heathside,  Tunhridge  Wells. 
Finlaison,  Alexander  John,  F.I.A., 

19,  Old  Jewry,  JE.C. 
Finlay,  George, 

London  and  N.  Western  Bailway,  Huston  Station,  N.  W. 
Fisher,  Henry, 

66,  New  Broad-street,  E.C. 
Fitz George,  Owen, 

86,  Cornhill,  E.C. 
Fitzwilliams,  Edward  Crompton  Lloyd, 

Adpar  Hill,  Newcastle  Emlyn,  Carmarthen,  8.  Wales. 
Follett,  Charles  John,  M.A.,  B.C.L., 

H.M.  Custom  House,  E.C. 
Fordham,  Edward  King,  J.  P., 

The  Bury,  Ashwell,  Baldock,  Herts. 
Fortescue,  The  Eight  Honourable  Earl, 
Castle  Hill,  South  Molton,  Devon. 
Forwood,  William  Bower, 

Bamlet,  Blundellsands,  Liverpool. 
Fowell- Watts,  Philip  Henry,  M.A.,  LL.D., 

73,  Cohestone-cresoent,  West  Hackney,  E. 
*Fowler,  Alderman  Eobert  Nicholas,  M.P., 

50,  Cumhilly  E.C. ;  and  Elm  Orove,  Corsham^  Wilts. 


Digitized  by 


Google 


YMTOt 

E]»ctUm. 

1868 


1878 
1879 
1878 

1876 
1876 

1878 


1879 
1852 
1873 
1860 
1878 
1878 
1879 
1872 
1880 
1874 
1877 
1872 
1874 
1871 
1867 


LIST  OF  FELLOWS.  19 


Fowler,  William,  M.P., 

33,  Comhill,  E.O. 
Foxwell,  Herbert  S.,  M.A., 

St,  John^a  College^  Cambridge. 
Francis,  George  Edward, 

Staunton  Goleford,  Qloucestershire, 
Frankland,  Frederick  William, 

Registrar' GeneraVs  Office,  Wellington,  New  Zealand, 
♦Freeland,  Humphrey  William,  J.  P., 

Athemffum  Club,  S.  W, ;  emd  Chichester, 
Freeman,  Joseph, 

Burwood  Lodge,  West  Brixton,  S.  W. 
Freeman,  T.  Kyffin, 

Hampton-on-Sea,  Heme  Bag, 
Fuller,  W.  Palmer, 

50,  Oresham-street,  E.G. 


Gairdner,  Charles, 

Broom,  Newton  Mearns,  Renfrewshire, 
G^worthy,  Edwin  Henry,  J.P.,  F.I.A., 

18,  Upper  Wimpole-street,  W. 
•Galton,  Capt.  Douglas,  R.E.,  C.B.,  F.R.S., 

12,  Chester-street,  Grosvenor-place,  S,  W, 
Galton,  Francis,  F.RS.,  F.fi.G.J?., 

42,  Rutland-gate,  S.W. 
Gardiner,  Clement, 

11,  Small-street,  Bristol, 
Gkurdiner,  Henry  J., 

Hurst mectd,  Eltham,  Kent. 
♦Gassiot,  John  Peter,  J.  P., 

The  Culvers,  Carshalton,  Surrey, 
Gastrell,  Major- General  J.  E., 

7,  Lansdowne-road^  Wimbledon,  S.  W. 
•Gates,  John  B.,  jun.,  A.C.A., 

99,  Gresham-street,  E,C. 
Gatliff,  Charles, 

8,  MnsburV'Circus,  E.G. 
Gawith,  Kichara  Jackson,  M.R.C.S., 

23,  Westboume-paric'terrace,  Faddinglon,  W. 
Gibb,  Thomas  Ecclesion, 

16,  Lady  Margaret-road,  N,  W, 
Gibbs,  Alban  George  Henry, 

82,  PoHland'place,  W. 
Gibbs,  George  Sleight, 

Darlington, 
GiPPEN,  RoBEBT,  {Secretary  and  Editor  oj  the  Journal), 

4t4i,  JPembroke-road,  Kensington^  W, 

c2 


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20  STATISTICAL   SOCIEXr : 


Tear  of 
Election. 

1877 


1878 
1860 
1877 
1877 
1880 
1868 
1855 
1873 
1853 
1876 
1879 
1876 
1847 
1878 
1877 
1868 
1875 
1860 
1878 
1877 
1889 

1880 


Gilbert,  William  H.  Sainsbury, 

9,  Old  Jewry,  E.G. 
*Glanville,  S.  Gbring, 

238,  Lewisham  Highroad,  8.E, 
Glover,  John, 

22,  Great  St.  Helen's,  BUhopsgaUstreet,  E.C. 
Goddard,  Frederick  Robertson, 

19,  Victoria-square,  Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Good,  Alfred,  (7,  Poultry,  E.O.), 

91,  Highbury  Hill,  i\r. 
Goodhart,  Charles  E., 

Langley-park,  Beckenham,  Kent, 
Goschen,  The  Kight  Hon.  George  Joachim,  M. P., 

69,  Portland-place,  W. 
*Go88et,  John  Jackson, 

Thames  Ditton,  Surrey. 
Goulj,  Edward  Jamep, 

Bullion  Office,  Bank  of  England,  E.C. 
Gover,  William  Sutton,  E.I.  A., 

4,  Queen-street'place,  Southwark  Bridge,  E.C. 
Grahame,  James,  C  A., 

12,  St.  Vincent'place  Glasgow. 
Grant,  Daniel,  M.P., 

12,  Cleveland-gardens,  Bayswater,  W. 
Granville,  Joseph  Mortimer,  M.D.,  F.G.S.,  Ac, 

18,  Welbeek-street,  Cavendish-square,  W. 
Gray,  Thomas, 

84,  Fenchwrch-street,  E.C. 
Green,  Thomas  Bowden,  M.A.,  F.E.S.L.,  F.E.H.S.,  Ac, 

7,  New-road,  Oxford. 
Greene,  William  Thomas,  M.A..  M.D.. 

Moira  House,  Peckham  Rye,  S.E. 
Griffith,  Edward  Clifton, 

31,  St,  James' s-square,  S.W. 
Gunn,  Arthur, 

Metropolitan  Board  of  Works,  Spring- gardens ^  S.W. 
Gurnev,  Daniel, 

fiorth  Runcton,  near  King's  Lynn,  Norfolk* 
Guthrie,  Charles, 

London  Chartered  Bank  of  Australia,  Melbourne,  Victoria. 
Gutteridge,  Richard  Sandon,  M.D., 

58,  Brook-street,  Ghosvrnor-square,  W. 
Gut,  William  Augustus,  M.B.,  F.R.C.P.,  F.R.S., 
{Honorary  Vice-President), 

12,  Gordon-street,  Gordon-square,  W.C, 
•Gwjnne,  J.  Eglinton  A.,  J.P.,  F.S.A., 

97,  Harley-st.,  W. ;  Folkington  Manor,  Polegaie,  Sussex. 


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Tmt  of 
KUctlon. 

1878 


1876 
1876 
1869 
1878 
1873 
1879 
1873 
1869 
1879 
1876 
1887 
1879 
1861 
1876 
1871 
1877 
1877 
1878 
1868 
1879 
1834 

1870 
1880 


LIST   OP  FELLOWS.  21 


♦Haggard,  Frederick  T., 

JEltham  Oourt-road,  Sltham,  Kent, 
HaU,  Edward  Algernon, 

131,  TiccadHly,  W. 
Hall,  Edward  Hepple, 

73,  Elm-park,  Brixton-hill,  S.W. 
Hall,  James  Macalester, 

IRllean  House,  Tayinlocm,  Jrgyleshire, 
Hallett,  T.G.P.,  M.A., 

Claverton  Lodge,  Bath, 
Hamilton,  Lord  George  Francis,  M.P., 

17,  Montagtfstreet,  Porttnan-squarey  W, 
Hamilton,  Bowfand, 

Oriental  Club,  Hanover -square,  W. 
Hanbury,  Robert  William, 

liam  Hall,  Ashbourne,  Derbyshire. 
Hancock,  "William, 

33,  Comhill,JS.O. 
Hancock,  William  Neilson,  LL.D.,  M.E.I. A., 

64,  Upper  Gardiner-street,  Dublin. 
Hankej,  Ernest  Alers, 

Mmhyrst,  BickUu-park,  Kent, 
♦Hankey,  John  Alexander,  J.  P., 

JBalcombe-place,  Oucl^ld,  Sussex, 
Hankey,  Thomson, 

69,  Portland-place,  W. 
Hannjngton,  Major-General  John  Caulfield,  F.I.  A., 

India  Office,  Westminster^  S.  W. 
Hansard,  Luke, 

68,  Lombard-street^  E.O. 
Harcourt,  Eight  Hon.  Sir  William  Vernon,  Q.C.,  M.P., 

7,  Grqfion-street,  Bond-street,  W. 
Harding,  Charles,  M.R.S.L.,  F.E.G.S., 

7,  Bank  Buildinas,  E.C. 
Harold,  Frederick  Eicnard, 

12,  Landseer-roadj  Upper  Holloway,  N, 
Harper,  W.  P., 

Harris,  David, 

Caroline  Bark,  Oranton,  Edinburgh, 
Harris,  Frederick, 

62,  Qracechurch-street,  E.G. 
Habeowbt,  The  Right  Hon.  the  Eabl  op,  K.G.,  D.C.L., 
{Honorary  Vice-President), 

39,  Ghosvenor-square,  W. 
Hartley,  Fountain  John, 

Gloucester  House,  97,  Gazenove-road,  Upper  Clapton,  ^ 
Hastings,  George  Woodyatt,  M.P., 

Barnard* s-green  House,  Great  Malvern, 


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22  STATISTICAL  SOCIETY: 

Tear  of 
Eleoti<m. 

1876  Hawkins,  Alfred  Templeton,  F.R.G.S., 

35,  Spring-gardens,  Charing-crott^  8,  W. 

1879  Hawksley,  Thomas,  C.E.,  F.R.S.,  Ac, 

30,  Great  Oeorge-street^  WestmiMter,  8,  W. 
1873     Haj,  James  Lamb  ^pier, 

1880  Hazell,  Walter, 

Ibirham  House,  Hamsetf'lane,  N. 

1877  Hedley,  Thomas  Fenwick, 

12,  Park-place,  West,  Sunderland. 
1870     Hefford,  George  V., 

Rtighy. 
1860     Helder,  Stewart,  F.I.  A., 

2,  Broad  Sanctuary^  R  W» 
1865     Hendriks,  Augustus,  F.I.  A., 

7,  Comhill,  JE.C. 
1855   *Hendbik8,  Fbkderick,  (Vtce-President), 
1,  King  William'Street,  E,0. 

1858  Herapath,  Spencer,  F.G.S., 

18,  Upper  Phillimare^ardens,  W, 

1877  'Herbage,  William, 

London  Sf  South  Western  Bank,  7,  Ibnckurch'Street,  U.O. 
1834  •Hbtwoop,  James,  M.A.,  F.E.S.,  F.G.S., 
(Honorary  Vice-President  and  Trustee) , 

^QfPalace-gardens, Kensington,  W,;  Athenaum  ClubJS.  W. 

1869  Hickson,  Joseph,  J. P., 

Montreal,  Canada. 
1875     Higham,  Charles  Daniel,  F.I.A., 

3,  Princes-street,  Bank,  E.O. 

1878  HiU,  Frederick  Morlej, 

22,  Bichmond-road,  Bamshury,  JV. 

1873  Hime,  Capt.  H.  W.  L.,  E.A., 

Ske^eld. 

1859  Hincks,  His  Excellency,  Sir  Francis, 

Montreal,  Canada. 

1879  Hoare,  Hamilton  Noel, 

37,  Fleet-street,  B.C. 

1870  *Hoare,  Henry, 

Staplehurst,  Kent. 
1834   •Hodge,  William  Barwick,  F.I.A., 

5,  Whitehall,  S.W. 
1877     Holden,  Isaac, 

64,  Cross-street,  Manchester. 
1877     Holmes,  Eichard  Henry, 

Elswick-villa,  Bye  Hill,  Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

1880  Holms,  John,  M.P., 

16,  Cornwall-gardens,  Queen  Gate,  S.W. 

1874  Hood,  Charles,  F.E.S.,  F.E.A.S., 

10,  Zeinster-gardens,  Hyde-park,  W. 


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LIST  OF  FELLOWS.  23 

Y««rof 
Bicctlon. 

1871  Hooper,  Augus  Cameron, 

Montreal^  Canada, 
1874     Hooper,  George  D., 

Belmont  Lodge^  Oxford-road,  Chtswick,  W. 

1879  Hooper,  George  Norgate, 

Elmleighy  Hayne-roadj  Beckenham^  Kent, 
1878     Hooper,  Wynnard, 

2,  P^mhroJce-gardens,  Kensington,  W. 

1855     HouGHTOK,  The  Kight  Hon.  Lobd,  D.C.L.  F.E.S., 
{Honorary  Vice- President), 

Mryston  Hall,  Ferrybridge,  Yorkshire, 

1876  Hojle,  William, 

Claremont,  Tottington,  near  Bury,  Lancaster, 

1872  Hubbard,  Egerton  J., 

4,  8t,  Helenas-place,  Bishopsgate-street,  JE,0, 
1853  ♦Hubbard,  The  Eight  Hon.  John  Gellibrand,  M.P., 

Bank  of  England,  E,C, 
1864     Hudson,  Thomas, 

Argos  Villa,  St,  Andrew^  s  Fork,  Bristol, 

1880  Hnggard,  Wm.  E.,  M.A.,  M.D.,  M.E.C.P.  Lond., 
Stissex  House,  Hammersmith,  W, 

1871  Hughes,  Albert  William,  P.E.G.S., 
Dharvar,  So,  Mahratta  Country,  Bombay  Fresidency, 

1878  Hughes,  John, 

3,  West'Street,  Finsbury-circus,  E,C, 

1872  Humphreys,  George,  M.A.,  F.I.A., 
79,  Fall  Mall,  S,W. 

1874     HuMPHEETs,  Noel  AiiGkrnobt, 

General  Register  Office,  Somerset  House,  W,C, 

1873  Hunt,  Sir  Henry  Arthur,  C.B., 
64,  JSccleston-square,  S.  W, 

1857     Hurst,  George, 

King*s  Brook  House,  St.  Mary's,  Bedford, 

1877  Huskinson,  Thomas, 
Fpperstone  Manor,  Nottingham, 

1879  Hyde,  Major-General  Henry,  E.E., 
Ifhdia  Officcy  Westminster,  S,  W. 


1866 
1869 
1874 


Ince,  Henry  Bret,  Q.C., 

18,  Oidrsquare,  IdncoWs-inn,  W,C. 
Ingall,  Samuel,  F.E.G.S., 

Kent-end,  Forest-hill,  Kent,  S.E, 
*Ingall,  William  Thomas  Eitzherbert  Mackenzie, 

50,  Threadneedle-street,  E.G. 


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24  STATISTICAL  SOCIETY: 

Y««rof 
Eleotlon. 

1869  *Ingli8,  Cornelius,  M.D., 

Athenaum  Olub,  8.W. 
1839     Irving,  John, 

94,  Eaton^lace,  S.W, 
1878     Isaacs,  Michal  Babe), 

35,  Leinster'SqtMtrSy  Bayawater,   W . 
1864   *Ivey,  George  Pearse, 

Tyle  Morris,  Briton  Ferry, 


1880   ♦Jackson,  William  Lavies,  M.P., 

Ghapelallerton,  Leeds. 
1879     Jamieson,  George  Auldjo, 

58,  Melville-street,  Edinburgh. 
1872     Janson,  Frederick  Halsey,  F.L.S., 

41,  Finshury-circus,  E,C.,  and  Oak  Bank,  Chislehurst. 

1878  Jeans,  James  Stephen, 

7,  Westminster-chambers,  Victoria-street,  S.  W. 
1851   *Jellicoe,  Charles,  F.I.A., 

12,  Cavendish-place,  W. 

1879  Jephson,  Henry  L.  {Chief  Secretary's  Office), 

Dublin  Castle,  Ireland. 
1864  *Jetons,  Peofessob  W.  Stanley,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  F.ILS., 
(  Vice-Fresident) , 

The  Chesnuts,  Branch-hill,  Hampstead  Heath,  If.  W* 

1871  Johnson,  Edmund, 

1,  Castle-street,  Solhom,  E.G. 

1880  Johnson,  Walter, 

Rounton  Grange,  Northallerton. 

1872  Johnston,  Francis  J., 

Lamas,  Ohislehurst. 
1878    'Johnstone,  E., 

45,  Fleet-street,  E.G. 
1878     Jones,  Henry  E.  Bence, 

1,  Whitehall,  8.W. 
1874     Jones,  Herbert, 

15,  Montpelier-row,  Blackheath,  8.E. 
1880     Jones,  Robert  H., 

The  Briars,  Crystal  Falace  Fork,  Sydenham. 
1877     Jones,  Theodore  Brooke, 

1,  Finsbury-eircus,  E.G. ;  Oeorgeville,  Harrogate,  Torks. 

1873  Jones,  Sir  Willoughby,  Bart.,  M.A,, 
Granmer  Hall,  Fakenham,  Norfolk. 

1858     Jourdan,  Francis, 

Avenue  House,  Hampstead,  N.  W. 


1877     Karuth,  Frank  0., 

Oakhurst,  Beckenham,  Kent. 


Digitized  by 


Google 


TMTOf 

EtoeU<Mi. 

1873 
1877 
1874 
1867 
1878 
1873 
1878 
1868 
1878 
1874 
1852 
1878 
1879 
1872 
1865 
1878 
1860 


1880 
1877 
1875 

1874 
1878 
1874 


LIST  OF   FELLOWS.  25 


Kaj,  Dtmcan  James, 

60,  Queen' s-gaie,  S.W. 
Kealj,  James  WiUiam, 

26,  Moorgate-streety  E,0. 
KeUy,  Charles,  M.D., 

Worthing,  Sussex, 
KeDy,  Edward  Eobert,  A.M., 

51,  Great  Queen-streety  Lincoln' i-inn^fields,  W.C, 
Kelsej,  Joseph  Francis, 

Oovemment  Statisticum,  Mauritius, 
Kemp,  Samuel, 

Oriel  House,  Bath, 
Kennedy,  J.  Murray, 

New  University  Club,  St,  James' s-streety  S.  W, 
Kennedy,  Peter, 

13,  Oomwall'terrace,  Begenfs-park,  N.  W, 
Kennedy,  Thomas, 

11,  Old  Jewry-chambers,  E,0. 
Kennelly,  Dayid  Joseph,  F.R.G.S.,  F.RA.S., 

Devonshire  Club,  St,  James's,  8,  W, 
Kimberley,  The  Eight  Honourable  the  Earl  of,  M.A.,  P.C  , 

35,  Lowndes-square^  S.  W, 
King-Harman,  Edward  Bobert, 

BocJcingham,  Boyle,  Ireland. 
Kirkwood,  Anderson,  LL.D., 

Melville-terrace,  Stirling,  N,B, 
Knight,  John  Peake, 

London,  Brighton,  Sf  S.  Coast  Bail,,  London  Bridge,  B.C. 
Kuhner,  Henry,  {cjo  Messrs.  Kiihner,  Hendschel  &  Co.), 

145,  Cannon-street,  E,C,, 
^Kusaka,  Yoshio, 

62,  Bogarth-road,  Kensington,  S.W. 
Kyshe,  John  Benjamin, 

Begistrar  General,  Mauritius, 


Lamprey,  Joshua  Henry, 

17,  St,  Anne's-park,  Wandsworth,  S.W, 
Lane,  Cecil  N., 

King's  Bromley  Manor,  Lichfield. 
Lane,  Thomas, 

Bercy  Cottage^  Eastbowme. 
Lang,  George  Murray,  E.N., 

18,  Cheyne-walk,  Chelsea,  S.W. 
Law,  The  Right  Hon.  Hugh,  M.P., 

9,  Mtzwilliam-sqttare,  Dublin. 
Lawes,  John  Bennett,  LL.D.,  P.R.S.,  F.C.S  , 
Bothamsted^ark,  St.  Albans. 


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26  STATISTICAL   80CIETT: 

Tear  or 
BlMtloa' 

1877  Lawrance,  Henry, 

58,  Eusfon-^guare,  N,  W. 

1878  Lawrence,  Alexander  M., 

17,  Thurlow-road,  Hampstead,  N.  W. 
1873     Lawrie,  James,  F.R.G.S., 

Kelvin  House,  Quadrant-road,  Highbury^  N. 
1873     Lawson,  Kobebt,  {Inspector- General  of  Army  Hospitals), 

20,  Lansdowne-road,  Notiing-hill,  W. 
1873     Lea,  Thomas,  M.P., 

14,  Mvaston-plaoe,  Queen*s-gate,  S.  W. 
1880     Lee,  Lionel  Frederic,  (jOeylon  Civil  Service), 

cjo  H,  Austin  Lee,  Foreign  Office,  Douming-street,  8.  W. 

1879  *Leete,  Joseph, 

36,St,Marg'at'hill,  E,C.  (Eversden,  8.  Norwood  Park.) 
1877     Lepetrb,  The  Eight  Honourable  Gteoeob  Shaw,  M.F., 
{Honorary  Vice-Fresident),  18,  Brganston-sguare^  W. 

1877  •Ijeggatt,  Daniel,  LL.D., 

6^  Raymond-buildings,  Oray's'inn,  W.C. 

1880  Leighton,  Stanley,  M.P., 

Sweeney  Hall,  Oswestry,  Salop, 

1878  Leslie,  Francis  Seymour, 

1851     Levi,  Peofessoe  LEomB,  LL.D.,  F.S.A., 
5,  Crown  Office-row,  Temple,  E,CL 

1879  Levison,  David, 

2,  Boyal  Exchange-buildings,  E.C, 
1867     Lewis,  Charles  Edward,  M.P., 

8,  Old  Jewry,  E.G. 
1877     Lewis,  John, 

1,  Temple-row  West,  Birmingham^ 
1862     Lewis,  Eobert, 

1,  Bartholomew-lane,  E,C. 

1877  Ligertwood,  Thomas,  M.D.,  F.R.C.S., 

Eoyal  Hospital,  Chelsea,  8.W, 
1845   •Lister,  William, 

1834     Lloyd,  John  Horatio, 

100,  Lancaster-gate,  Hyde-park^  W, 

1878  Lloyd,  Thomas, 

4,  Huddlestone-road,  TufnelUpark,  N, 

1879  Lloyd,  Wilson,  F.R.G.S., 

Myvod  House,  Wood-green,  Wednssbury, 
1876     Lord,  James,  F.S.A., 

1,  Whitehall-gardens,  S,W. 
1876   •Lomie,  John  Guthrie, 

Eosemount,  Kirkcaldy ;  Bimam  House^  JPer/hshire, 

1879  Loyegrove,  Mrs., 

28,  Bark-street,  Grosvenor-square,  W, 

1880  Lovegroye,  Joseph, 

28,  Park-street,  Grosvenor-square,  W, 


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LIST  OF  FELLOWS.  27 

Toffof 
Bleetkm. 

1834     Lovelace,  The  Eight  Honourable  the  Earl  of,  F.R.S., 

East  Horaley  Farky  Bipley,  Swrrey. 
1880     Lovelj,  William,  E.N., 

Avenue  House,  Hammersmith,  8,  W. 
1879     Lowndes,  William  Layton,  J.P.,  D.L., 

Linley  Hall,  Broseley,  Shropshire, 
1875     Loyd,  William  Jones,  J.P., 

16,  Ghosvenor-place,  8,W„  and  Langleyhury,  Watford, 
1865     Lubbock,  Sib  John,  Babt.,  M.P.,  F.E.8.,  {Trustee), 

High  Elms,  Famhorough,  Kent, 
1878     Lucaa,  Thomas,  J.P., 

6,  Chreat  Oeorge-street,  Westminster,  S.W. 

1878  Lusk,  Sir  Andrew,  Bart.,  M.P.  J.P., 

16,  Hgde-park'Street,  W. 

1879  LyaU,  J.  Watson, 


1875     Mabson,  Bichard  Sous, 
Ilford,  Essex. 

1878  ♦Macandrew,  William,  J.P.. 

Westvoood,  near  Colchester, 
1873     McArthur,  Alexander,  M.P., 

Baleigh  Hall,  Brixton,  S.W. 
1873     McArthur,  The  Eight  Honourable   William,   M.P.,  Lord 
Mayor  of  London, 

1,  Choydyr  Houses,  Brixton  Bise,  &W. 

1879  MacCarthy,  Eev.  E.  F.  M.,  M.A., 

47,  Hagley^road,  Edgbaston,  Birmingham. 

1878  McCheane,  Eobert, 

90,  Balace-gardenS'terraee,  W, 

1879  McCheane,  Eobert,  junr., 

90,  BaLace-gardenS'terroiCe,  W, 

1867  M'Clean,  Frank, 

23,  Great  George-streetf  Westminster,  8.  W. 
1873     McDermott,  Edward, 

Hill  Side,  Orove-park,  CamherwM,  S.E, 

1868  ^Macdonald,  James, 

17,  BusselUsquare,  W,C, 

1872  Macdonell,  John,  (3,  Elm-court,  Temple,  E.  C), 

The  Myrtles,  Beckenham,  Kent, 

1873  *McEwen,  Laurence  T.  {ejo  E,  A,  McLean), 

8,  Old  Jewry,  E.O, 
1873     McGarel-Hogg,  Colonel  Sir  James,  Bart ,  M,P., 

17,  Ghrosvenor-gardens,  8,  W. 
1856     MacGUlivray,  Donald,  FJ.A., 

54,  Moorgate-street,  E.O. 
1879     Maclver,  David,  M.P., 

34,  Zancaster-gate,  W, 


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28  STATISTICAL   SOCIETY  I 


Tear  or 
Election. 

1876 


1878 
1870 
1876 
1874 
1863 
1876 
1880 
1871 
1879 
1878 
1877 
1875 
1860 
1880 
1865 
1873 
1874 
1877 
1872 
1876 
1879 
1875 
1878 


McKenna,  Sir  Joseph  N.,  M.P., 
1,  Fen-^'Wem-road,  8.W. 
McKewan,  William, 

21,  Lombard-streety  E.G. 
Maclagan,  David, 

22,  George^treety  Edinburgh. 
♦McLean,  Robert  Allan,  F.R.G.8., 

8,  Old  Jewry,  E,C. 
Maeleod,  The  Bight  Hon.  Sir  John  Macpherson,  K.O.S.I., 

1,  Stanhopesireety  Hyde  Fork,  W, 
♦Maclure,  J.  W.,  J.P.,  &c., 

CarUon  Club;  The  Home,  Whalley  Range,  Manchester, 
Macpherson,  Hugh  Martin,  r.R.C.S.,  (Inspector- General), 

14,  St,  James' 8'Square,  8.  W, 
Maddison,  Edward  C,  ^ 

31,  Lombard-street,  E.C, 
Malgarini,  Frederick  Lewis,  F.E.S.E., 


Man,  Edward  Garnet  (Barrister-at'Law), 

4,  Lamb-buildings,  Temple,  E.O.,  and  Sangoon. 
Manuel,  B.  A.,  (Rangoon), 

cjo  Messrs,  Tnibner  and  Oo,^  Ludgate-hill,  E.O. 
♦Maple,  John  Blundell, 

8,  Clarence'terrace,  Begenfs-park,  N,W, 
Marsh,  Alfred, 

85,  Gracechurch-street,  E,C, 
Marsh,  Matthew  Henry, 

Bamridge,  near  Andover,  Hants. 
*Marshall,  A., 

31,  Apsley-road,  Clifton,  Bristol. 
Martin,  Frederick, 

22,  Lady  Margaret-road,  N.W. 
Martin,  Henry, 

National  Bank  of  India,  39a,  Threadneedle-street,  E.G. 
•Mabtin,  John  Biddulph,  M.A.,  F.Z.S.,  (Secretary), 

6b,  The  Albany,  Piecadilly,  W. 
Martin,  Josiah,  F.l.A., 

32,  New  Bridge- street,  E.G. 
•Maetik,  ErcHAED  BrDBULPH,  M.P.,  (Treasurer), 

Chislehurst, 
Martin,  Thomas  Jaques, 

Colonial  Life  Assurance  Company,  Melbourne,  Victoria, 
Martin,  Waldyve  A.  Hamilton, 

14,  Manson-place,  QueerC s-gate,  S,  W. 
•Mathers,  John  Shackleton, 

Hanover  House,  Leeds,  Yorkshire, 
Maughan,  Joseph  Henry,  A.I.S., 

9,  New-street,  Great  Grimsby, 
1870  I  Maxse,  Bear- Admiral  Frederick  A., 

Herm  House,  Upperton-road,  Eastbourne. 


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LIST   OF   FELLOWS.  29 

Tear  of 
BIcctUm. 

1874  Maj,  Frank, 

Bank  of  England^  Threadneedle-street^  E.O. 
1853  •Meikle,  James,  F.I.A., 

6,  St,  Andrew" 8-square,  Edinburgh. 
1878     Meldon,  Charles  Henry,  M.P.,  Q.C.,  LL.D., 

107,  Jermyn-street^  S.  W, 
1880     Menzies,  R.  Stewart, 

Hallyhurtony  Coupar- Angus y  N.B, 

1878  Merrick,  iJfred  Benjamin, 

6,  Cotham-parade^  Bristol, 
1861     Messent,  John,  F.I.A., 

429,  West  Strand,  W,C, 
1877     Metcalfe,  Eichard, 

Grdefenherg  Some,  New  Bamet,  Herts, 
1877     Michael,  William  H., 

38,  Farliament'Street,  8,  W. 

1875  Mildmay,  Henry  Bingham,  J  P., 

8,  Bishopsgate-street  Within,  E,C, 

1873  Millar,  William  Henry, 

Cleveland  Lodge,  New  Park-road,  Brixton-hill,  S.  W. 

1877  Miller,  Robert  Ferguson, 

Bamsden-square,  Barrow-in-Furness, 

1879  MiUer,  William, 

55,  Lancaster-gate^  W.  (67,  Queen  Victoria-street,  E  O ) 

1878  Mills,  Sir  Charles  Henry,  Bart.,  M.P., 

Camelford  House,  Bark-lane,  W, 
1878     Mitchell,  James,  J.PT, 

33,  Ennismore-gardens,  S.W, 

1874  *Mocatta,  Frederick  D,,  F.R.G.S., 

9,  Oonnaught'place,  W. 

1878  Moffat,  Robert  J., 

The  Chesnuts,  Great  Shelford,  Cambridgeshire, 

1879  Moore,  Alfred,  C.E., 

5,  Clarence- street,  Manchester, 
1874     Moore,  Charles  Rendall, 

67,  Montvelier-road,  Beckham,  S,  E, 

1877  Moore,  Edward, 

3,  Crosby-square,  E,C, 

1878  *Moore,  John  Byers  Gunning, 

Loymowit,  Cookstown,  Ireland. 
1874     Moore,  Sandford,  M.B., 

South  Camp,  Aldershot. 

1880  More,  Robert  Jasper, 

Linley  Hall^  Bishcmscastle,  Salop. 
1872     Morgan,  Octavius  Vaughan,  J.P., 

13,  Boltons,  South  Kensington,  S.W. 
1878   •Morley,  Samuel,  M.P., 

18,  Wood-street,  E.C;  34,  Qrosvenor-street,  W. 
1874  *Morri8,  James,  M.D.,  F.R.C.S., 

13,  Somers-place,  Hyde-park- square,  W. 


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30  STATISTICAL  SOCIETY: 

Tcwof 
ElsctioD. 

1877  Mort,  William, 
\,  Stanley-cretceni,  Nbtting-hill^  W. 

1873     Morton,  James, 

Balclutha,  Oreenock,  N,B, 
1847   •MouAT,  Fbbdbeio  J.,  M.D.,  F.B.C.S.,  {Fiee- President  and 
Foreign  Secretary)^ 

12,  Durham-mllas,  Kensington,  W. 
L857     Mount-Temple,  The  Eight  Hon.  Baron, 

15,  Great  Stanhope-street,  W, 

1878  Muir,  Hugh  Brown, 
26,  Old  Broad^street,  RC, 

1880     MulhaU,  Michael  G., 

Grasslands,  Balcomhe^  near  Hagwctrd^s  Heathy  Sussex. 

1877  Mullen,  Eobert  Gordon, 
Fairviewy  Wtdmore-roadj  Bromley,  Kent. 

1878  ♦Mundella,  The  Eight  Hon.  Anthony  John,  M.P., 

16,  Elvaston-place,  Queens-gate,  S,W. 

1878  Murray,  Adam, 
104,  King'Streetf  Manchester. 

1879  Murray,  James  Charles, 
Calcutta, 


1879     Nalder,  Francis  Henry, 

Mndem  Lodge^  Spring-grove,  Isleworth, 
1865     Nasmith,  David, 

4,  Garden^eourt,  Temple,  E,0, 

1878  Nathan,  Henry, 
1 1 0,  Portsdown-road,  Maida-vale,  i\r. 

1879  Neil,  William  M., 
64,  Segmour^street,  Portman-sq^uare,  W. 

1854     NeUd,  Alfred, 

Magfield,  Manchester, 
Neison,  Fbajtcis  G.  p., 

93,  Adelaide-road,  South  Hampstead,  N.W, 
1879     Nepean,  Evan  Colville, 

War  Office,  Pall  Mall,  S.W, 
1877     Nevill,  Charles  Henry, 

11,  Queen  Victoria-street,  E,C. 
1862     Newbatt,  Benjamin,  F.I.A.,  F.fi.G.S., 

13,  St.  Jameses-square,  S,  W, 
1879     Newdegate,  Charles  Newdigate,  M.P.,  D.C.L., 

27,  LowndeS'Street,  Belgrave-square,  S,  W. 
1877     Newington,  Samuel,  M.A., 

Ticehu^st,  Sussex, 
1847   •Nbwmaboh,  William,  F.E.S.,  F.I.A., 

{Trustee  and  Honorary  Vice-President), 

Beech  Hokne,  Nighfingale-lane,  Clapham-eommon,  S.  W. 


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Tear  of 
SleeCioD. 

1869 


1878 
1878 
1878 
1858 
1877 
1871 
1870 
1834 
1877 
1878 
1878 


1880 
1880 
1862 
1878 
1878 
1876 
1877 
1874 

1834 


LIST  OF  FELLOWS.  31 


Newmarch,  William  T.,  A.A.,  Oxon, 

67,  Lombard-street,  B,C. 
Newport,  Henry  E.,      * 

1,  Whitehall,  S.W. 
Newton,  John, 

Ash  Lea,  Croydon-road,  Penge,  8,E 
Nicholson,  J.  S., 

Trinity  College,  Cambridge, 
Nightingale,  Miss  Florence, 

10,  South-street,  Park-lane,  W. 
Nix,  Samuel  Dyer, 

3,  King-street,  Cheapside,  E,C, 
♦Noble,  Benjamin, 

j^orth'Eastern  Bank,  Neweastle-on-Tyne, 
Noble,  John, 

45,  Momington-road,  Regent* s-park^  N,  W, 
Norman,  George  Warde,  J. P., 

Bromley,  Kent, 
Norman,  General,  Sir  Henry  Wylie,  K.C.B., 

27,  Lexham-gardens,  Cromwell-road,  W, 
Nopthbrook,  The  Eight  Hon.  the  Earl  of,  G.C.S.I.,  D.C.L., 

4,  Hamilton-place,  Piccadilly,  W, 
Notthaftt,  Theodor, 

cjo  Discount  Bank,  St,  Petersburg, 


Oakeshott,  George  Alfred, 

Secretary's  Office,  General  Post  Office,  E,0. 
♦Oelsner,  Isidor, 

JELighfield,  Westwood-park,  Eorest-hill,  S,E, 
Ogboume,  Charles  Henry, 

29,  Dalhousie-square,  Calcutta. 
O'Hagan,  The  Eight  Hon.  Lord, 

19,  Chesham-place,  S,  W. 
Oppenheim,  Henry, 

17,  Park-lane,  Piccadilly,  W, 
Orange,  William,  M.D., 

Broadmoor,  Wokingham,  Berks, 
Ormond,  Eichard, 

Belgrave-terrace,  Newcastle-on'Tyne, 
OveraU,  M  illiam  Henry,  F.S.A., 

Librarian,  Guildhall,  E.O,  {Bepresetiting  the  Library 
Committee  oj  the  Corporation  of  the  City  of  London.) 
•OvEBSTONE,   The    Eight   IIoi^oufiABLB    Lobd,  F.B.G.S. 
{Honorary  Vice-President), 

2,  Carlton-gardens,  S.  W 


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32  STATISTICAL  SOCIETY 


Tear  of 
Kleotion. 

J  866 


1879 

1878 
1880 
1878 
1879 
1869 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1877 
1878 
1876 
1857 
1880 
1876 
1878 
1880 
1871 
1874, 
1874 
1879 
1877 
1885 
1859 


•Palgrave,  Robert  Harry  Inglis,  J.P., 

11,  Britannia-terrace,  Or  eat  Yarmouth^  Norfolk. 
Palmer,  George,  M.P.,  {The  Acacia*^  Reading), 

68,  Qro8venor-9treet^  W. 
Park,  David  Francis,  C.A.,  F.F.A.,  A.I.A., 

17,  Change  alley ^  Cornhill,  E.G, 
Parkin,  William  {Temple  Club,  London), 

Wegiboume-road,  Shejield. 
^BTTj^  Thomas, 

Chajlton-place,  Ashton-under-Lyne. 
Partridge,  Henry  Francis,  L.D.S.,  &c., 

Sussex  House^  Sussex-place,  South  Kensington,  S,  W. 
Pattsrson,  Eobebt  Hooabth, 

22,  Wingate-road,  Hammersmith,  Wi 
Paul,  Henry  Moncreiff, 

12,  Lansdowne-crescent,  dotting  Hill,  W. 
Paulin,  David, 

31,  StaJbrd'Street,  Edinburgh, 
Payn,  Howard, 

21,  Oilbert -street,  Chrosvenor -square,  W. 
Payne,  William  Percy, 

136,  Mansfield-road,  Nottingham, 
Pearce,  Charles  William, 

Devon  House,  Acre-lane,  S,W, 
Pearson,  Edwin  Jamei», 

Board  of  Trade,  Whitehall,  S.JF. 
•Pearson,  Professor  C.  H.  {cjo  John  Pearson,  Q.C.), 

75,  Ojislow-square,  S,W. 
*Pease,  Joseph  Whitwell,  M.P., 

24,  Kensington-palace-gardens,  W, 
♦Peek,  Sir  Henry  William,  Bart.,  M.P., 
Wimbledon  House,  S.W. 
Pellereau,  His  Honour,  Etienne, 

Fuisne  Judge  of  H.M,  Supreme  Court,  Mauritius. 
Pender,  John,  M.P., 

18,  Arlington-street,  S.W, 
Pennington,  Frederick,  M.P., 

17,  Hyde  Park-terrace,  W. 
Pepys,  The  Hon.  George, 

Phene,  John  Samuel,  F.E.G.S.,  F.S.A.,  Ac, 
5,  Carlton-terrace,  Oakley-street,  S.  W, 

Philips,  Herbert, 

85,  Church-street,  Manchester. 

Phillipps,  Henry  Matthews, 
41,  Seething-lane,  E.C, 
♦Phillips,  Sir  George  Eichard,  Bart., 

22,  Hill-street,  Berkeley-square,  W. 
Phillips,  Henry  James, 

4,  Ludgate-hill,  EM. 


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Tear  of 
EleetioiL 

1877 
1878 
1871 
1873 

1878 

• 

1838 
1879 
1861 
1809 
1874 
1879 
I860 
1879 
1871 
1877 
1877 
1867 
1877 
1849 
1879 
1874 
1871 

1837 


LIST  OF  FELLOWS*  33 


PhUlips,  John  Walter,  M.B.,  L.R.C.S,, 

30,  Stanley 'Street  i  Jf  est  Melbourne^  Victoria, 
Phipps,  Pickering, 

6,  Collingtree  Grange,  Northampton. 
♦Pickering,  John,  F.E.G.S.,  F.S,A., 

The  Abnallsj  Mount  Freston,  Leeds. 
Pickstone,  William, 

Maesmynan  Mall,  Holywell. 
*Piin,  Joseph  Todhunter, 

Oreenbank,  Monkstovm,  County  Dublin. 
•Pinckard,  George  Henry,  J.P.,  F.I. A., 

12,  Orove-road,  St.  John's-tcood,  N.  W. 
Pixley,  Francis  William, 

Road  Club,  4,  Fork-place^  St,  Jameses,  S.  TJ  . 
Plowden,  W.  Chicele  (Commissioner  1st  Division), 
Meeruth  District,  Mussoorie,  N.W.F,,  India, 

POCHDT,  HeKBT  DaVJS, 

Bodnant  Hall,  Conway. 
Ponsonby,  The  Hon.  Frederick  George  Brabazon,  M.A., 

3,  Mownt'Street,  Orosvenar-sguare,  W. 
Poole,  William, 

Newton  Avenue,  Longsight,  Manchester. 
Potter,  Edmund,  F.R.S., 

64,  Queen's-gate,  South  Kensington,  S.  W. 
♦Powell,  Francis  Sharp,  F.E.G.S.,  ( Horton  Old  Hall,  Bradford), 

1,  Cambridge-square,  Hyde  Park,  W, 
Power,  Edward, 

16,  South welUgardens,  Kensington,  W. 
Prance,  Eeginald  Heber, 

JPrognal,  Hampstead,  N.  W. 
Praschkauer,  Maximilian, 

Swiss  Cottage,  Heme  Hill,  S.E. 
♦Pratt,  Robert  Lindsay, 

80,  Bondgate,  Darlington. 
Preen,  Harvey  Edward, 

Kidderminster. 
Presant,  John, 

13,  St.  James^S'Sgtuire,  S.  W. 
Price,  James,  F.R.G.S., 

63,  Bedcliffe-gardens,  South  Kensington,  W. 
Price,  John  Charles, 

Compton  Cottage,  Maryon-road,  Old  Charlton,  Kent,  S.E. 
Puleston,  John  Henry,  M.P., 

2,  Bank-buildings,  E.C.;    Westminster   Palace  Hotel, 
S.W. 

•PUBDT,  FeEDEBICK, 

35,  Victoria-road,  Kensington,  W, 


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34  STATISTICAL   SOCIETY: 


KIcction. 

1879 


1874 


1872 

1858 
1877 
1864 
1860 
1874 
1879 
1880 
1865 
1859 
1878 
1874 
1877 
1870 
1835 

1880 
1875 
1856 
1867 
1862 


Quail,  Jesse, 

60,  White  Rock-streety  Liverpool,  E, 
Quain,  Eichard,  M.D.,  F.R.S.,  F.B.C.P., 

67,  Rarley-street,  W. 


*Rabino,  Joseph,*  (car^  of  Baron  J,  Vitta), 

8,  Bue  JLqfont,  Lyons, 
•Radstock,  The  Eight  Honourable  Lord, 

Uast  Sheen^  MortlaJce,  S.  W, 
Raikes,  Captain  George  Alfred,  F.S.A.,  F.E.  His.  Soc, 
63,  Belsize-parkf  Hampstead^  N.  W. 
•Ealeigh,  Samuel, 

9,  St,  Andrew-square y  Edinburgh, 
Eamsay,  Alexander  Gillespie,  F.I.A., 

Canada  Life  Assurance,  Hamilton,  Oanada  West, 
Eamsden,  Sir  James,  of  Barrow,  D.L., 

Fumess  Abbey,  Lancashire. 
Eanken,  "William  Bajne, 

37,  Stanhope-gardens,  Queen^s  Oate,  8.W. 
Eankin,  James,  M.P., 

35,  Ennismore-gardens,  Princess  Oate,  S,  W, 
EatclifF,  Colonel  Charles,  J.P., 

Athenamm  Club,  S,W,;  and  Wyddrington,  Birmingham, 
Eathbone,  P.  H., 

Oreenbank  Cottage,  Liverpool. 
Eathbone,  William, 

18,  Prince' s-gar dens.  Prince' s-gate,  S.  W, 
*Eaven8tein,  Ernest  George,  F.E.G.S., 

10,  Lorn-road,  Brixton,  S,  W, 
*Eawlins,  Thomas, 

45,  King  William'Street,  E.O. 
Eawlinson,  Eobert,  C.B., 

11,  Boltons,  West  Brompton,  S.W, 

Eawson,  Sie  Eawson  W.,C.B.,K.C.M.G.,(c/o  Jff.G^.  Bawson. 
Esq,, 

2,  Gillingham'Street,  Ecclest on-square^  S,  W.) 
Eeaddy,  George, 

Belvedere  Cottage,  Eastdoum-park,  Lewisham,  S.E. 
Eecord,  John, 

23,  Kenninghall-road,  Clapton,  E. 
Eedgrave,  Alexander,  C.B., 

Factory  Inspectors*  Office,  Whitehall,  S,W. 
Eeid,  Herbert  Llojd, 

4,  GlebC'Villas,  Mitcham. 
Eeynolds,  Frederick, 

cjo  London  Institution,  Mnsbury  Circus^  E,C, 


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Tear  of 
Election. 

1879 


1876 

1878 
1879 
1873 
1880 
1868 
1880 
1880 
1873 
1834 
1880 
1865 
1878 
1879 
1878 
1874 


1873 
1875 
1876 
1868 
1860 
1877 


LIST  OP  FELLOWS.  35 


Bhodes,  John  G., 

Oakdene,  JBeckenham,  Keni. 
Rice,  Thomas  Fitzroj, 

Horseheads^  New  Torh,  U.S.A. 
Eichards,  George,  L.E.C.P.,  Edin., 

Mervyn  LodgCy  Ashjlelda,  Boss,  Herefordshire, 
Bichardson,  George  Gibson,  J.P., 

Oak  Lawn,  Meigats. 
Eipon,  The  Most  Hon.  the  Marquess  of,  K.G.,  F.B.S,  Ac,, 

1,  Oarlton^gardens,  S,  W. 
Eoberts,  A.  7., 

49,  Bow-lane,  Cheapside,  B.C. 
Bobinson,  Sir  William  Bose,  K.C.S.J., 

50,  Noffolk-square,  Hyde-park,  W. 
♦Ronald,  Byron  L., 

14,  Tipper  Phillimore-gardens,  W. 
Bonald,  Robert  Bruce, 

29,  Femhridge'Square,  W. 
♦Bosebery,  The  Right  Hon.  the  Earl  of, 

107,  Biccadilly,  W. 
•Boss,  David,  of  Bladensburg, 

Bostrevor,  Co.  Down,  Ireland, 
Both,  Henry  Ling, 

Foulden,  Mackay,  Queensland. 
Buck,  George  T., 

The  Hawthorns,  Dorville'road,  Lee,  8.E. 
Bumley,  George  Chisnall, 

Lawn  Cottage,  Shepherd's  Bush  Oreen,  W. 
Buntz,  John, 

Linton  Lodge,  Lordship-road,  Stoke  Newington,  N. 
BusselK  Bichard  F., 

8,  John-street,  Adelphi,  W.C. 
Butherford,  Cliarles, 

29,  St.  Swithin's'lane,  B.C. 


♦Salisbury,  The  Most  Hon.  the  Marquess  of,  P.C,  1\B.S., 

20,  Arlington-street,  W. 
♦Salomons,  Sir  David  Lionel,  Bart.,  J. P., 

Broom-hill,  Timbridge  Wells. 
Salt,  Thomas, 

Weeping  Cross,  Stafford. 
Samuelson,  Bernhard,  M.P., 

56,  Princess-gate,  Hyde-park,  S.  W» 
Sargant,  William  Lucus, 

Bdgbaston,  Birmingham. 
Saunders,  Charles  Edward,  M.D., 

21,  Lower  Seymour-street,  Bortman-square,  W. 

D  2 


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36  STATISTICAL   SOCIETY: 


Tear  of 
Bleotlon. 

1874, 


1852 
1879 
1869 

1877 
1877 
1880 
1878 
1875 
1880 
1869 
1873 
1841 

1879 
1871 

1878 
1850 
1878 
1877 
1869 
1878 
1874 
1871 
1878 


Saunders,  Francis, 

6,  Limet-grove^  Iiewisham,  8.E. 
Saunders,  James  Ebenezer,  jun.,  F.O.S. 

9,  FiTtsburf/'Circus,  E.G. 
Saunders,  William, 

Motmt  VieWy  Streatham^  8,W 
Sayle,  PhUip,  F.R.H.S., 

4,  St.  PauVs  Church-yard,  E.G. 
Scbiff,  Charles 

86,  Sac1cmUe'9treety  Ficcadilly,  TV* 
Schneidau,  Charles  John, 

6,  Wesiwick-gardeng,  West  Kensington-park,  W, 
Schreiber,  Charles,  M.P., 

Langham  Howe,  11,  Portland-place,  W. 
Scott,  Arthur  J., 

22,  Grafion-street,  New  Bond-street,  W, 
Scott,  Sir  Edward  Henry,  Bart.,  J.P., 

27,  Grosffenor-square,  W. 
*Seeley,  Charles,  jun.,  M.P., 

Sherwood  Lodge,  Nottingham, 
Seyd,  Ernest, 

38,  Lombard-streety  E,G. 
Seyd,  Richard, 

38,  Lombard-street,  E,G, 
Shaftesbuet,  The  Eight  Hon.  the  Eaql  of,  KG., 
{Honorary  Vice-President), 

24,  Grosvenor-square,  W, 
Shepbeard,  Wallwjm  Poyer  B.,  M.A., 

24,  Gld  Buildings,  Lincoln's  Inn,  W.C. 
Sidgwick,  Henry, 

Trinity  College,  Cambridge. 
Simmonds,  G.  H., 

1,  Whitehall,  S.W. 
Singer,  Charles  Douglas, 

9,  The  Terrace,  Upper  Clapton,  E. 
Slaughter,  Mihill, 

42,  Binfield-road,  Glapham,  8.W. 
Sloley,  Robert  Hugb. 

121,  Bishopsgate-sfreet  Within,  E.G. 
Smee,  Alfred  Hutcheson,  M.R.C.S., 

7,  Finsbury-circus,  E,G. 

♦Smitb,  Charles,  M.R.I.A.,  F.G.S.,  Assoc.  Inst.  C.E., 

Barrow-in-Furness. 
Smitb,  Edward, 

St.  Mildred's  House,  Poultry,  E.G. 
Smitb,  E.  Cozens, 

1,  Old  Broad-street,  E.G. 
•Smith,  George,  LL.D  ,  CLE., 

Serampore  House,  Napier-road,  Edinburgh. 


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Te*r  of 
Sleotion. 

1880 


1877 
1878 
1880 
1877 
1879 
1878 
1867 
1878 
1855 
1877 
1873 
1867 
1876 
1874 
1856 
1872 
1880 
1856 
1877 
1877 
1880 
1877 
1880 
1877 


LIST   OF  FELLOWS.  37 


Smith,  Thomas  Sherwood, 

21,  Bichmond-terracey  Clifton, 
Smith,  Howard  S., 

37,  Bennetts  Sill,  Birmingham. 
Smith,  JameB, 

South  Indian  Bailway,  Negapatam,  Madras, 
Smith,  Jervoise, 

1,  Lombard^reet,  E,G, 
Smith,  John, 

8,  Old  Jewry,  E,0, 
Smith,  J.  Fisher, 

76,  Cheapside,  JS,G. 
Smith,  Col.  John  Thomas,  RE.,  F.R.S.,  F.I.A., 

10,  Gledhow  Gardens,  Wetherhy-road,  8.  Kensington,  S.  W, 
♦Smith,  The  Eight  Honourable  William  Henry,  M.P., 

Admiralty,  Whitehall,  8.W. 
Souter,  John  Clement,  M.D.,  F.C.S., 

Sowraj,  John  Eussell, 

Office  of  Woods,  1,  WhitehalUplace,  8.W. 
Spalding,  Samuel, 

8&uth  Darenth,  Kent, 
Spence,  John  Berger, 

81,  Lombard-street,  E.O, 
*Spencer,  Robert  James, 

High-street,  Portsmouth, 
Spensley,  Howard, 

Thatched  House  Club,  8t,  James' s-street,  8,  W. 
Spicer,  James,  J. P., 

Harts,  Woodford,  Essex, 
♦Sprague,  Thomas  Bond,  M.A.,  F.I.A., 

26,  8t,  Andrew^quare,  Edinburgh. 
Spriggs,  Joseph, 

Dale  Cottage,  Foston^  near  Market  Harbro*, 
Stofford,  Sir  Edward  William,  K.C.M.G., 

48,  Stanhope- gardens,  S.W. 
•Stainton,  Henry  Tibbats, 

Mountsfield,  Lewisham,  8,E. 
Stanford,  Edward, 

55,  Charing  Cross,  8.  W, 
Staples,  Sir  Nathaniel  Alexander,  Bart., 

lAssan,  Cookstown,  Tyrone,  Ireland. 
Stark,  James, 

17,  King's  Arms-yard,  E.C, 
Startin,  James,   M.RC.S., 

17,  Sackville-street,  W. 
Stephens,  William  Davies, 

4,  Ahbotsford-terrace,  Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
Stone,  William  A., 

^0,Cannon'Street,  E.G.;  West  Hill  Lodge,  Dartford,  Kent. 


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38  STATISTICAL   SOCIETY: 


Tcftrof 
Election. 

1855 


1865 
1872 

1880 
1878 
1880 


1873 
1859 
1880 

1877 
1873 
X838 
1880 
1878 
1879 
1879 
1878 
1878 
1864. 
1868 
1871 
1877 
1879 


♦Stott,  John,  F.I.A., 

12,  EnseX'Villas,  Kensington^  W. 
Strachan,  Thomas  Young,  F.I. A., 

18,  Orainger-itreet  West,  I^etocastle-on-l^e, 
Sfcrachey,  General  Richard,  R.E.,  C.S.I.,  F.li.S., 

India  Office,  Westminster,  8,W. 
Strutt,  Hon.  Frederick, 

Milford  House,  near  Derby. 
Stubbiris,  Thomas  K., 

Market-street,  Bradford,  YorJcs, 
♦Summers,  William,  M.P.  {Sunyside^  Ashtonr under- Ijyne)^ 

12,  St,  James' S'place,  8.W. 


Tait,  Lawson,  F.E.C.S., 

7,  Qreat  Charles-street^  Birmingham. 
♦Tait,  Patrick  Macnaghten, 

39,  Belsize  Bark,  N,W.;  and  Oriental  Club,  W, 
Taylor,  George, 

17,  Abchurchrlane,  E.C. 
Taylor,  John  E., 

12,  Queen's  Qate-gardens,  South  Kensington,  S.W. 
Taylor,  Peter  Alfred,  M.P., 

22,  Ashleu'place,  Westminster^  S*  W. 
•Taylor,  General  Pringle,  K.H., 

Temple,  Sir  Richard,  Bart.,  G.C.S.I.,  D.C.L.,  &c, 

Athenaum  Club,  Ball  Mall,  S.W. 
Thomas,  Rev.  R.  D., 

Thomas,  William  Angell, 

King's  College,  Strand,  W.C. 
Thomas,  W.  Cave, 

53,  W elbeck-street.  Cavendish-square ^  W. 
Thompson,  Alfred  Boyle,  M.R.C.P., 

18,  SeneanfS'inn,  Temple,  E.G. 
Thompson,  Captain  C.  Halford,  (late  R.At), 

9,  ColUton-crescent,  Exeter. 
♦Thompson,  Henry  Yates, 

26a,  Bryanston-square,  W. 
Thomson,  James, 

35,  McholaS'laney  E.C. 
Thomson,  Thomas  D., 

57,  Moorgate-street,  E.C 
Tiddy,  Samuel  Vesey, 

110,  Cannon-street,  E.C, 
Tipping,  William, 


Oak  field  House,  Ashton-undet -Lyne . 

Google 


Digitized  by  ^ 


LIST  OF  FELLOWS.  39 

Tear  of 
■lectloiL 

1855     Tomline,  Colonel  George, 

1,  Carlton  House-terrace,  8,  W, 
1843     Tottie,  John  William, 

Coniston  Hall,  Bell  Bush,  Leeds, 
1868  *Treatt,  Frank  Burford, 

Immigration  Office,  Sydney,  N.S.  Wales, 
1868     Tiitton,  Joseph  Herbert, 

54,  Lombard-street,  E,C. 
1880     Tupp,  Alfred  Cotterill,  {Indian  Civil  Service), 

Accountant' General,  Madras. 
1878     Tumbull,  Alexander, 

118,  Belsize-f  ark-gardens,  N*  W, 
1867     Turner,  Thomas, 

Ashley  House,  JSingsdown,  Bristol, 
1878     Turton,  William  Woolley, 

The  Hollies,  Bichley,  Kent. 
1880     Twist,  John  Charles, 

78,  Union-road,  Hurst  Brook,  Ashton-under-Lyne, 
1841     Tyndall,  William  Henry, 

92|  Cheapside,  E,C. 


1873     Underdown,  Bobert  George, 

London-road  Bailway  Station,  Manchester, 
1877   •Urlin,  Eichard  Denny, 

22,  Stafford-terrace,  Fhillimore-gardens,  W. 


1842     Valpy,  Eichard, 

6,  Butland^ate,  S.  W. 
1868     Vanderbyl,  Philip, 

51,  Borchester-terrace,  W. 
1880     Van  de  Linde,  Gerard,  A.C.A., 

12,  Lawrence  Bountney-lane,  Cannon-street,  E,C. 
1874     Vian,  William  John, 

64,  ComhUl,  B.C. 

1876  Vigers,  Eobert, 
4,  Frederick* s-plaee.  Old  Jewry ^  E.C, 

1877  Vine,  John  Eichard  Somers, 
46,  St.  BauVs-road,  Camden-square,  JVi  TV. 

1878  Vivian,  Major  Quintus,  D.L.,  F.E.G.S., 
17,  Ohesham-street,  S,Tr. 


1861     WaddeU,  James, 

1,  Queen  Vtctoria-street,  E,0. 
1878     Waddy,  Henry  Edward,  L.E.O.P.,  M.E.C.S , 

2,  Clarence-street,  Oloucester. 


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40  STATISTICAL  SOCIETY: 


Tear  of 
EiectiMi. 

1877 


1857 
1871 
1877 
1868 
1880 
1876 
1877 
1850 
1879 
1873 
1865 
1878 
1874 
1873 
1865 
1865 
1873 
1869 
1873 
1879 
1873 
1879 
1855 
1873 


Wakeford,  Henry, 

Home  Office,  Whitehall,  8.W. 
♦Waltokd,  Coenelius,  F.I.A., 

86,  BeUize-park-gardeTis,  N.  W. 
♦Walker,  B.  Bailey, 

The  Grove,  Didshury,  Manchester. 
Wallington,  Charles, 

51,  Moorgate-atreety  E,C, 
Wallis,  Charles,  J., 

62,  Doughty-street,  W.C. 
Wallis,  E.  White,  F.M.S., 

1,  Springfield-road,  8L  John's  Wood,  N.W. 
Walter,  Arthur  Fraser, 

15,  Queen's  GatC'terrace,  8.W, 
Walter,  Captain  Edward, 

Oommissionaires*  Office ^  419,  Strand,  W.O. 
Walter,  John,  M.P., 

40,  Upper  Grosvenor-street,  W. 
Wansey,  Arthur  H., 

Sambourne,  Stoke  Bishop,  Bristol. 
Waring,  Charles, 

19b,  Grosvenor-square,  S,  W, 
Waterhouso,  Edwin,  B.A., 

44,  Gresham-street,  E.C, 
Watherston,  Edward  J., 

12,  Pall  Mall  East,  S.  W. 
Watson,  James,  P.E.G.S., 

24,  Endsleigh'Street,  Tavistock-square,  W,C 
Watson,  J.  Forbes,  M.A.,  M.D.,  LL.D. 

India  Museum,  South  Kensington,  W. 
Watson,  William  West, 

City  Chamberlain,  Glasgow, 
Webster,  Alphonsus, 

44,  Mecklenhurg^qu(tre,  W.C, 
Webster,  James  Hume, 

14,  Chapel-street,  Park'lane,  W. 
Weguelin,  Christopher, 

57i  Old  Broad-street,  E.C. 
Weguelin,  Thomas  Matthias, 

14,  Devonshire-street,  Portland-place,  W. 
Weir,  William, 

38,  South  Audley-street,  W. 
♦Welby,  Eeginald  Earle,  C.B., 

The  Treasury,  Whitehall,  8,W. 
Welch,  John  Kemp,  J.P., 

Clock  House,  Clapham-common,  S.  W. 
Weldon,  James  Walton, 

1,  St,  James^ s-square,  8,  W, 
Wellington,  His  Grace  the  Duke  of,  K.G..  «fec.,  &<•., 

Apsley  Rouse,  Piccadilly y  W, 


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Tear  of 
Bleetion. 

1873 


1865 
1879 
1876 
1879 
1878 
1859 
1876 
1868 
1863 
1879 
1871 
1878 
1873 
1879 
1878 
1875 
1860 
1879 
1880 
1864 
1870 
1876 
1877 
1875 


LIST   OP  FELLOWS.  41 


WeUfl,  W.  Lewis, 

66,  Old  Broad-street,  11,0, 
Welton,  Thomas  Abebobombie,  (5,  Moorgate-street,  E.C,)y 

6,  Offerton-Toad,  Glapham,  S.W. 
Wenley,  Jaraes  Adams, 

Bank  of  Scotland,  Bank-street,  Edinburgh, 
Westgarth,  WillUm, 

28,  ComhiU,  E,C. 
•Westlake,  John,  Q.C.,  LL.D., 

16,  Oxford-square,  W. 
Wharton,  James, 

10,  Buckland-crescent,  Belsize-park,  N.  W. 
Whitbread,  Samuel,  M.P., 

10,  Ennismore-gardens,  Frinees-gate,  8.  W, 
Whitcher,  John,  Jr^  F.I. A., 

81,  King  WiUiam-street,  E.C. 
White,  James, 

8,  Thurloe-square,  South  Kensington,  S.  W. 
White,  Leedham, 

44,  Onsloto-gardens,  S.W.;  85,  Qracechurch-street,  E.C, 
White,  Eobert  Owen,  J.P., 

The  Briorg,  Lewishatn,  S.E. 
White,  William, 

70,  Lombard-street,  E,0, 
Whiteford,  William, 

8,  Temple-gardens,  E,0. 
Whitehead,  Jeflfery, 

39,  Throgmorton^street,  E,C. 
Whitwill,  Mark,  J.P., 

Bedland  House,  Durdham^park,  Bristol 
WUcox,  William,  L.ELC.P.  (Edin.),  M.R.C.S., 

Hollg  House,  North  Walsham,  Norfolk. 
Wilkinson,  Thomas  Bead, 

Manchester  and  Salford  Bank,  Manchester. 
Willans,  John  Wrigley, 

2,  Headinglg-terrace,  Leeds. 
Williams,  Edwardf, 

Cleveland  Lodge,  Middlesborough. 
Williams,  Colonel  E.  C.  J.,  K.E^  C.i.E., 

India  Office,  Whitehall. 
Williains,  Frederick  fiessant, 

2,  Ludgate  Hill,  E.C. 
Williams,  H.  E., 

3,  Lime-street,  E.C, ;  and  Oak  Lodge,  Highgatr,  N. 
Williams,  John  Worthey, 

5,  Marlborough-road,  Upper  Holloway,  N. 
Williams,  Eichard  Price, 

38,  Barlianumt-street,  S.W. 
Wilson,  Edwards  D.  J.,  M.A., 

Airlie  House,  The  Orove,  Oamberwell,  8.E. 


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42  STATISTICAL  SOCIETY: 


Tear  of 
BI«ction. 

1874 


1878 
1872 
1868 
1877 
1873 
1838 
1874 
1878 
1880 
1877 
1838 

1872 
1879 
1879 
1877 
1849 


*Wil8on,  Bobert  Porter, 

5,  Oumberland'terraee^  Bej^enfs-park,  K.W, 
Wilton,  Francis,  M.ILC.S., 

TicehurH,  Sussex, 
•Winch,  William  R., 

North  Mymms  Park,  Hatfield,  Herts. 
Wood,  H.  W.  I.  (Calcutta), 

Care  of  Messrs.  Bichardson^  13,  Fall  Mall,  8.W. 
Woodrow,  T.  J., 

Great  Eastern  Railway,  Liverpool-street,  E^C. 
Woods,  Henry, 

Warnford  Fork,  Bish^'s  Waltham,  Hants. 
Woolhouse,  Wesley  Stoker  Barker,  F.R.A.S., 

Alwyne  Lodge,  Alwyne^oad,  Canonbury,  Ifn 
Woolner,  Thomas,  R.  A., 

29,  Welbeck'Street,  Cavendish^quare,  W. 
.Worsfold,  Rev.  J.  N.,  M.A., 

Haddlesey  Beetory,  near  Selby,  Yorkshire, 
Wren,  Walter, 

7,  FounS'Square,  W. 
Wright,  George, 

9,  Craif  S'Cowrt,  Charing  Cross,  8.W. 
»Wyatt-EdgeU,  Rev.  Edgell, 

40,  Lovoer  Orosvenor-street,  W.;  Stwrfbrd  Hail,  Bugby. 


Yeatman,  Morgan, 

Shawfield,  Bromley,  Kent. 
Teats,  John,  LL.D., 

7,  Beaufort-square,  Chepstow. 
Tee,  Tung, 

49,  Fortland-place,  W. 
*Toull,  John  GHbson, 

Jesmonds-road,  Newcastle-on-Tyne^ 
•Toung,  Charles  Baring, 

12,  Hyde-park  Terrace,  W. 


%*  The  Executive  Committee  request  that  any  inaccuracy  m 
the  foregoing  list  may  he  pointed  out  to  the  AssiSTAin?  Secbbtabt 
and  that  all  changes  of  address  may  he  notified  to  him,  so  that  delay 
in  forwarding  communications  and  the  publications  of  the  Society  ma^ 
be  avoided. 


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LIST  OF  HONORABT  MEMBBB8.  43 

HONORART  MEMBERS. 

fflS  ROYAL  HIGHNESS  THE  PRINCE  OF  WALES,  K.G., 
Honorary  President, 

EUROPE. 

%mimi  anJr  pungarjj. 

■naapert M.   CHARLES   KELETI,  Chrf  du  Bureau    Ro^al 

HonffrotM,  de  StatiMiique,    Cotueiller  Miniti&iel, 
▼l€BBm  DR.  HUGO  FRANZ  BRACHELLI,  Chef  du  Bureau 

de  StatUtique  au  Minisihre  de  Commerce, 
„        S.  E.  M.  le  BARON  de  CZ(£RNIG,  Corueiiier  i$Uime 

aciuel  de  S.  M.  Imp,  et  Royal, 
, PROFESSOR    F».    XAVIER     tou     NEUMANN- 

SPALLART,     D.C.L.,     Frofettor    of     Political 

Economy    and    Statistics,   Agricultural    College, 

University   of    Vienna;       Imperial     Councilor; 

Member  of  the  Imperial  Staiistical  Commission  ; 

Honorary  Member  of  the  Statistical  Society  of 

Paris  and  of  the  Cobden  Club. 
„        M.  MAX  WIRTH,  Aneiem   Chrf  du  Bureau  de  la 

Statistique,  Suisse. 


§elgmm. 


Bratselfl   ^  SIR  HENRY  PAGE  TURNER  BARRON,  Bart., 

Secretary  qf  Legation,  British  Embassy, 

„  ._ M.  XAVIER  HEUSCHLING,  Chef  de  Division  au 

Minisihre  de  VlntMeur  du  Royaume  de  Belgique, 
S^cr/taire  de  la  Commission  Cenirale  de  Statistique, 

„         M.  le  DR.  E.  JANSSENS,   Servi<;e  d' Hygiene,  In- 

specteur  du  SantS  de  la  Ville  de  Bruxelles, 
Membre  SSerStaire  de  la  Commission  Provinciale, 
et  de  la  Commission  LoctUe  de  Statistique  h 
Bruxelles. 

M.  VICTOR  MISSON,  Ancien  President  de  la  Cour 

dee  Comptee  de  Belgique,  Sfc, 


^trtmwck. 


CmwtnUmmtn   ....  PROFESSOR    FALBE    HANSEN,     Prqfessor   of 
Political  Economy  and  Staiistits  in  the  University  of 
Copenhiigen, 
^  .^  DR.  SCHLEISNER*  Medical  Officer  qf  HeaUh. 


^xixntt. 


Pmris... M.  le  Dr.  JACQUES  BERTILLON,  Prqfesseur  de 

DAnographie  k  VEcole  d* Anthropologic  ;  Chef  de 
la  Statistique  Municipale  de  Paris;  Laur^t  de 
I* Academe  des  Sciences,  ^c,  8fc. 


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44  STATISTICAL  SOCIETY: 

Parts M.MAURICE  BLOCK. 

, M.  le  Dr.  ARTHUR    CHERVIN,   Member  of  the 

Statistical  Society  of  Paris;  General  Secretary 
of  the  International  Congrett  of  Demography. 

„     M,   MXXIMIM    DELOCHE.   Membre  de  Vlnttitut, 

Directeur  de  la  Statietique  Q-en^cde  de  la  France, 

„     M.  JOSEPH  GARNIER.  Membre  de  VinaiittU,  Prih- 

feneur  d* Economic  Politique  a  Vicole  dee  Ponts  et 
Chauit/es,  JUdaeteur  en  ehe/du  Journal  dee  SeonO' 
mistet, 

, M.     CLEMENT    JUGLAR.  Prerident  Sortant  de  la 

Social/ de  Statistique  de  Paris, 

, M.  ALFRED  ljEGOYT,AncienIHreeteur  de  U  Sta* 

tietique  G^h&ale, 

„      M.  E.  LEVASSEUR,  Membre  de  rinaUiut,  Prq/emeur 

au  Collige  de  France, 

„      M.DE  VkVilEV,  Membre  de  I' Imtitui.AneienD^^i, 

S^fnateur^  et  Miniatre, 

»,     M.  LE   PLAY,  Ancien  S6tateur, 

.,      M.     le    PRESIDENT    DE    LA    SOClfiTfi     DE 

STATISTIQUE    DB    PARIS. 

„     THE   HON.   M.  jfiAN   BAPTISTE  LfiON   SAY, 

President  qf  the  Senate  qfthe  Republic  qf  France, 

Bmrarim DR.  GEORGE  MAYR,    Formerly  Director  qf  the 

Royal  Bureau  qf  Statistics;  Ministerialrath  und 
Universitats  Prqfessor, 

„       DR.  G.  CHARLES  LEOPOLD  SEUFPERT,  Chirf 

Inspector  and  Director  qf  the  Royal  Custom  House 
at  Simbach, 

BerUn    DR.    CHARLES    BECKER,    Geheimer  olerregier- 

unysrath.  Director  desKaiserU:  StatistischenAmts. 

„        DR.  ERNEST  ENGEL.  Director  qfthe  Royal  Statis- 
tical Office  qf  Prussia, 

WtmnHtart THE     PRESIDENT     OF     THE    STATISTICAL 

SOCIETY   OF  FRANKFURT. 


(Srtai  Britain  anir  Jnlanb. 


Dnblln  THE   PRESIDENT  OF  THE  STATISTICAL  AND 

SOCIAL  ENQUIRY  SOCIETY  OF  IRELAND. 

■mnelietter THE    PRESIDENT    OF    THE    MANCHESTER 

STATISTICAL    SOCIETY. 


(Srwct. 


Athens A.   MANSOLAS,    Chrf  de  Division,  Directeur  du 

Bureau  de  Statistique  HelUnique, 


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LIST  OF  HONOBAST  MEMBERS. 


45 


Italg. 


Genoa    PROFESSORE  6RR0LAM0  BOCCARDO,  Senator 

of  the  Kingdom  of  Italy;  Knight  of  Civil 
Merity  ^c,  ^c. 

Padorm 8IGNOR      EMILIO      MORPURGO,     Professore 

Ordinario  di  Statistica  nella  JR.  Univeraitd  di 
Padova;  Membro  della  CHunta  Centrale  di  Sta- 
titticay  <f*c. 

FaTla     SIGNOR    LUIGI     C08SA,    Professeur   Ordinaire 

d'Bconomie  Politique  d  V  UniversitS  de  Pavia ; 
Docteur  en  Droit;  OJicier  de  VOrdre  de  la 
Couronne  d'Jtalief  <{•<?.,  ^c, 

Kone PROFESSORE   LUIGI   BODIO,  Direeteur   de   la 

Statietique  G6i&ale  ePIialie. 

PROFESSORE  CESARE  CONTINI,  Membre  de  la 

Soci^U  Staiistique  de  Paris,  Grand  Chevalier 
de  VOrdre  de  Sa  MajeetS  le  Eoi  d'ltalie, 

SIGNOR    CESARE   CORRENTI,    Membre    de    la 

Chambre  det  DiputU ;  Vice-Preeident  de  la  Com- 
mission Centrale  de  Statistique. 

MESSEDAGLIA.  SIGNOR  ANGELO,  Professore  di 

Statistica  nellu*  University  di  Soma.  {Member 
of  the  Italian  Parliament.) 

ILMARCHESE  AWOCATO  ERMENEGILDO  DE 

CINQUE  QUINTILI,  S^critaire  Giniral  de  la 
Commission  des  HCpitaux  JRomains, 

TuHn PROFESSORE  GIOVANNI  FLECHIA.  Prisidentde 

la  FaculU  de  Philosophie  et  Prqfesseur  tt  VVnt- 
versiU  de  Turin, 

Tenlce  SIGNOR  FRANCESCO  FERRARA,/)^imM  am  PflWe- 

menty  Direeteur  del*Ecole  Sup6rieure  de  Commerce' 


fortu0al. 


l^Ubon      M.  A.  J.  D'AYILA,  Ministre  d'Btat  honoraire,  Con- 

seilleur  d*Etat,  et  Diput6  des  Cortis. 


^ttssin. 


SC  Petcrtbnrff  HIS  EXCELLENCY  M.  SEMENOW,  Direeteur 
du  Comity  Central  de  Statistique,  Conseiller  d'£lat 
actuel, 

M.  le  DR.  J.   B.  VERNADSKI,    ConseUler    d*Etnt 
actuel,  EX'professeur, 

„  M.  A.  VESSELOVSKY,  Secretaire  du  Cbmiti  Sci^ 

entifique  du  Ministers  Imperial  des  Finances. 


Madrid 


SENOR  DON  JOSfi  MAGAZ  Y  JAIME. 


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46 


STATISTICAL   SOCIETY; 


SfetiTien  anir  llortoag. 

CkrUtlmnlA PROFESSOR   T.    H.    ASCHEHOU6.  Membre   de 

VA99embUe  Nationals  de  la  Norveffe. 

,,  M.  A.  N.  KIAER.  Chtf  du  Bureau  de  Statittiqut  au 

Minitthre    de  rintSrieur,  Membre  de    la  Soeiite 
Royaie  det  Sciencet, 

StoekholM  M.  le  DR.  FREDERIK  THEODOR  BERG.  Ancien 

Ch^  du  Bureau  Central  de  StatUtique  de  la  Su^de, 

„  M.  EDWARD  SCHEUTZ,  IngSnieur  ChiL 

OeneTm M.  MALLET. 

Constantinople.  HIS    EXCELLENCY   AHMED  VEFYK   PASHA. 
Honorary  Member  of  the  StatUtieal  Society  qfParie. 

PhlUppopoUB ....  THOMAS  MICHELL.  Esq.,  C.B.,  F.R.G.S. 


AMERICA. 


•ttmwm  . 


gomittion  of  Cmtaira. 


.  JOHN  LANGTON  E«a.,  Auditor-General, 
EDWARD  YOUNG,  Esq.,  formerly  Chief  of  the 
Bureau  of  Statistice,   United  States  of  America^ 
noWf    Secretary  of   the   Board    of    Custom*    of 
Canada. 


Albany.  W.Y THE  HON.  WILLIAM    BARNES,    Counsellor -at- 

haw  {Ex 'Superintendent  qf  the  Insurance  Depart' 
meut), 

Dorchester. Xass.  DR.  EDWARD  JARVIS,  A.M.,  President  of  the 
American  Statistical  Association,  Boston, 

New  Harcn,  Conn.  FRANCIS  A.  WALKER,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Prqfessoro/ 
Political  Economy,  Vale  College, 

Norwleh,  Conn.  THE  HON.  DAVID  A.  WELLS,  President  of  the 
American  Association  for  the  Promotion  of  Social 
Science^  Corresponding  Member  of  the  Institute  of 
France. 

Tannton.  Siass.  JOHN  E.  SANFORD.  Esq.,  Speaker  of  the  House 
of  Representatives.    Insurance  Commissioner. 

Washington  ....  THE  HON.  CHARLES  F.  CONANT.  Assistant 
Secretary  to  the  Treasury  of  the  United  States. 


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LIST   OP  HONORARY   MEMBBBS.  47 

AUSTRALASIA. 
|i;tto  Smrf^  Malts, 

Sydney EDWARD  GRANT  WARD,  Esa.,  Reffiitrar- General, 

WelliniTtoii JAMES  HECTOR,  Esq.,  M.D.,  F.R.S. 

BHsHane  HENRY  JORDAN,  Eso.,  Reffieirar- General. 

S^ont\i  Australia, 

A4elml4e  »  JOSIAH  BOOTHBY,  Esa.,  C.M.6.,  Under  Secretary 

and  Government  Statist  of  South  Australia. 

Casmania, 

HoUmrt  T«wii ....  E.  SWARBRECK  HALL,  Eso.,  M.R.C.S. 

„  ....  EDWIN  CRADOCK  NOWELL,  Esq., 

Government  Statistician. 

■elUoiirne  HENRY    HEYLYN    HAYTER,  Esq., 

Government  Statist. 

WILLIAM     HENRY     ARCHER,    Esq.,    F.I.A., 

F.L.S.,  &c 


NoTB. — ^The  Executive  Committee  request  that  any  in- 
accuracies in  the  foregoing  List  of  Honorary  Members 
may  be  pointed  out,  and  that  all  changes  of  address  may  be 
notified  to  the  Secretary,  so  that  delay  in  forwarding  com- 
munications and  the  publications  of  the  Society  may  be 
avoided. 


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INDEX   TO   RULES. 


BULS 

1.  The  Objects  of  the  Societj. 

2.  Society  to  consiat  of  Fellows  and  Honorary  Members. 

3.  No.  of  Fellows  unlimited ;  Hon.  Members  not  to  exceed  70. 

4.  Fellows — Candidates  to  be  proposed  by  two  or  more  Fellows. 

5.  Do.      to  be  elected  by  Ballot. 

6.  Do.      on  Admission  may  attach  F.S.S.  to  their  Names. 

7.  Honorary  Members,  Proposed  by  Council ;  Elected  by  Ballot. 

8.  Fellows,  to  pay  an  Annual  Subscription  or  a  Composition. 

9.  Do.      how  disqualified.  Written  notice  of  withdrawal  required. 
10.        Do.      and  Honorary  Members,  Expulsion  of. 

]  1.  Trustees.    Property  of  Society,  to  be  vested  in  Tfiree. 

12,  President,  Council,  and  Officers,  Number  and  Particulars  of. 

- . '  >      Do.  do.  do.  Election  and  Qualifications  of. 

16.         Do.  do.  do.  Extraordinary  Vacancies  of. 

16.  Committees,  may  be  appointed  by  Council. 

17.  Meetings,  Ordinary  and  Anniversary,  when  to  be  held. 

18.  Ordinary  Meetings,  Business  of.     Strangers  may  be  introduced. 

19.  Anniversary  Meetings,  Business  of. 

20.  Special  General  Meetings  may  be  called. 

21.  Auditors,  Appointment  and  Duties  of. 

22.  President,  Duties  of.    To  have  a  Casting  Vote. 
28.  Treasurer,  Duties  of,  subject  to  the  Council. 

24.  Secretaries,  Duties  of. 

25.  Vice-Presidents,  Powers  of. 

26.  Council,  Duties  of,  in  Publishing  Papers  and  Expending  Funds. 

27. )      Do.      Powers   of,    to    frame  Regulations   not  inconsiatent 

28.  j  with  these  Rules. 

29.  Do.      to  publish  a  Journal  of  the  Transactions  of  the  Society'. 

30.  Right  of  Property  reserved  in  all  Communications  received. 


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49 


RULES  OF  THE  STATISTICAL  SOCIETY. 


Obfettt  of  the  Society, 

1.  Thx  Statistical  Society  waf  eeta- 
bliflhed  to  collect,  arrange,  digest,  and 
publish  facts  illostrating  the  condition 
and  prospects  of  society,  in  its  material, 
social  and  moral  relations.  These  facts 
are  for  the  most  part  arranged  in 
tabular  forms,  and  in  accordance  with 
the  principles  of  the  nnmerical  method. 

The  Society  not  only  collects  new 
materials,  but  condenses,  arranges,  and 
publishes  those  already  existing,  whether 
unpublished  or  published  in  diffuse  and 
expensive  forms,  in  the  English  or  in 
any  foreign  language. 

The  Society  likewise  promotes  the 
<Uscussion  of  legislative  and  other  pub- 
lic measures  from  the  statistical  point 
of  view.  These  discussions  form  portions 
of  the  Transadaons  of  the  Society. 

ConstUuticn  of  the  Society, 

2.  The  Society  consists  of  Fellows  and 
Honorary  Members,  elected  in  the  man- 
ner laid  down  in  the  following  rules. 

Nwnber  of  Fellowe  and  Honorary 
Members* 
8.  The  number  of  Fellows  shall  be 
unlimited.  Foreigners  or  British  sub- 
jects of  distinction  residing  abroad  may 
be  admitted  as  Honorary  Members :  of 
whom  the  number  shall  not  be  more 
than  seventy  at  any  one  time. 

Proposal  of  Fellows, 

4.  Every  Candidate  for  admission  as 
a  Fellow  of  the  Society,  shall  be  pro- 
posed by  two  or  more  Fellowo,  who, 
shall  certify  from  their  personal  know- 
ledge of  him  or  of  his  works,  that  he  is 
a  fit  person  to  be  admitted  a  Fellow 
of  the  Statistical  Society.  Every  such 
certificate  having  been  read  and  approved 
at  a  Meeting  of  the  Council,  shall  be 
suspended  in  the  meeting-room  of  the 
Society  until  the  following  Ordinary 
Meeting,  at  which  the  vote  shall  bo 
taken  upon  it. 


Election  of  Fellows, 

5.  In  the  election  of  Fellows,  the 
votes  shall  be  taken  by  ballot.  No 
person  shall  be  admitted  unless  at  least 
sixteen  Fellows  vote,  and  unless  he  have 
in  his  favour  three-fourths  of  the  Fellows 
voting. 


Admission  of  Fellows, 

6.  Every  Fellow  elect  shall  appear 
for  his  admission  on  or  before  the  third 
Ordinary  Meeting  of  the  Society  after 
his  election,  or  within  such  time  as  shall 
be  granted  by  the  Council. 

The  manner  of  admission  shall  be 
thus: — 

Inmiediately  after  the  reading  of  the 
minutes,  the  Fellow  elect,  having  first 
paid  his  subscription  i(x  the  current 
year  or  his  composition,  shall  ngn  the 
obligation  contained  in  the  Fellowship- 
book,  to  the  effect  following : — 

"  We,  who  have  underwritten  out 
"  names,  do  hereby  undertake,  each  for 
«  himself,  that  we  will  endeavour  to 
"  further  the  good  of  the  Statistical 
*'  Sodety  for  improving  Statistical 
"  Knowledge,  and  the  ends  for  which 
<'  the  same  has  been  founded;  that 
**  we  will  be  present  at  the  Meet- 
*'  ings  of  the  Sodety  as  often  as  con- 
"  veniently  we  can,  and  that  we  will 
*'  keep  and  Ailfil  the  Rules  and  Orders 
*•  of  this  Society :  provided  that  when- 
"  soever  any  one  of  us  shall  make  known, 
*'  by  writing  under  his  hand,  to  the 
**  President  for  the  time  being,  that  he 
"  denres  to  withdraw  from  the  Sodety, 
*<  he  shall  be  free  thenceforward  from 
"  this  obligation.*' 

Whereon  the  President,  taking  him 
by  the  hand,  shall  say, — **  By  the  autho' 
'*  rity  and  in  th^  tame  of  the  Statis' 
"  tical  Society  I  ao  aOm^  you  a 
•*  Fellow  thereof," 

Upon  their  admisraon  Fellows  shall 
have  the  right  of  attaching  to  their 
names  the  letters  F.S.S. 

E 


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RULES  OF   THE   STATISTICAL  SOCIETY. 


Admission  of  Honorary  Members. 

7.  There  shall  be  Two  Meetmgi  in 
the  year,  on  such  days  as  shall  be  here* 
after  fixed  by  the  Ooondl,  at  which 
Monorcuy  Members  ma,y  be  elected. 

No  Honorary  Member  can  be  recom- 
mended for  election  but  by  the  Coundl. 
Any  Member  of  the  Oomidl  may  pro- 
pose a  Foreigner  or  British  subject  of 
distinction  residing  abroad  at  any  Meet- 
ing of  the  Council,  delivering  at  the 
same  time  a  written  statement  of  the 
qnalifications,  offices  held  by,  and  pab- 
lished  works  of  the  person  proposed; 
and  ten  days'  notice  at  least  shall  be 
given  to  every  Member  of  the  Council, 
of  the  day  on  which  the  Council  will 
vote  by  bfdlot  on  the  question  whether 
they  will  recommend  the  person  pro- 
posed. No  such  recommendation  to  the 
Society  shall  be  adopted  unless  at  least 
three-fourths  of  the  votes  are  in  favour 
thereof. 

Notice  of  the  recommendation  shall 
be  given  from  the  chair  at  the  Meeting 
of  the  Society  next  preceding  that  at 
which  the  vote  shall  be  taken  thereon. 
No  person  shall  be  elected  an  Honorary 
Member  unless  sixteen  Fellows  vote  and 
three-fourths  of  the  Fellows  voting  be 
in  his  fiivonr. 

The  Council  shall  have  power  to  elect 
as  Honorary  Members,  the  President  for 
the  time  being  of  the  Statistical  Sodetiee 
of  Dublin,  Manchester,  and  Paris,  and 
the  President  of  any  other  Statistical 
Society  at  home  or  abroad. 

Payments  by  Fellows, 

8.  Every  Fellow  of  the  Society  shall  pay 
a  yearly  subscription  of  Tu^o  Guineas, 
or  may  at  any  time  compound  for  his 
future  yearly  payments  by  paying  at 
once  the  sum  of  Twenty  Ouineas.* 

Defaulters, —  Withdrawal  of 
Fellows. 

9.  All  yearly  payments  are  due  in 
advance  on  the  1st  of  January,  and  if 
any  Fellow  of  the  Society  have  not  paid 
lus  subscription  before  tiie  Ist  of  July, 
he  shall  be  applied  to  in  writing  by  the 
Secretaries,  and  if  the  same  be  not  paid 
before  the  1st  of  January  of  the  second 
year,  a  written  application  shall  again 

*  Cheques  staoold  be  made  payable  to 
Drommood  and  Co. " 


be  made  by  the  Secretaries,  and  the 
Fellow  in  arrear  shall  cease  to  receive 
the  Society's  publications,  and  shall  not 
be  entitled  to  any  of  the  privileges  of 
the  Society  until  sudi  arrears  are  paid ; 
and  if  the  subscription  be  not  dis- 
charged before  the  1st  of  February  of 
the  second  year,  the  name  of  the  Fdlow 
thus  in  arrear  shall  be  exhibited  as  a 
defaulter  on  a  card  suspended  in  the 
meeting-rooms ;  and  if,  at  the  next 
Anniversary  Meeting,  the  amount  still 
remain  unpaid,  the  defaulter  shall  be 
announced  to  be  no  longer  a  Fellow  of 
the  Sodety,  the  reason  for  the  same 
being  at  the  same  time  assigned.  No 
Fellow  of  the  Sodety  can  withdraw  his 
name  from  the  Sodety's  books,  unless 
all  arrears  be  paid ;  and  no  resignation 
will  be  deemed  valid  unless  a  written 
notice  thereof  be  communicated  to  the 
Secretaries.  No  Fellow  shall  be  entiUed 
to  vote  at  any  Meeting  of  the  Sodety 
until  he  shall  have  paid  his  subscription 
for  the  current  year. 

Expulsion  of  Fellows. 

10.  If  any  Fellow  of  the  Sodety,  or 
any  Honorary  Member,  shall  so  demean 
himself  that  it  would  be  for  the  dis- 
honour of  the  Sodety  that  he  lonser 
continue  to  be  a  Fellow  or  Member 
thereof,  the  Council  shall  take  the 
matter  into  consideration ;  and  if  the 
minority  of  the  Members  of  the  Coundl 
present  at  some  Meeting  (of  which  and 
of  the  matter  in  hand  such  Fellow  or 
Member,  and  every  Member  of  the 
Council,  shall  have  due  notice)  shall 
dedde  by  ballot  to  recommend  that  such 
Fdlow  or  Member  be  expelled  from  the 
Sodety,  the  President  shall  at  the  next 
Ordinary  Meeting  announce  to  the 
Sodety  the  recommendation  of  the 
Coundl,  and  at  the  following  Meeting 
the  question  shall  be  dedded  by  ballot, 
and  if  at  least  three-fourths  of  the 
number  voting  are  in  favour  of  the 
expulsion,  the  President  shall  forthwith 
cancel  the  name  in  the  Fellowship-book, 
and  shall  say, — 

*'  By  the  authority  and  in  the  name 
"  of  the  Statistical  Sodety,  I  do  declare 
"  that  A.  B.  (naming  him)  is  no  longer 
"  a  FeUow  (or  Honorary  Meml^) 
"  thereof." 

*Tfae  Statistical  Society,"  and  croited  "UeMn. 


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BULES  OF   THE  8TAT1BTICAL  SOCIETY. 


51 


And  raeh  Fellow  or  Honoraiy  Mem- 
ber, shall  therenpon  oease  to.be  of  tbe 
Society. 

Drustees. 

11.  The  property  of  the  Sodety  shall 
be  vested  in  three  TVwteee,  chosen  by 
the  Fellows.  The  Trostees  are  eli^ble 
to  any  other  offices  in  the  Society. 

Prmidmt^  Council^  and  Qfieers* 

12.  The  Council  shall,  independent 
of  the  Honorary  Yice-PresidentB,  con- 
sist of  thirty-one  Members,  of  whom  one 
shall  be  the  Prendent,  and  four  be  nomi- 
nated Vice-Presidents.  The  Council 
shall  be  elected  as  hereafter  provided. 
Any  five  of  the  Council  shall  be  a 
quorum.  From  the  Council  shall  be 
chosen  a  Treaeurer,  three  Seeretariee, 
and  a  Foreign  Secretary,  who  may  be 
one  of  the  Secretaries.  Six  Fellows,  at 
leiist,  who  were  not  of  the  Council  of  the 
previous  year,  shall  be  annually  elected. 

Election  of  President  and  Officers. 

13.  The  President  shall  be  chosen 
yearly  by  the  Fellows.  The  same  person 
shall  not  be  eli^ble  more  than  two 
years  in  suooession. 

The  fbrmer  Presidents  who  are  oon- 
tinuing  Fellows  of  the  Society  shall  be 
Honorary  Vioe-Presidents ;  four  Vlce- 
Preddents  shall  be  yearly  chosen  from 
the  Council  by  the  Prendent. 

Any  Honoraiy  Vice-President  may 
take  part  in  the  deliberations  of  the 
Council  on  expressing  a  wish  to  that 
effect :  and  when  attending  the  Meetings 
of  the  Council,  shall  exercise  all  the 
rights  and  powers  of  a  Member  of  the 
ConnciL 

The  Treasurer  and  Secretaries  shall 
be  chosen  yearly  by  the  Fellows  from 
the  Council. 

Election  of  CounciL 

14k  The  Council  shall,  previously  to 
the  Anniversary  Meeting,  nominate,  by 
ballot,  the  FeUowe  whom  they  reoom- 
mmut  to  be  the  next  President  and 
Council  of  the  Sodety.  They  shall  also 
recommend  ibr  election  a  Treasurer  and 
Secretaries  (in  ao(X»dance  with  Bule 
12),  Kotioe  shall  be  sent  to  every 
Fellow  whose  reddence  is  known  to  be 
withm  the  limits  of  the  metropolitan 
post,  at  least  a  fortnight  before  the 


Anniversary  Meeting,,  of  the  names  of 
Fellows  recommended  by  the  Council. 

Extraordinary  Vacandet. 

15.  On  Knj  extraordinary  fxicaney  ot 
the  Office  of  the  President,  or  other 
Officer  of  the  Sodety,  or  in  the  Council, 
the  Secretaries  shall  summon  the 
Council  with  as  little  delay  as  posdble 
and  a  majority  of  the  Coundl,  thereupon 
meeting  in  their  usual  place,  shall,  by 
ballot,  and  by  a  majority  of  those  pre- 
sent, choose  a  new  Preddent,  or  other 
Officer  of  the  Sodety,  or  Member  of  the 
Council,  to  be  so  until  the  next  Anni- 
versary Meeting. 

Committees. 

16.  The  Coundl  shall  have  power  to 
appoint  CommiHees  ef  Fellows  and 
abo  an  Executive  Committee  of  their 
own  body.  The  Committees  shall  report 
their  proceedings  to  the  Coundl.  No 
report  shall  be  communicated  to  the 
Society  which  is  not  approved  by  the 
CouncdL 

Meetings  Ordinary  and  Anniversary, 

17.  The  Ordinary  Meetings  oi  the 
Sodety  shall  be  monthly,  or  oftencr, 
during  the  Sesdon,  which  shall  be  from 
the  1st  of  November  to  the  1st  of  July, 
both  indudve,  on  such  days  and  at 
such  hours  as  the  Council  shall  declare. 
The  Anniversary  Meeting  shall  be  hdd 
on  such  day  in  June  of  each  year  as 
shall  be  appointed  by  the  Council  for 
the  time  being. 

Business  of  Ordinary  Meetings. 

18.  The  business  of  the  Ordinary 
Meetings  shall  be  to  admit  Fellows,  to 
read  and  hear  reports,  letters,  and 
papers  on  subjects  interesting  to  the 
Sodety.  NotUng  relating  to  the  rules 
or  management  of  the  Society  shall  be 
(Uscussed  at  the  Ordinary  Meetings, 
except  that  the  Auditor^  Report  sluill 
be  recdved  at  the  Ordinary  Meeting  in 
February,  and  that  the  Minutes  of  the 
Anniversary  Meeting,  and  of  every 
Special  General  Meeting,  shaU  be  con- 
firmed at  tiie  next  Ordinary  Meeting 
after  the  day  of  such  Anniversary  or 
Special  Qeneral  Meeting.  Strangers 
may  be    introduced  to  tho   Ordinary 

e2 


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RULES  OF   THE  STATISTICAL   SOCIETY. 


Meetings,  by  any  Fellow,  with  the  leave 
of  the  Prendent,  Vice  -  Preaident,  or 
other  Fellow  presiding  at  the  Meeting. 

Business  of  Anniversofy  MeeUng. 

19.  The  business  of  the  Anniversary 
Meeting  shall  be  to  elect  the  Officers  of 
the  Society,  and  to  discuss  questions  on 
its  rules  and  management.  No  FeUows 
or  Honorary  Members  shall  be  propooea 
or  admitted  at  the  Anniversary  Meeting. 
No  Fellow  shall  moot  any  question  on 
the  rules  or  management  of  the  Society 
at  the  Anniversary  Meeting,  unless  after 
three  weeW  notice  thereof  given  to  the 
Council,  but  amendments  to  any  motion 
may  be  brought  forward  without  notice, 
so  that  they  relate  to  the  same  subject 
of  motion.  The  Council  shall  give 
fourteen  days'  notice  to  every  Fellow  of 
all  questions  of  which  such  notice  shall 
have  been  given  to  them. 

Special  General  Meetings, 

20.  The  Council  may,  at  any  time, 
call  a  Special  Chnerdl  Meeting  of  the 
Society  when  it  appears  to  them  neces- 
sary. Any  ten  Fellows  may  require  a 
Spedal  General  Meeting  to  be  called,  by 
notice  in  writing  signed  by  them,  deli- 
vered to  one  of  the  Secretaries  at  an 
Ordinary  Meeting,  specifying  the  ques- 
tions to  be  moved.  Tlie  Council  shall, 
withm  one  week  of  such  notice,  appoint 
a  day  for  such  Special  General  Meeting, 
and  shall  g^ve  one  week's  notice  of  every 
Special  General  Meeting,  and  of  the 
questions  to  be  moved,  to  every  Fellow 
within  the  limits  of  tlie  metropolitan 
post,  whose  residence  is  known.  No 
business  shall  be  brought  forward  at  any 
Special  General  Meeting  other  than  that 
specified  in  the  notice  for  the  same. 

Auditors, 

21.  At  i\ie  first  Ordinary  Meeting 
of  each  year,  the  Fellows  shall  choose 
two  Auditors,  not  of  the  Council,  who, 
with  one  of  the  Council,  chosen  by  the 
Council,  shall  audit  the  Treasurer's 
accounts,  and  report  thereon  to  the 
Society,  which  report  shall  be  presented 
at  the  Ordinary  Meeting  in  February. 
The  Auditors  shall  be  empowered  to 
examme  into  the  particulars  of  all 
expenditure  of  the  funds  of  the  Society 


where  they  shall  see  occasion,  and  may 
report  the^  opinion  upon  any  part  of  it. 

Duties  of  the  President. 

22.  The  President  shall  preside  at  all 
Meetings  of  the  Society,  Council,  and 
Committees,  which  he  doall  attend,  and 
in  case  of  an  equality  of  votes,  shall 
have  a  second  or  casting  vote.  He  shall 
sign  alldiplomasof  admission  of  Honoraiy 
Members.  He  shall  admit  and  expel 
Fellows  and  Honorary  Members,  accord- 
ing to  the  rules  of  the  Sodety. 

Duties  of  the  Treasurer. 

28.  The  Treasurer  shall  receive  all 
moneys  due  to,  and  pay  all  moneys  doe 
from,  the  Sodety,  and  shall  keep  an 
account  of  his  receipts  and  payments. 
No  sum  exceeding  Ten  Pounds  shall  be 
paid  but  by  order  of  the  Coundl,  except- 
ing always  any  lawfVil  demand  tor  rates 
or  taxes.  He  shall  invest  the  moneys 
of  the  Sodety  in  such  manner  as  the 
Council  shall  fh>m  time  to  time  direct. 

Duties  of  the  Secretaries. 

24.  The  Secretaries  shall,  under  the 
control  of  the  Council,  conduct  the  cor- 
respondence of  the  Sodety ;  they  or  one 
of  them  shall  attend  all  Meetings  of  the 
Sodety  and  Coundl,  and  shall  have  the 
care  of  duly  recording  the  Minutes 
of  the  Proceedings.  They  shall  issoe 
the  requisite  notices,  and  read  such 
papers  to  the  Sodety  as  the  Council 
may  direct. 

Powers  of  the  Vice-Presidents. 

25.  A  Vice -President,  whether 
Honorary  or  nominated,  in  the  chair, 
shall  act  with  the  power  of  the  Pre- 
sident, in  presiding  and  voting  at  any 
Meeting  of  the  Society  or  Council,  and 
in  admitting  Fellows;  but  no  Vice- 
President  shall  be  empowered  to  sign 
diplomas  of  admission  of  Honorary  Mem- 
bears,  or  to  expel  Fellows.  In  the 
absence  of  the  President  and  Vice-Pre- 
sidents, any  Fellow  of  the  Society  may 
be  called  upon,  by  the  Fellows  then 
present,  to  preside  at  an  Ordinary  Meet- 
ing. The  Fellow  so  presiding  may 
admit  Fellows,  but  shall  not  be  em- 
powered to  act  otherwise  as  resident, 
or  Vice-President. 


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53 


Powers  of  the  CounciL 

26.  The  Council  shall  have  control 
over  the  papers  and  funds  of  the  So- 
ciety, and  may,  as  they  shall  see  fit, 
<fireot  the  publication  of  papers  and 
the  expenditure  of  the  funds,  so,  that 
they  shall  not  at  any  time  contract 
engagements  on  the  part  of  the  Sodety 
beyond  the  amount  of  the  balance  that 
would  be  at  that  time  in  the  Treasurer's 
hands,  if  all  pre-existing  debts  and 
liabilities  had  been  satisfied. 

27.  The  Council  shall  be  empowered 
at  any  time  to  frame  SeguU^iom  not 
inconsistent  with  these  rules,  which 
shall  be,  and  remain  in  force  until  the 
next  Anniversary  Meeting  at  which 
they  shall  be  either  affirmed  or  annulled ; 
but  no  Council  shall  have  power  to 
renew    Regulations   which   have   once 


been    disapproved    at    an   Anniversary 
Meeting. 

28.  Ko  Dividend,  Gift,  Division,  or 
Bonus  in  money  shall  be  made  by  the 
Society,  unto  or  between  any  of  the 
Fellows  or  Members,  except  as  herein- 
after provided. 

29.  The  Council  shall  publish  a 
Journal  of  the  Transactions  of  the 
Society,  and  such  other  Statistical  Pub- 
lications, as  they  may  determine  upon, 
and  may  from  time  to  time  pay  such 
sums  to  Editors  and  their  assistants, 
whether  Fellows  of  the  Society  or  not^ 
as  may  be  deemed  advisable. 

SO.  All  communications  to  the  Sode^ 
are  the  property  of  the  Society,  unless 
the  Council  allow  the  right  of  property 
to  be  specially  reserved  by  the  Con- 
tributors. 


REGUUTIONS  OF  THE  LIBRARY. 


1.  The  Library  is  open  daily  from  10  a.m.  till  5  p.m.,  except  on 
Saturdays,  when  it  closes  at  2  p.m. ;  and  it  is  entirely  closed  during 
the  month  of  September. 

2.  Members  of  the  Society  are  permitted  to  take  out  Books  on 
making  personal  application,  or  by  letter  addressed  to  the  Librarian. 

3.  Members  are  not  to  have  more  than  two  works  at  a  time,  nor 
keep  any  books  longer  than  a  month. 

4.  Scientific  Journals  and  Periodicals  are  not  circulated  until  the 
volumes  are  completed  and  bound. 

5.  GydopflBdias  and  works  of  reference  are  not  curculated. 

6.  Any  Member  damaging  a  book,  either  replaces  the  work,  or 
pays  a  fine  equivalent  to  its  value. 

7.  Books  taken  from  the  shelves  for  reference,  are  not  to  be 
replaced,  but  must  be  laid  on  the  Library  table. 

8.  The  Secretary  shall  report  to  the  Council  any  infrmgement 
of  these  regulations. 


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54 


DONORS  TO  THE  LIBRARY. 

DxmiKG  XHB  Ykae  1880. 


Foreign  Covnfries. 

Ai^ntine 

Confedera- 

Italy. 

The  States  of— 

tion. 

Japan. 

Austria  and  Hungary 

Netherlands,  The. 

Iowa. 

Bavaria. 

Prussia. 

Kansas. 

Belgium. 

Eoumania. 

Massachusetts. 

China. 

Bussia. 

Michigan. 

Denmark. 

Saxony. 

New  York. 

Egypt. 

Sweden  and  Norway. 

Ohia 

France. 

The  United  States  of 

Fenusylvaftia. 

America. 

Rhode  Island. 

Greece. 

Indiany 

ITruguay. 

Wisconsin. 

Colonial^  and  other  Fossesstons, 

Bengal. 

Jamaica. 

Queensland. 

Canada. 

Mauritius. 

South  Australia. 

Cape  of  Good  Hope. 

New  South  Wales. 

Tasmania. 

India  (British). 

New  Zealand. 

Victoria. 

Public  Departments. 


The  Admiralty. 

Army  Medical  Department. 

Board  of  Trade. 

Convict  Prisons,  Directors  of. 

Factories,  Inspectors  of. 

Fire  Brigade,  Metropolitan. 

Friendly  Societies,  Registrar  of. 

Home  Office 

India  Office. 

Local  Government  Board. 


The  Naval  Medical  Department 
„    Museum  of  Practical  Geology. 
„    Police,  Dublin  Metropolitan. 
„    Police,  London  Metropolitan. 
„    Post  Office. 
„    Begistrar-G^neral  of  England. 

„  „  Ireland. 

„  „  „  Scotland. 

„    Tithe  CommissionerB. 
M    Warden  of  Standards. 


Abdur  Rahman,  Syud,  Esq. 

Academy  of  Natural  Sciences,  Phi- 
ladelphia, U.  S.  A. 

Actuaries,  The  Institute  of,  London, 

Adelaide  Philosophical  Society. 

Agriculture,  Central  Chamber  of. 

Allen,  Messrs.  W.  H.  &  Co.,  London. 

American  Academy  of  Arts  and 
Sciences,  Boston. 

American  Geographical  Society  of 
New  York. 


American  Philosophical  Society  of 

Philadelphia. 
American    Statistioal    Associationy 

Boston,  Mass. 
Amici,  F.  Bey,  Egypt 
Annand,  W.,  Esq.,  London. 
Ansell,  C,  Esq.,  junr. 
Arts,  Society  of. 
Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal. 
„  „  Japan. 

Astor  Library,  New  York  U.  S.  A. 


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DONORS  TO  THB   LIBBABT. 


56 


During  the  Year  1880 — CoiUinued. 


Athenffium,  The  Editor  of. 
Atkinson,  E.,  Esq.,  Boston,  U.S.A. 
Austrian   Central  Statistical  Com- 

miBsion. 
Austrian  Consul-General,  London. 

Bain,  A.  Bryce,  Esq. 

Baker,  Dr.  H.  B.,  Lansing,  U.S.A. 

Bankers'  Institute,  London. 
„  Magazine,  London. 
„  „         New  York. 

Bany,  Dr.  F.  W.,  Cyprus. 

Bavaria^  Eojal  Bureau  of  Statistics. 

Beddoe,  Dr.  J.,  F.RS.,  Bristol 

Behm,  Herr  G.,  Berlin. 

Belgiiun,  Academy,  Boyal. 
„        Minister  of  Interior. 

Berg,  Dr.  F.  T.,  Stockholm. 

Berlin,  Statistical  Bureau  of. 

Bevan,  G.  P.,  Esq.,  London. 

Bik61as,  D.,  Esq.,  Athens. 

Birch,  J.  W.,  Esq.,  London. 

Birmingham  Free  Public  Libraries. 

Blackley,  Rev.  W.  L.,  London. 

Boccardo,  Professor  G.,  Italy. 

Boddy,  E.  M.,  Esq.,  F.RC.s!,  F.S.S. 

BOckh,  Herr,  Berlin. 

Bodio,  Professor  Luigi,  Borne. 

BOhmert,  Dr.  V.,  Dresden. 
Boothby,  J.,  Esq.,  C.M.G.,  South 

Australia. 
Boflchkemper,  G.,  Esq.,  Holland. 
Bourne,  Stephen,  Esq.,  F.S.S. 
Bowditch,  H.  J.,  Esq.,  Boston. 
Brachelli,  Dr.  H.  F.,  Vienna. 
Braasey,  T.,  M,P. 
British  Association,  The. 
Brown,  Sevellor  A,  Esq.,  Washing- 
ton, P.S.A. 
Bruton,  Leonard,  Esq.,  Bristol. 
Budapest,  Chamber  of  Conmierce. 

„         Statistical  Bureau. 
Buenos  Ayres,  Statistic^  Bureau  of. 
Bunso  Kurd,  Mr.,  Japan, 
^u^eau  des  Longitudes,  Paris. 


Cape  of  (Jood  Hope,  The  Colonial 
Secretary  of. 

Capital  and  Labour,  The  Editor  of. 

Centennial  Commission,  1876,U.S.A. 

Chambers  of  Commerce,  The  Asso- 
ciated. 

Chervin,  Dr.  A.,  of  Paris. 

China,  The  Inspector-General  of 
Chinese  Maritime  Customs. 

Civil  Engineers,  Institution  of. 

Cobden  Club,  the  Committee  of. 

Collins,  J.  Wright,  Esq.,  J.P.,  Falk- 
land Islands. 

Commercial  World,  The  Editor  of. 

Coni,  Dr.  E.  R,  Buenos  Ayres. 

Cornish,  Surgeon-Major  W.  R, 
F.RC.a,  &c 

Courtney,  J.  M.,  Esq.,  Canada. 

Craigie,  Maj(»*  P.  G.,  London. 

Danvers,  Juland,  Esq.,  London. 

Deloche,  M.,  Paris. 

Denmark,  Statistical  Bureau  of. 

„         Political  Economy  Soc 
Dent,  W.  T.,  Esq.,  Yoj*. 
Dillon,  M.,  Esq.,  Lcmdon. 
Dodge,  J.  R  Esq.,  Washington. 
Doyle,  Patrick,  Esq.,  C.E. 
Dublin,  Chief  Com.  of  Police. 
Du  Cane,  Colonel  E.  F,  C.B. 
Dun,  John,  Esq.,  F.S.S. 
Duncan,  W.  J.,  Esq.,  Edinburgh. 
Durham  University  College  of  Medi- 
cine. 

East  India  Association,  London. 
Eccentric  Club,  Author  of  the. 
Economist,  The  Editor  of. 
Economiste  Fran^ais,  The  Editoi  of. 
Edinburgh,  The  City  Chamberlain. 

„  Boyal  Society  of. 

EgyP*>  Ministry  of  tl^e  Interior. 
Ellison  &  Co.,  MessrsL,  UverpooL 
Engel,  Dr.  Ernest,  Berlin. 


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DONOB8  TO  THE  LIBRAUT. 


During  the  Year  ISSO^ContinuecL 


Fearer,  John,  Esq.,  Liverpool 
Ficker,  Dr.  Adolf,  Vienna. 
Finance  Chronicle,  The  Editor  of. 
Fleming,  William,  Esq. 
Foville,  M.  A.  de,  Paris. 
France,  H.  £.  Minister  of  Agricul- 
ture and  Commerce. 
France,  H.  E.  Minister  of  Finance. 
.,  „  Justice. 

Public 
Instruction. 
Public 
Works. 
Frankfort-on-M.,  G^graphical  and 
Statistical  Soc. 
„  Medical  Society. 

Frankland,  F.  W.,  Esq.,  N.  Zealand. 
Franklin  Institute,  Philadelphia. 
Friendly  Societies,  The  Registrar  of. 

Germany,  Imperial  Statistical  Office. 
German  Consul-C^eral,  London. 
Giflfen,  Robert,  Esq.,  F.S.S. 
Glasgow,  Philosophical  Society  of. 

„         Sanitary  Department. 

„         Unemployed  Relief  Fund 
Committee. 

„         United  Trades'  Council. 
Guy,  Dr.  W.  A,,  F.RS.,  &c 

Hall,  E.  Swarbreck,  Esq.,  M.R.C.S., 
Tasmania. 

Hamburg,  Chamber  of  Conmierce. 
„         Sanitary  Bureau  of. 
„         Statistical  Bureau  of. 

Hancock,  Dr.  W.  N.,  Dublin. 

Harrison  &  Sons,  Messrs.,  London. 

Hart,  R,  Esq.,  Shanghai 

Hayter,  H.  H.,  Esq.,  Melbourne. 

Hector,  James,  Esq.,   M.D.,  Wel- 
lington. 

Hedley,  F.  T.,  Esq.,  F.S.S. 

Henry,  James,  The  Trustees  of. 

Hill,  Chas.  S.,  Esq.,  Washington. 

HiU,  Sir  Rowland,  his  Family. 


Historic  Society  of  Lancashire  and 

Cheshire. 
Howard  Association,  London. 
Hoyle,  William,  Esq. 
Hubbe-Schleiden,  D.  J.  W.,  Ham- 

bui^. 
Hungary,  Ministry  for  Religion  and 
Education. 
„  Statistical  Bureau  of. 

Illinois,  Bureau  of  Statistics. 
India,   The  Superintendent  of  the 

Government  Printing  of. 
Indiana,  Department  of  Statistics 

and  Geology. 
Ingall,  W.  T.  F.  M.,  Esq.,  F.S.a 
Insurance  Gazette,  The  Editor  of. 
„        Record,  The  Editor  of. 
„         World,  The  Editor  of. 
Investors'  Monthly    Manual,   The 

Editor  of. 
Ireland,     Statistical     and     Social 

Inquiry  Society  of. 
Iron  and  Coal  Trades'  Review,  Tlie 

Editor  of. 
Italian  Legation,  London,  The. 
Italy,  Director  General  of  Statistics. 

„     Hygienic  Society,  Milan. 

Jamaica,  The  Registrar-General 
Janssens,  Dr.  E.,  Brussels. 
Japan,  Statistical  Office,  Tokio. 
Jarvis,  Dr.  E.,  Dorchester,  Mass. 
Jenkins,  F.  L,  Esq.,  Brooklyn,  New 

York. 
Jevons,  Prof.  W.  Stanley,  F.RS. 
Johnston,  Messrs.  W.  and  A.  K 

London. 
Jordan,  Henry,  Esq.,  Brisbane. 
Jourdan,  Miss  Beatrice  A.,  London. 

Keleti,  Chas.,  Esq.,  Budapest. 
Kelly,  Dr.,  Worthing. 
Kennedy,  J.  C.  G.,  Esq.,  Washing- 
ton. U.S.A. 


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57 


During  the  Year  1880 — Continued, 


King's  College,  London. 
Knox,  John  Jay,  Esq.,  Washington. 
Koroei,  Joseph,  Budapest. 
Kyshe,  J.  B.,  Esq.,  Mauritius. 

Labourers'  Friend,  The  Editor  of. 
Labouring  Classes,  Society  for  Im- 
proving the. 
Layton,  Messrs.  C.  and  E.,  London. 
Levaaseur,  M.  E.,  Paris. 
Lisboa,  Geographical  Society  of. 
Liverpool,  Lit  and  Phil.  Society. 
Lloyds,  The  Committee  of. 
Local  Taxation  Committee. 
London  Hospital,  The  Secretary. 
Longman  and  Co.,  Messrs.,  London. 
Lovely,  William,  Esq.,  RN.,  London. 
Ludlow,  N.  M.,  Esq.,  London. 

Machinery  Market,  Editor  of. 
Macmillan  and  Co.,  Messrs.,  London. 
Madrid,  Geographical  Society  of. 
„        Listitute  of  Geography  and 
Statistics. 
Mallet,  Sir  Louis. 

Manchester    Literary   and    Philo- 
sophical Society. 
„         Public  Free  Libraries. 
„         Statistical  Society. 
Maasachusetts^    Board   of   Health, 
Lunacy,      and 
Charity. 
„  Bureau  of  Statistics 

of  Labor. 
Mauritius,  Governor-General  of. 
„         Editor  of  Almanac  and 
Colonial  Begister  of. 
Mayr,  Dr.  George,  Munich. 
Mechanical     Engineers,      Listitu- 

tion  of. 
Medical  Herald,  Louisville,  U.aA., 

The  Editor  of. 
Mercator,  Ernst,  Esq.,  Frankfort 
Moldenhawer,  J.  Esq. 
Morselli,  Prof.  E.,  Italy. 


Moss,  Messrs.  J.,  and  Co. 
Mosser,  Francois,  Esq. 
Mouat,  Dr.  F.  J.,  F.RC.S. 
Mulhall,  M.  G.,  Esq.,  London. 

Nanson,  Prof.  E.  J.,  Melbourne. 

National    Union    of    Elementary 
Teachers. 

Nature,  The  Editor  of,  London. 

Nelson,  F.  G.  P.,  Esq.,  London. 

New  York,  Trustees  of  the  Cooper 
Union. 

Netherlands  Consul  at  Liverpool. 
„  Legation,  London. 

„  Minister  of  the  Interior. 

„  Statistical  Society  of. 

Neumann-Spallart,    Dr.  Fr.  Xav., 
Vienna. 

Newcome,  F.  N.,  Esq. 

NewSouth  Wales,  Agent-Generalfor 
n  Registrar-General. 

New  York  State  Library. 

New  Zealand,  Registrar-General 

Nimmo,  Joseph,  Esq.,  junr.,  Wash- 
ington. 

Noble,  B.,  Esq.,  London. 

Novellis,  Signer  A. 

Norway,  Central  Statistical  Bureau. 

Nowell,  E.  C,  Esq.,  Tasmania. 

Ohio,  Secretary  of  State. 

Paris,  Statistical  Society  of. 
Parker,  J.,  Esq.,  Worcester. 
Perozzo,  Luigi,  Esq.,  Rome. 
Petersen,  Aleksis,  Esq.  Copenhagen. 
Portugal,     Consul  -  General    for, 

London. 
Poznanski,  Joseph. 
Praagh,  W.  van,  Esq. 
Prague,  Statistical  Commission  of. 
Prinsep,  C.  C,  Esq.,  London. 
Prussia,  Royal  Statistical  Bureau  of. 
Purdy,  F.,  Esq.,  F.S.S.,  London. 


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58 


DONORS  TO  THE  UBRART. 


During  the  Year  1880 — Continued. 


Queensland,  Begistrar-General  of. 

Baikes,  Captain  G.  A. 
BailwajB,  Society  for  the  Admini- 
stration of  German. 
Bavenstein,  E.  G.,  Esq.,  London. 
Redgrave,  A.  Esq.,  a  B.,  F.S.S. 
Beeve,  Dr.  J.  T.  Madison,  Wisconsin. 
Beid,  G.  H.,  Esq.,  Sydney. 
Beid,  H.  L.,  Esq. 
Beview,  The  Editor  of. 
B6yue  Bibliographique  Unirerselle, 

The  Eiitor  of,  Paris. 
B^Yue  Geographiqne  Internationale, 

The  Editor  of,  Paris. 
Bivista  Enropea,  The  Editor  of. 
Bobinson,  Sir  W.  R 
Borne,  Giunta  Centrale  de  Statistdca. 
Both,  H.  L.,  Esq.,  Brisbane. 
Boumania,  Central  Statistical  Office. 
Boyal  Agricnltoral  Society. 

„     Asiatic  Society. 

„        „        „    Bombay    Branch. 
„         „    North  China   „ 

„     Colonial  Institute. 

„     Geographical  Society. 

„     Institution. 

„     Irish  Academy. 

„     Med.  and  Chirurgical  Socwty. 

„     Society. 

„     United  Service  Institotiou. 
Bussell,  Dr.  J.  B.,  Glasgow. 
Bussia,  Imp.  Geographical  Society. 

St.  Bartholomew's  Hospital,  London. 
St.  Thomas's  Hospital,  London. 
San  Francisco,  Mercantile  Library 

Association. 
Saxony,  Boyal  Statistical  Bureau  of. 
School  Board  for  London. 
Semenow,  H.  E.,  Mons.  P.  de. 
Shaw,  Capt  E.  M.,  C3.,  London. 
Slaughter,  Mihill,  Esq.,  F.S.S. 
Smith,  Dr.  George,  Edinburgh. 
Smith,  Colonel  J.  T.,  London. 


Smithsonian  Institution,  U.  S.  A. 
Snow,  Dr.  E.  M.,  U.S.  A 
Social  Science  Association. 
Sonnenschein,  W.  Swan,  Esq. 
South  Australia,  Agent  General  for. 

„  „         Chief  Secretary  of. 

South  Australian  Institute. 
Stark,  W.  E.,  Esq.,  London. 
Statist,  The  Editor  of. 
Sterne,  Simon,  Esq.,  London. 
Stott,  John,  Esq.,  London. 
Street  Bros.,  Messrs.,  London. 
Surveyors,  The  Institution  of. 
Sutton,  E.,  Esq.,  London. 
Sweden,  Central  Statistical  Bureau. 
Sweet,  E.  F.,  Esq. 
Switzerland,     Federal     Statistical 

Bureau. 

Tasmania,  The  Government  Statist 
„  The  Begistrar-G^eral  of. 
„        Boyal  Society  of. 

Tayler,  Mrs.  N.,  F.S.8. 

Textile  Manufacturer,  Editor  of. 

Thubron,  Bobert,  Esq. 

Torenos,  The  Count  of,  Spain. 

Trtibner  &  Co.,  Messrs.,  London. 

Tupp,  A.  C,  Esq.,  Madras. 

Tyne  Improvement  Commissioners. 

United  States,  Agric.  Department 
^  „      Bureau  of  Statistics. 

,y         ,y      Commr.of  Education. 
„  „      Con^tr.  of  Currency. 

„         „      Kaval  Observatory. 
„         yy      Surgeon -General  of 
the  Marine  Hospital 
Service. 
„  „      Treasury,SeG,  of  the. 

Universal  Engineer,  Editor  of, 
University  College,  London. 
Uruguay,  The  DirectoratorGeiieral 
of  Statistics. 

Yaillant,  M.,  Montevideo. 
Van  den  Berg,  N.  P.,  Esq. 


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59 


During  the  Tear  1S80— Continued. 


Van  Senten,  H.  S.,  Esq.,  Liverpool. 
Yarrentrapp,  Dr.  G.,  MunicL 
Vess^lovaky,  A.,  Esq.,  St.  Peters- 
burg. 
Victoria,  Agent-Qeneral  for,  London. 

„        Chief  Secretary. 

„        Govemment  Statist. 

„       Minister  of  Mines. 

„        Eegistrar-General  of. 

„        Boyal  Society  of. 
Vine,  J.  R  Somers,  Esq.,  F.S.S. 

Wagner,  Prof.  H. 
Walker,  Prof.  F.  A. 
Walras,  L6on,  Esq. 


Wandsworth  District  Board  of 
Works. 

Watson,  W.  W.,  Esq.,  Glasgow. 

Weeks,  J.  D.,  Esq.,  U.  S.  A. 

Wells,  The  Hon.  David  A.,  U.  S.  A 

Western,  The  Editor  of,  St  Louis, 
U.S.  A. 

Westgarth,  W.,  Esq.,  London. 

Westminster  Free  Public  Libraries. 

White,  William,  Esq. 

Williams,  R  Price,  Esq.,  London. 

Wilson,  Effingham,  Esq. 

Wolverhampton  Chamber  of  Com- 
merce. 

Wright,  C.  D.,  Esq.,  Boston,  Mass. 


Reprinted  from  the  Journal  of  the  Statistical  Society  for  1851,  Prioe  1«., 
with  a  Preface  and  Notes. 

STATISTICS 

OT    THE 

FARM    SCHOOL    SYSTEM 

OT    THE 

CONTINENT, 

AND  OF  ITS  APPLICABILITT  TO  THE 

PREYENTIYE  AND  REFORMATORY  EDUCATION 


PAUPER  AND  CRIMINAL  CHILDREN  IN  ENGLAND. 
By  the  latb  JOSEPH  FLETCHER,  Esq., 

BAftUSTSE^AT-LAW,  HOROmAKT  SSCRRAKT. 

LONDON:  E.  STANFORD,  S6,  CHABING  CROSS,  S.W. 


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60 

JOURNAL  OF  THE  STATISTICAL  SOCIETY. 

COST  OP  A  COMPLETE  SET  (if  not  out  of  print). 
1838-80.    (43  Vols.,  unbound.) 

Vol.    1.     (1838.)    9  Numbcrt  at  U.  6rf - 

Vol.  II.     (1839.)     3  Numbers  at  1«.  6<i.  and  3  Paru  at  2«.  ^d - 

Vols.  Ill— XI.     (1840-48.)     9  vols.      10« 4 

Vol.  XII.     (1849.)     Including  a  double  number - 

Vols.  XIII— XIX.    (1850-56.)     7  fols.  at  10# 3 

Vol.  XX.     (1857.)     - 

Vol.  XXI.     (1858.)    « - 

Vol  XXII.     (1859.) ' 

Vol.  XXIII.     (1860.)    - 

Vols.  XXIV— XXV.     (1861-62.)    2  vols,  at  15# 1 

Vols.  XXVI— XXVII.    (1863-64.)     2  vols,  at  14# 1 

Vol.  XXVIII.    (1865.)    - 

Vol.  XXIX.    (1866.)    - 

Vol.  XXX.     (1867.) - 

Vol.  XXXI.     (1868.)    - 

Vol.  XXXII.     (1869.)  - 

Vol.  XXXIII.    (1870.)    ..« 

Vol.  XXXIV.     (1871.)    

Vol  XXXV.     (1872.)  

Vol.  XXXVI.    (1873.) 

Vol.  XXXVII.     (1874.)    

VoLXXXVin.    (1875.) 

Vol.  XXXIX    (1876.) 

Vol.  XL.    (1877.) 

Vol.  XLI.    (1878.)    

Vol.  XLII.    (1879.) 

VoLXLin.    (1880.) 

General  Analytical  Indexes:— 

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„      Ten  Volumes  (1853-62)   -   3   6 

a863.72)    '36 

i:80  15    6 


«. 

d. 

13 

6 

12 

- 

10 

. 

12 

6 

10 

- 

11 

- 

12 

- 

11 

6 

13 

- 

10 

- 

8 

- 

17 

6 

15 

6 

19 

- 

15 

6 

14 

- 

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The  following  is  a  List  of  some  of  the  Odd  Volumes,  Numbers, 
or  Parts,  &c.,  wanting  to  complete  Sets : 

DonaHon*  of  any  portion  thereof  will  be  acceptable,  and  will  be  acknowledged 
by  the  Society,    [Dates  and  Numbers  in  all  cases  are  inolusiye.] 

Association    of   the    Chambebs   of  Commerce    of   the    United 

Kingdom,  Annual  Reports  of.     2,  3,  and  6.     (1862-63,  and 

1866.) 
Athen-bum.     The  first  seven  volumes.     1827-34. 
Bankers'  Magazine.     New  York.     Series  3,  Vol.  ii,  No.  7  (1868)  ; 

Vol.  V,  No.  2  (1870) ;  Vol.  vii,  Nos.  5  and  7  (1872),  and  Vol.  viii, 

No.  6  (1873). 
Census  op  Berab.    1872. 
Census  of  Coorg.    1872. 
Central  Chamber  of  Agriculture,  Annual  Reports,  Nos.  1  and  2, 

for  (1866-67). 

COMPTB    Q^N^RAL    DE    L' ADMINISTRATION    DB    LA    JUSTICB    CiVlLE    ET 
COMMERCIALE    EN    FRANCE    PENDANT    LES  AnN^ES    1862,   1872,    et 

1873. 

COMPTR    Q^N^RAL    DB   l' ADMINISTRATION.  DE    LA   JUSTICE   CrIMINELLE 

EN  France  pendant  lbs  Annbes  1862,  1872,  et  1873. 
Economist.     The  first  three  volumes.     1843-45. 
EcoNOMiSTB  FRAN9AIS,  Ann6e  6,  Nos.  51  and  52,  and  Analytical  Table 

of  Contents  of  Vol.  ii  (1878);  Ann6e  7,  Vol.  i,  and  Nos.  1—50 

of  Vol.  ii  (1879);  Ann6e  8,  the  Analytical  Table  of  Contents  to 

Vol.  i  (1880). 
Hunt's  Merchants'  Magazine.     (New  York.)    Vols,  i  to  xii,  and 

XV  to  xxvi. 
Investors'  Monthly  Manual.    First  three  volumes.    1871-73. 
Labourer's  Friend.    Nos.  230  (1869)  and  231  (1870). 
Liverpool  Literart  and  Philosophical  Society,  Proceedings  of. 

Nos.  1—5,  1844-45  to  1848-49. 
Manchester  Statistical  Society.    Transactions  for  1854-55. 
BivisTA  Europea,  Rivista  Internazionalb.      New  series.      Vols,  i 

to  iii,  and  Fasc.  1  of  Vol.  iv  (1877). 
Royal  Society,  London.    Indexes  to  the  Philosophical  Transac- 
tions.   4to.     Parts  I,  II,  and  III. 
Royal  Society,  London.    Catalogue  of  Scientific  Papers.   Vols. 

i  to  viii.     4to. 
Royal  Society  of  Edinburgh,  Proceedings  of.    Vols,  i  and  ii. 
Royal  Society  of  VicrroRU,  Transactions  of.    Vol.  v. 
Royal  Asutic  Society,  Journal.    Vol.  xiv  (1853-54). 
Staatkundig    en    Staathuishoudkundig   Jaarboekjb    voor    1849. 

(First  year.) 
SuRTEES  Society.    Vols,  i  to  xxv,  xxvii  to  xxzii,  and  xxxiv. 
Tableaux  Q^n^raux  du  Commerce  de  la  Francb,  <fec.,  pendant  les 

AnnISes  1846,  1847,  1850,  et  1868  k  1876. 
The  Times,  from  1845-63  and  1869-74. 


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paid  out  of  such  part  of  my  personal  estate,  not  specifically 
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JOURNAL 


OV  THX 


STATISTICAL  SOCIETY. 


(jfMnirA  1834.) 


Vol.   XLIIL— Part  I. 
MARCH.  1880. 


LONDON: 
EDWABD  STANFORD,  66,   OHAEING  CttOSS,  S.W. 

1880. 

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STATISTICAL  SOCIETY. 


HIS  BOTAL  HIGHNESS   THE   PRINCE  OF  WALES,  K.a. 


COUNCIL    AND     0  F  F I C  E  R  S.— 1879-80. 

(havmff  fitted  the  Office  qf  PreeidenC). 


The  Bight  Honoitbablb  The  Easl  op 

Shaptbbbubt,  K.Q-.,  D.C.L. 
The  Bight  HoKOxmABLB  The  Eabl  of 

Habeowbt,  K.G.,  D.O.L. 
The   Bight   Honovbable   The    Lobd 

Ovbestoke,  M.A.,  F.B.a.8. 
The  Bight  Hoeottbablb  Tee  Sabl  or 

Debbt,  D.C.L.,  F.B.S. 
The   Bight   Honoubable    The   Lobd 

Hampton,  M.A.,  a.C.B.,  D.C.L. 


LOKD 


The    Bight  Hovottbable  The 

Houghton,  D.O.L.,  F.B.S. 
William  Newmaboh,  Bsq.,  F.B.8.,  F.I.A. 

(Corr.  Member  Inst,  of  France). 
Wm.  Fabb,  Esq.,  M.D.,   C.B.,  D.C.L., 

F.BS.  (Corr.  Member  Inst,  of  France). 
William  A.  Gut,  Esq.,  M.B.,  FJLC.P., 

F.B.S. 
Jambs   Hetwood,  Esq.,  M.A.,   F.Bil., 

F.a.8.,  Ac. 


Geobgb  Shaw-Lbfeybe,  Esq.,  M.P. 

THOMAS  BBASSEY,  ESQ.,  M.P. 

F.  J.  Mouat,  M.D.,  F.B.C.S.         I   Fbedeeick  Pubdt. 

A.  J.  Mundblla,  M.P.  I   Six  B.  W.  Bawson,  C.B.,  E.C.M.a. 

Jambs  Hetwood,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.B.S.    |  Sib  John  Lubbook,  Babt.,  H.P.,  F.B.S. 
William  Newmaboh,  Esq.,  F.B.S. 

Cmo^ttrfr* 

BlOHABD  BiDDULFH  MaBTIN,  M.A. 


CounciL 


Majob-G-enbbal  H.  p.  Babbage. 

Abthub  H.  Bailet,  F.I.A. 

T.  asAHAM  Balfoub,  M.D.,  F.B.S. 

A.  E.  Batbman. 

Stephen  Boubne. 

Edwabd  William  Bbabbooe,  F.S.A. 

James  Caibd,  C.B.,  F.B.S. 

J.  Oldfibld  Chadwick,  F.B.Q-.S. 

Hammond  Chubb,  B.A. 

Htdb  Olabke. 

Lionel  L.  Cohen. 

Captain  Patbice  G.  Cbaigib. 

JULAND   DANYBBS. 

Bobebt  Giffen. 
Fbbdebick  Hbndbiks. 


Henbt  Jeula,  F.BG.S. 

Peof.  W.  S.  Jetons,  M. a.,  LL.D.,  F.B.S. 

Fbanois  Joubdan. 

Pbofbssob  Leone  Leti,  LL.D. 

John  B.  Mabtin,  M.A. 

BlOHABD  BiDDULPH  MaBTIN,  M.A. 

Fbedbbio  John  Mouat,  M.D.  F.B.C.S. 
Anthont  J.  Mundblla,  M.P. 
Fbanois  Q-.  P.  Nbison. 
Bobebt  Hogabth  Fattebson. 
Fbbdbbioe  Pubdt. 

Ebnbst  Geobgb  Batenbtbin,  F.B.G.S. 
6iB  Bawson  W.  Bawson,  O.B.,  KO.M.G. 
Ebnebt  Sbtd. 

COBNBLIUS  WaLFOBD,  F.LA. 


tttxttaxiti. 

Hammond  Chubb.         |         Bobebt  Giffen. 
Pbofbssob  W.  Stanlbt  Jeyons. 
dToretsn  ibeoretarv.  I  editor  of  t^f  SounuiL 

Fbedbbio  J.  Mouat,  M.D.  |  Bobebt  Giffbn. 

Mtfittatit  ttvcttBXfii. 

Joseph  Whittall. 

Kxnftant,— Messes.  Dbummond  and  Co.,  Chabikg  Cboss,  S.W.,  London. 
2 


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Vol.  XLm.]  [Part  L 

JOUBNAL  OF  THE  STATISTICAL  SOGIETT, 

MABGH,  1880. 


h  the  Value  of  Monet  Risikq  in  England  and  throughout  the 
World?  With  Remarks  on  the  Effect  of  the  Fluctuating 
Conditions  of  Trade  u^on  the  Value  of  Monet.  By  R.  H. 
Patterson,  Esq. 

[Read  before  the  StatUtiod  Society,  16th  December,  1S79.] 
CONTENTS : 


PAGE 

I.— Money  and  Prices  in  Great 

Britiun    8 

II . — Money  and  Prices  in  India  .  5 

111.— The  Produce  of  the  Mines..  9 

IV.— Effects  of  the  State  of  Trade 

on  the  Value  of  Money  ....  9 


PAGK 

V. — Production  and  Employ- 
ment   of    the     Precious 

Metals 13 

VI. — Summary  and  Conclusion    16 

VII.— The  Subject  at  Home 18 

VIIL— Recent     Growth    of    the 

Note  Circulation 19 

IX.— Rise  of  the  Bank  Rate  ....  20 


In  more  than  one  part  of  the  "  Wealth  of  Nations,"  Adam  Smith 
refers  to  the  prevalent  opinion  in  his  time,  that  the  value  of  the 
precious  metals  was  still  falling ;  whereas  he  explicitly  states  as  his 
own  opinion,  or  rather  as  a  fact  demonstrated  by  the  state  of  prices, 
that  for  three-quarters  of  a  century  previous — viz.,  from  the  closing 
years  of  the  seventeenth  century  down  to  the  time  when  he  wrote 
— ^there  had  been  a  slight  but  distinctly  perceptible  rise  in  the 
value  of  money.  The  popular  opinion  thus  referred  to  was 
perfectly  natural.  Money  had  fallen  immensely  in  value  during  the 
century  and  a  half  subsequent  to  the  dii^covery  of  America  with  its 
mines  of  the  precious  metals ;  and  as  the  produce  of  the  mines  in 
the  eighteenth  century  was  very  much  larger  than  it  had  ever 
been  before,  it  was  only  natural  to  believe  that  the  fall  in  the  value 
of  the  precious  metals  was  stiD  in  progress.  Ordinary  observers 
overlooked  the  fact,  pointed  out  by  Adam  Smith,  that  the  require- 
ments for  money  had  contemporaneously  increased  vastly ;  indeed 
to  such  an  extent  that  the  increased  produce  of  the  mines  was 
inadequate  to  fully  meet  the  increased  requirements  for  it. 

An  analogous  or  parallel  state  of  public  opinion  has  prevailed 
in  connection  with  the  peerlessly  rich  new  mines  of  America  and 

TOL.  XLIU.      PAST  I.  B 

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2  Patterson — h  the  Value  of  Money  Bidng  [Mar; 

Australia.  In  1873 — ^wliich  is  our  starting-point  in  this  inquiry — 
prices  were  very  high,  and  people  were  still  believing  in,  or  expecting 
a  continuous  fall  in  the  value  of  money.  Although  the  gold-mines 
had  declined  from  their  maximum  production,  little  attention  was 
given  to  that  circumstance ;  moreover,  the  annual  yield  of  gold 
was  still  more  than  double  what  it  was  in  1848;  and  also,  the 
comparative  falling  off  in  the  produce  of  gold  was  compensated  in 
amount  by  the  increased  supply  of  silver  from  the  new  Nevada 
mines.     This  was  the  state  of  matters  in  1873. 

Soon  afterwards,  a  great  fall  began  in  the  value  of  silver  com- 
pared with  gold;  and  as  no  one  then  thought  that  gold  was 
becoming  scarce  and  rising  in  value,  the  change  in  the  value  of 
silver  appeared  to  be  a  veritable  depreciation  of  that  metal — ^a  fall 
not  merely  relatively  to  gold,  but  also  to  labour  and  commodities 
in  general.  The  House  of  Commons,  when  appointing  the  Select 
Committee  of  1876,  adopted  the  prevalent  opinion ;  and  the  Com- 
mittee in  their  Report  proceeded  upon  the  same  view  of  the  matter, 
although  some  of  the  evidence  then  adduced  pointed  to  a  different 
conclusion.  On  the  other  hand,  the  Commission  simultaneously 
appointed  by  the  Congress  of  the  United  States,  reported  in  the 
clearest  and  most  confident  terms  that  there  had  been  no  fall  in  the 
value  of  silver,  except  as  compared  with  gold,  and  that  the  value 
of  gold  had  risen :  in  their  own  words,  "  Since  1873,  the  purchasing 
"  power  of  gold  has  risen  in  all  countries,  and  the  purchasing  power 
"  of  silver  has  fallen  in  none."  The  report  of  the  American  Com- 
mission failed  to  attract  attention  in  this  country :  moreover,  as 
the  United  States  are  interested  in  upholding  the  value  of  silver, 
for  the  sake  of  the  splendid  Nevada  mines,  the  opinion  of  the 
American  Commission  was  open  to  the  suspicion  that "  the  wish 
"  was  father  to  the  thought." 

Recently,  however,  it  has  become  acknowledged  in  this  country 
that  the  view  taken  by  the  American  Commission  is  not  altogether 
baseless,  and  that  the  *'  depreciation  "  of  silver  may  really  be  due, 
to  some  extent  at  least,  to  a  rise  in  the  value  of  gold.  To  determine 
correctly  any  substantial  change  in  the  value  of  the  precious  metals 
compared  with  other  commodities,  is  one  of  the  most  difficult  of 
inquiries.  It  can  only  be  done  by  reviewing  Prices  over*  a  long 
period  of  years,  and  by  taking  into  account  a  variety  of  causes  of  a 
most  complicated  kind,  operating  upon  the  production  and  supply 
of  commodities,  as  well  as  the  fiuctuations  in  the  condition  or 
**  spirit "  of  trade.  It  is  only  in  part  that  I  here  attempt  such  a 
task :  I  shall  hardly  go  beyond  the  broad  facts  of  the  last  half-dozen 
years.  I  shall  venture,  however,  to  lay  before  you  some  considera- 
tions relative  to  the  important  questions.  Whether  the  cause  of  the 
altered  value  of  money  is  to  be  found  in  the  Supply  or  in  the 


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1880.]  in  England  cmd  throughout  the  World  ?  3 

Demand — ^whether  tlie  rise  is  owing  to  the  diminished  yield  of  the 
gold-mines,  or  to  the  depression  of  trade, — and  how  far  the  rise  is 
likely  to  be  permanent.  But  the  first  point  is,  How  does  the 
value  of  money  stand,  both  in  this  oonntry  and  in  India,  or  throngh- 
ont  the  world  at  large ;  and  in  what  degree  have  gold  and  silver 
respectively  been  affected  in  valae,  both  towards  general  com- 
modities and  towards  one  another  P 

[In  this  opening  portion  of  the  Paper,  1872-73  is  the  most 
snitablerperiod  to  start  from,  because  that  was  prior  to  the  recent 
change  in  the  relative  value  of  gold  and  silver ;  so  that,  by  con- 
sidering the  subsequent  events,,  we  can  see  what  have  been  the 
causes  of  that  change,  and  the  true  character  of  the  so-called 
**  depreciation"  of  silver.  On  the  other  hand,  the  year  1873  was 
almost  as  exceptional  as  regards  its  high  prices  as  the  present* year 
is  for  low  prices ;  and  in  the  portion  of  this  Paper  which  relates  to 
the  value  of  Money  generally,,  it  will  be  seen  that  I  do  not  rely  in 
any  way  upon  the  contrast  of  prices  exhibited  in  those  particular 
years.] 

I. — Jlfoncy  amd  Friee^  in  Great  Britain, 

To  begin  with  our  own  country  and  currency.  That  prices 
have  ferilen — i.e.,  that  money  has  risen  in  value — in  this  country 
since  1873  is  a  fact  too  obvious  to  be  questioned;  but,  as  will 
become  apparent  in  the  sequel,  it  is  highly  important  to  observe 
what  is  the  extent  to  which  this  change  has  occurred.  A  change 
in  the  value  of  money  must  be  ascertained,  primarily,  by  reference 
to  the  state  of  prices — ^in  other  words,  the  value  of  general  com- 
modities as  measured  in  money. 

There  are  ^veral  Tables  of  Prices  available  to  determine  this 
point,  for  all  of  which  the  community  is  indebted  to  members  of 
this  Society.  There  is,  first,  the  table  regularly  compiled  for,  and 
published  for  many  years  past  hj  the  *'  Economist,"  and  which 
includes  all  the  chief  articles  of  merchandise.  There  is  also  a  table 
compiled  by  Mr.  Arthur  Ellis,  editor  of  the  "  Statist,"  from  1869 
to  the  first  quarter  of  1878,  which  gives  the  prices  of  the  raw 
materials  of  British  manufactures,  and  which  may  be  said  to 
represhit  our  Imports ;  and  thirdly,  there  is  a  table  compiled  during 
the  present  year  by  Mr.  GKffen,  for  the  Board  of  T^tule,  which 
relates  to  our  Exports — to  the  articles  of  merchandise  produced 
in  and  exported  from  this  country.  Taking  these  two  latter  tables 
together,  they  pretty  nearly  correspond  in  character  to  the  single 
"  Economist  *'  table.  The  "  Economist "  table,  however,  is  the  only 
one  which  has  been  brought  down  to  the  beginning  of  the  present 
year;  and  the  said  table  shows  a  fall  of  prices  since  1873  equal  to 
24I  per  cent.      Thus,  be  the  cause  what  it  may,  assuming  the 

b2 


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4  Pattemoit — It  tJie  Value  of  Money  Biting  [Mw. 

correctness  of  this  carefully  compiled  table,  the  purchasing  power 
of  our  British  currency — in  other  words,  of  Ck>ld — ^has  risen  folly 
34  per  cent,  since  1873. 

Next,  let  us  see  how  Silver  stands  in  this  country,  and  in 
Europe  and  America  generally.  The  g^ld-price  of  an  ounce  of 
silver  during  the  twenty  years  ending  with  1850  (when  the  produce 
of  the  new  gold-mines  first  began  to  reach  the  markets  of  the  world) 
averaged  as  near -as  may  be  ^^\d. ;  during  the  next  twenty  years  it 
stood  above  this  old  level,4n  some  years  being  (ttd, ;  but  it  returned 
to  its  old  level  in  1872,  and  throughout  1873  the  average  price  of 
the  ounce  of  silver  was  $g\d,  -[I  may  remark  in  passing  that 
although,  in  common  with  others,  I  regard  the  rise  in  the  price  of 
silver  as  due  to  the  increased  production  of  gold,  I  do  so  only 
partially;  for  I  believe  that  an  equal  factor  in  the  case  was  the 
extraordinary  demand  for  silver  for  the  Bast.*]  In  1876,  under 
the  influence  of  Panic,  the  price  of  silver  fell  to  45.  the  ounce. 
Since  that  time,  the  value  of  silver  has  stood  at  what  appears  to  be 
its  normal  or  natural  level  under  the  new  circumstances  (namely, 
the  widespread  demonetisation  of  that  metal,  Ac.), — the  present 
price  per  ounce  being  about  5 1^.  -.f  a  fall  of  ^d.  per  ounce,  or 
about  13^  per  cent.,  compared  with  its  gold-price  in  1872,  in 
which  year  the  gold-price  of  silver  rwas  exactly  the  same  as  used 
to  prevail  previous  to  1850. 

Taking  these  facts  as  they- stand,  and  putting  them  together, 
they  go  to  show  that  the  common  idea,  and  the  one  universally 
held  in  this  country  in  1876 — namely,  that  there  has  been  an 
absolute  depreciation  of  silver — is  wrong.  The  fall  in  the  value 
of  silver  compared  to  gold  is  1 1  per  cent,  less  than  the  rise  in  the 
value  of  gold  compared  with  general  commodities.  In  other  words, 
the  purchasing  power  of  silver,  or  its  value  in  general  commodities, 
has  not  fallen  at  all.  On  the  contrary,  in  this  country  it  has  risen 
(judging  from  the  *' Economist's "  Table  of  Prices)   11  percent; 

*  Silver,  which  stood  at  its  Old  average  price  of  s$\d.  in  1848,  thereafter 
began  to  rise,  and  in  1852-55  it  stood  at  6ii<{.  As  this  was  before  the  setting  in 
of  the  great  expansion  of  the  trade  with  India,  the  rise  most  be  attributed  to 
the  great  increase  in  the  supply  of  gold.  But  thereafter,  although  the  g^ld  mines 
had  reached  their  maximum  of  production,  the  price  of  sUver  continued  to  rise, 
until  it  stood  at  62'Xd,  in  1859;  and  it  remained  above  its  old  price  (S9\d.)  until 
after  1872.  From  these  Acts  I  infer  that  the  latter  part  of  the  rise  in  the  price 
of  silver  (viz.,  from  61kd,  to  6%^gd,)  was  owing  to  the  great  demand  and  drain 
of  silver  to  the  East  which  commenced  in  1856,  or  a  little  earlier,  and  that  after 
that  year  this  great  drain  for  the  East  was  the  sole  cause  of  the  enhanced  price  of 
silver. 

t  These  figures  represent  the  state  of  matters  in  September  last,  when  this 
paper  was  written.  Since  then,  the  value  of  silver  has  somewhat  risen ;  but  I 
have  not  thought  it  necessary  to  alter  the  figures,  because  the  change  is  slight,  and 
also  because,  even  were  it  greater  than  it  is,  it  would  not  affect  the  argument  or 
exposition. 


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1880.]  in  England  and  throughout  the  World  ?  5 

while  gold  has  risen  fully  13  per  cent,  more, — or  in  all  24^  per  cent, 
at  the  beginning  of  the  present  year. 

II. — Money  and  Prices  in  India, 

Snch  is  the  present  valae  of  the  two  metals  in*  this  country, 
where  gold  is  the  standard- money,  and  more  or  less*  in  other 
countries  of  the  Western  world.  Let  us  next  see  how  the  case 
stands  in  the  East,  where  silver  constitutes  the  whole  currency  and 
sole  legal  measure  of  value.  Unfortunately  there  are  no  scientifi- 
cally prepared  tables  of  prices  for  India  similar  to  those  which  I 
have  quoted  for  our  own  country.  Before  referring  to  such  data  as 
we  possess,  let  me  first  look  at  the  case  from  a  general'  point  of 
view.  The  mass  ol  silver  poured*  into  India  during  the  trwenty 
years  subsequent  to  1855  has  been  literally  prodigious ;  the  nett 
additian  made  to  tiie  stock  of  silver  in  India  during  the  period 
having  been  about  160  millions  sterling.  Nevertheless,  in  the 
opinion  of  the  highest  authorities,  India  in  1876  was  still  inade- 
quately supplied  with  currency.  The  new  supply  of  specie  did  not 
stagnate  and  become  plethoric  in  the  towns  and  industrial  centres, 
but  was  drained  off  to  provide  currency  in  the  interior  of  the 
country — in  the  districts  where  Barter  had  previously  existed,  but 
where  both  Labour  and  Production  were*  becoming  developed  by 
the  large  influx  of  British  capital — by  the  new  radlSvays,  and  by 
the  quickening  of  industry  which  so  remarkably  characterised 
those  twenty  years.  More  currency  was  needed  in  India  owing  to 
more  Employment  and  higher  wages,  and  also  by  the  gradual 
displacement  of  Barter ;  while  more  silver,  whether  in  coin  or  in 
ornaments,  was  needed  to  store  the  small  but  increasing  reserve- 
wealth  of  the  peasantry  and  shopkeepers.  In  1863  the  Governor 
of  Bombay  wrote  as-  follows : — "  Great  quantities  of  silver  are 
'*  absorbed  in  remoter  parta  of  the  country,  and  go  to  furnish  a 
*'  currency  where  no  general  medium  of  exchange  existed  before ; 
'*  rupees  are  now  to  be  found  in  hundreds  of  small  bazaars  where 
"  all  Trdtte  used  to  be  conducted  in  barter."  And  in  1876,  when 
giving  evidence  before  the  Select  Committee  on  the  depreciation 
of  silver.  Colonel  Hyde,  director  of  the  Calcutta  Mint,  spoke  con- 
fidently as  to  the  insufficient  amount  of  currency  in  India,  and  the 
capacity  of  that  counta*y  to  absorb  more  silver  into  circulation, — 
adding  that  "  the  progress  of  the  currency  in  India  will  be  very 
'*  slow,  but  I  think  it  will  be  sure."  More  silver  is  needed  to  dis- 
place barter  in  the  outlying  districts,  as  well  as  to  meet  the  growing 
requirements  of  trade  and  of  Government  and  personal  expenditure 
in  the  more  advanced  districts  where  silver-money  is  already  in 
use. 

Thos,  vast  as  has  been  the  quantity  of  silver  poured  into  India, 


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6  Patteeson — h  (he  Value  of  Money  Bidng  [Mar. 

there  are  general  and  d  priori  gpronnds  for  donbting,  whether  there 
has,  or  coald  have  been,  any  redundancy  and  fall  in  the  value 
of  the  silver  currency  of  that  country.  But  let  us  see  what  is  the 
evidence  of  Prices  upon  this  point.  In  1876  Mr.  R.  W.  Crawford 
ntated  before  the  Silver  Committee  that  "  Prices  have  fallen  very 
**  much  in  India ; "  and  he  referred  to  a  staple  quality  of  cotton 
■fhich  had  fallen  since  1872-3  from  6\d.  the  pound  to  4^. — a  &11 
of  one- third,  or  33  per  cent. — and  to  saltpetre,  which  had  fallen 
from  305.  the  cwt.  to  barely  I7«.,  a  fall  of  fully  43  per  cent.  Cotton 
and  saltpetre  are  staple  exports  of  India,  and  doubtless  are  as 
good  single  commodities  as  can  be  quoted  in  a  question  of  prices, 
— especially  since  rice  and  grain  have  been  abnormally  affected  in 
price  of  late  years  by  the  severe  Famines ;  nevertheless,  important 
commercial  articles  as  cotton  and  saltpetre  are,  taken  alone  they 
are  quite  unreliable  as  indications  of  a  general  change  of  prices. 
Subsequently  to  1876,  the  Government  of  India  has  published 
a  List  of  Prices  of  a  tolerably  complete  character;  but  they 
are  mere  lists,  not  scientifically  treated  statistics  like  the  Tables 
which  have  emanated  from  members  of  this  Society,  and  which 
tell  their  own  tale  on  the  face  of  them.  Perhaps  Mr.  Giffen  or 
Mr.  Ellis,  or  some  other  member  of  this  Society — perhaps 
Mr.  Newmarch  himself,  our  greatest  authority  on  the  subject — may 
have  analysed  those  Indian  lists  of  prices,  and  will  give  the  results 
in  a  better  manner  than  I  am  prepared  to  do.  As  is  well  known, 
there  may  be  a  change  in  the  prices  of  one  set  of  commo- 
dities— Fay  in  the  exports — while  a  different  state  of  matters 
prevails  in  another  class — say  of  domestic  production  and  consump- 
tion. The  Government  of  India,  referring  to  those  lists  of  prices 
and  also  to  its  general  information,  simply  maintains  that  there 
has  been  vo  rise  of  prices  in  India,  and  that  the  rupee  still  buys  as 
much  goods  or  labour  as  before ;  for  this  is  sufficient  for  the 
purpose  which  the  Government  had  in  view  in  its  Memorandum, 
viz.,  to  show  that  there  has  been  no  absolute  depreciation  of  silver, 
but  merely  in  relation  to  gold.  The  Bombay  Chamber  of  Commerce 
states  the  same  fact.  In  1877,  when  the  price  of  silver  was  lower 
than  now,  the  Bombay  Chamber  of  Commerce  reported  that  "  the 
"purchasing  power  of  the  rupee  in  respect  of  ordinary  articles  of  con- 
'*  sumption,  such  as  the  food  of  the  people,  remains  undiminished." 
— Parliamentary  Paper,  11th  August,  1877. 

But  I  think  somewhat  more  than  this  may  be  said.  The  general 
opinion  or  knowledge  of  merchants  connected  with  the  Indian  trade 
certainly  seems  to  be  that,  on  the  whole,  prices  have  fallen  in  India 
since  1873,  about  which  time  the  change  began  in  the  relative  value 
of  the  two  precious  metals.  I  think  it  will  be  acknowledged  that 
if  silver  has  risen  in  purchasing  power  in  a  country  like  England, 


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1880.]  in  England  a/nd  throughcmt  the  World  ?  7 

where  silver  is  not  Money,  ccBteris  paribiis,  silver  will  rise  in  value  in 
a  country  where  it  is  Money,  and  also  the  sole  currency, — especially 
in  a  country  where,  as  in  India,  that  currency  is  to  some  extent 
inadequate.  This,  however,  is  assuming  that  Ihe  conditions  of  the 
two  countries  in  other  respects  are  similar,  which  cannot  be  said 
correctly  of  India  and  England  at  present.  Undoubtedly  both  of 
them  are  alike  in  this  important  respect,  that  Trade  is  not  prosper- 
ing as  it  used  to  do ;  but  in  India  the  commercial  depression  has 
not  been  so  severe  as  in  England.  Indeed,  even  if  the  commercial 
depression  were  equally  severe  in  both  countries,  it  would  produce 
a  much  lesser  effect  upon  a  country  like  India,  whose  wealth  is 
mainly  agricultural  and  dependent  upon  its  internal  Trade,  than 
upon  England,  which  is  more  than  any  other  country  dependent  upon 
its  manufactures  and  Foreign  commerce.  In  India  it  may  be  said 
that  Trade,  as  represented  by  the  Exports  and  Imports,  has  simply 
ceased  to  progress,  whereas  in  England  it  has  greatly  lost  ground. 
And,  as  I  shall  refer  to  by-and-bye,  this  difference  in  commercial 
condition  may  produce  a  very  considerable  difference  in  the  state  of 
Prices.  Nevertheless,  so  far  as  I  can  venture  an  opinion,  I  should 
say  that  prices  have  fallen  somewhat  in  India ;  in  other  words,  the 
value  of  silver,  measured  in  general  commodities,  has  risen : — and 
if  Uiis  change  has  occurred  to  the  extent  of  lo  per  cent.,  the  state 
of  matters  as  regards  the  purchasing  power  of  silver  would  (accord- 
ing to  the  "  Economist's''  Table  of  Prices)  be  the  same  in  India  as 
in  England.  But,  as  already  said,  the  value  of  silver  might  be  con- 
siderably different  in  India  from  what  it  is  here ;  because  the  value  of 
that  metal  will  naturally  (that  is,  if  all  other  circumstances  bo  equal) 
stand  somewhat  higher  in  a  country  where  it  is  the  sole  currency 
than  in  another  where  it  is  not  money  at  all.  In  the  course  of  time, 
no  doubt,  such  a  difference  would  disappear  by  the  effects  of  diffu- 
sion and  equalisation,  but  it  may  be  expected  to  exist  at  present,  or 
at  any  time  when  changes  are  actually  in  progress.  Hence,  were 
the  state  of  trade  or  national  prosperity  identical  in  the  two 
countries,  I  should  expect  that,  if  silver  haa  risen  lo  per  cent,  in 
parchasing  power  in  this  country,  it  would  have  risen  somewhat 
more  in  the  bazaars  of  India.  On  the  other  hand,  the  depression 
of  trade  being  greater  in  this  country  than  in  India,  will  (as  I  shall 
explain  by-and-bye)  tend  to  produce  a  different  and  counteracting 
i*e8ult. 

I  have  taken  England,  a  gold  country,  and  India,  a  silver 
country,  and  such  is  the  respective  value  of  the  precious  metals 
in  these  two  countries  as  shown  by  the  State  of  Prices.  So 
judged,  there  has  undoubtedly  been  a  rise  in  the  value  of  Money 
during  the  last  half-dozen  years.  As  regards  the  simple  matter 
of  fact,  no  one  can  question  that  this  is  so.     But  the  important 


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8  Pattibson — Is  the  Value  of  Money  Bvting  [Mar. 

qaestion  is,  Is  thia  change  dne  (so  to  speak)  to  Money,  or  to  a 
transient  condition  of  Trade  P  The  state  of  Prices  does  not  of 
itself  show  to  what  canse  or  causes  the  present  change  in  the  value 
of  the  precious  metals  is  owing,  or  whether  or  not  the  change 
is  substantial,  or  likely  to  be  permanent,  and  not  merely  the 
transient  result  of  a  fluctuating  Trade.  Before  this  learned 
Society,  I  need  not  enumerate  the  manifold  causes  which  may 
produce  a  change  of  prices,  totally  irrespective  of  the  Supply  of 
Money  or  the  precious  metals.  There  are  constaot  improve- 
ments in  manufacture,  improvements  in  the  production  of  raw 
material,  and  various  other  causes,  which  tend  to  lower  prices — 
in  other  words,  to  raise  the  purchasing  power  of  money.  For 
example,  while  writing  this  Paper  (in  September),  I  found  the 
following  statement  in  a  leading  journal  of  New  York,  which  is 
also  worth  quoting  as  showing  the  recent  low  state  of  prices  in  the 
United  States  : — "  The  purchasing  power  of  the  dollar  has 
'*  greatly  increased.  The  mass  of  our  population  who  labour 
"  do  not  receive  so  high  wages  as  in  former  .years.  Bents,  pro- 
"  visions,  breadstuffs,  and  clothing  are  cheaper  than  ever  known 
"  before."  But  this  low  state  of  prices  would  be  exceedingly  mis- 
leading, were  it  taken  as  showing  that  there  has  been  a  correspond- 
ing rise  in  the  value  of  money  attributable  to  an  inadequate  supply 
of  the  precious  metals;  for,  besides  the  important  effect  of  the 
resumption  of  specie  payments  (albeit  it  was  r^ly  completed  nearly 
a  year  and  a  halt  ago),  the  low  price  of  provisions  of  all  kinds  has 
bc^n  largely  dae  to  the  fine  harvest  in  the  United  States,  and  the 
vast  expansion  of  agricultural  production  during  the  present  year. 
In  fact,  Prices,  although  the  primary  and  most  important  exponent 
of  a  change  in  the  value  of  the  precious  metals,  are  quite  unreliable 
for  showing  the  cause  of  the  change, — ^whether  it  is  in  the  Demand 
or  in  the  Supply  of  Money,  or  as  to  whether  the  change  is  likely 
to  be  ephemeral  or  permanent. 

I  shall  only  offer  one  remark  upon  this  subject.  During  the 
last  thirty  years,  Prices  have  been  chiefly  influenced  by  two  wholly 
distinct,  and  in  their  operation  conflicting,  factors.  The  steam- 
engine  has  been  employed  to  annihilate  Distance,  and  cheapen 
conveyance ;  and  in  this  way  steam-locomotion,  both  by  land  and 
sea,  has  caused  Prices  to  rise  in  remote  places,  and  to  fall  in  the 
great  towns,  and  in  countries  which  are  the  hearts  of  Commerce. 
On  the  other  hand,  the  new  gold-mines  have  tended  to  raise  Prices 
chiefly  in  the  hearts  of  Commerce.  As  these  and  other  factors 
operate  more  or  less  together,  there  is  usually  a  tide-like  change  in 
Prices ;  indeed,  even  the  same  cause  or  factor  may  produce  high- 
water  in  some  places  and  low- water  in  others. 

The  State  of  Prices,  then,  being  of  itself  so  unreliable,  or  so 


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]  880.]  »»  England  and  throughoiU  the  World  ?  9 

limited  in  its  significance,  let  ns  look  at  some  matters  which  Ho 
behind  prices.  The  two  great  factors  which  lie  behind  are,  iho 
Produce  of  the  Mines,  and  the  State  of  Trade, 

III. — The  Produce  of  the  Mines, 

The  total  production  of  the  precious  metals  when  the  new  gold 
mines  were  at  their  best,  viz.,  in  1852-60,  was  56  millions  sterling 
annuallj.  At  present  it  appears  to  be  almost  the  same.  Bat  there 
has  been  a  great  change  in  the  character  of  the  supply.  In  1852-60, 
the  annual  produce  of  gold  averaged  nearly  28  millions,  and  of 
silver  a  trifle  over  8  millions.  Of  late  years  the  supply  of  gold  has 
averaged  about  19!  millions,  and  of  silver  about  15  millions. 
Thus,  if  the  Double  Standard  of  gold  and  silver  conjointly  gene- 
rally prevailed,  no  effect  at  all  upon  Prices  could  be  produced  by  the 
present  state  of  the  annual  supply  of  the  precious  metals.  But 
in  countries  under  a  single  gold  standard.  Money  ought  to  be  rising 
in  value ;  and  in  countries  under  a  single  silver  standard,  Money 
ought  to  be  falling  in  value.  Nevertheless,  as  has  been  seen,  silver 
still  maintains  its  old  purchasing  power  in  India,  or  indeed  has 
risen  in  value,  while  in  England  the  purchasing  power  of  silver  has 
likewise  risen ;  and  gold  in  both  countries  has  risen  still  more. 

rV. — Effects  of  the  State  of  Trade  on  the  Value  of  Money. 

But  now  we  come  to  another  factor  which  lies  behind  Prices, 
and  it  is  a  most  important  one  ~  namely,  the  State  of  Trade :  using 
this  term  as  synonymous  with  the  material  prosperity  of  a  country. 
A  Depression  of  Trade  always,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  produces  a  fall 
of  Prices;  in  other  words,  a  rise  in  the  value  of  Money.  For 
example,  referring  to  the  "  Economist's  "  Table  of  Prices,  we  find 
that  after  the  Crisis  of  1857  prices  fell  1 5^  per  cent. ;  after  the  Crisis 
of  1866,  25  per  cent.;  and  under  the  recent  Depression  of  Trade, 
prices  at  the  beginning  of  the  present  year  stood  upwards  of  2  4,  per 
cent,  below  the  level  in  1873.  Mr.  Jevons's  carefully  prepared 
table  is  not  brought  down  to  the  present  time,  but  it  shows  the  fall 
of  prices  during  the  depression  of  trade  which  followed  the  Crisis 
of  1857  to  have  been  io|  per  cent.,  and  during  the  depression 
which  followed  the  Crisis  of  1866,  8  per  cent.  And  here  I  must 
remark  that  the  great  diversity  between  the  level  of  prices  shown 
in  these  two  tables — viz.,  the  "Economist's  "  and  Mr.  Jevons*s — is  a 
striking  warning  against  dogmatism.  Both  of  these  tables  are  care- 
fully compiled  by  able  men,  practised  in  this  kind  of  work,  yet  the  one 
table  in  some  cases  shows  a  chauge  of  prices  twice  as  great  as  in  the 
other.  Thus  in  what  appears,  and  indeed  is,  the  surest  and  most 
computable  of  the  factors  which  indicate  the  value  of  the  precious 
metals — namely,  the  statistical  department,  or  the  state  of  prices — 


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10  Patterson — Is  the  Value  of  Money  Bismg  [Mar. 

we  find  a  stiikiiig  discrepancy,  which  makes  it  impossible  to  attain  to 
anything  like  accuracy  of  detaiL  We  can  say  that  prices  have  risen 
or  fallen  (in  other  words,  that  the  value  of  money  has  changed)  so 
much  according  to  this  or  that  Table,  but  it  seems  hopeless  at 
present  to  reach  anything  like  perfect  accuracy.* 

All  evidence,  however,  concurs  in  demonstrating  that  money  irises 
in  value  when  Trade  is  depressed,  and  that  is,  when  the  extent  of 
monetary  transactions  is  less  than  usual.     Prom  one  point  of  vie-w, 
and  the  one  which  used  to  be  regarded  as  paramount,  thia  state  of 
matters  is  very  puzsling.     During  each  of  those  above-mentioned 
periods  of  depressed  Trade — in  1857  and  1866 — there  was  no  fedl- 
ing  off  or  change  of  any  kind  in  the  annual  supply  of  the  precious 
metals;  and  at  the  same  time  there  was  much  less  Trade  or  reqtLire- 
ment  for  money.     Upon  these  grounds  Prices  ought  to  rise  in  a 
period  of  depression  ;  yet,  as  we  know,  they  do  not.    At  such  times 
the  amount  of  Money  in  the  banks  is  unusually  large,  and  the  banks 
are  quite  ready  to  part  with  it  on  unusually  cheap  terms.     Money, 
in  fact,  is  superabundant:    nevertheless   Prices   stand  unusually 
low.     On  the  face  of  it  this  is  a  strange  anomaly,  and  certainly 
it  destroys  a  good  many  Theories  which  used  to  be  current.     The 
explanation  appears  to  be,  that  in  those  cases  of  commercial  collapse 
or  depression  there  is  a  great  loss  of  Wealth  in  the  community. 
People  have  not  so  much  wealth  to  spend.   Money  may  be  plentiful, 
but  people  cannot  employ  it  plentifully.     With  less  wealth,  people 
have  less  command  over  money ;  they  have  not  their  former  power 
of  employing  it.     In  other  words,  perhaps,  it  may  be  said  that  in 
bad  times,  people,  having  less  wealth  or  property,  cannot  afford  to 
employ  or  keep  in  circulation  so  much  of  it  as  usual  in  the  shape 
of  Money.     They  cannot  afford  to  spend  so  much  or  to  pay  the  old 
prices,  whether  for  labour  or  goods.     Merchants  must  trade,   in 
order  to    maintain  their  commercial  connections;  manufacturers 
must  continue  their  production,  or  else  lose  the  interest  on  their 
costly  factories  and  plant;  and  coal  and  ironmasters  must  keep 
their  mines  or  furnaces  in  operation,  or  else  have  to  incur  a  large 
expenditure  in  putting  them  at  work  again.     Hence  traders  of  all 
kinds  will  submit  to  very  low  prices  rather  than  not  trade  at  all. 

*  The  Fall  of  Prices  owing  to  the  several  Depressions  of  Trade  since  1850. 
is  stated  as  follows : — (1)  in  the  "  Economist's  *'  Table ;  (2)  by  the  same  Table  as 
corrected  by  Mr.  Bourne;  and  (3)  bj  Mr.  Jevons:— 

1857-59,  "  Economist,"  15*4  per  cent. ;  Bourne,  i5'7  ;    Jevons,  io'6. 
'66-71,  „  27  »  »        1638  »        7-8. 

'73-79,  „  246        „     ^  „       253  „        — 

Mr.  Jevons  finds  the  effects  of  the  Crisis  of  1866  exhausted  during  the 
following  year ;  Mr.  Bourne  continues  the  Fall  of  Prices  to  the  end  of  1869 ;  and 
the  **  Economist "  down  to  1871. — See  also  Appendix  B. 


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1880.]  m  Englamd  and  throughotit  the  World  ?  11 

All  classes,  in  short,  in  bad  times,  produce,  trade,  or  spend  upon 
lower  terms ;  and  thus,  with  diminished  profits  and  less  wealth, 
there  are  lower  wages  and  lower  prices.  In  other  words,  the 
purchasing  power  of  money  is  greater  than  usual.  At  the  same 
time,  although  Money  }my%  more  than  usual,  yet  its  value  on  loan 
is  less,  because  people  in  trade — the  great  borrowing  or  discounting 
class — can  hardly  find  profitable  use  even  for  the  money  which  is  at 
their  own  command.  The  actual  amount  of  Reserve-wealth  or 
Loanable  Capital  may  be  reduced,  but  the  demand  for  it  is  reduced 
very  much  more — the  result  being  a  low  Bank-rate. 

I  may  illustrate  the  effects  of  a  Depression  of  Trade  upon  the 
value  of  Money  in  this  way : — As  is  well  known,  Money  always 
"  goes  ftirther,"  or  buys  more,  in  a  poor  country  than  in  a  rich  one ; 
and,  under  a  Depression  of  Trade,  a  country  becomes,  comparatively 
to  its  former  self,  a  poor  one.  Hence  the  purchasing-power  of. 
Money  increases.  Thus  far  the  case  may  be  plain ;  but,  on  the 
other  hand,  the  Rate  of  Discount  or  the  Bank-rate  becomes  low, — 
which  is  the  very  opposite  of  what  ordinarily  prevails  in  a  poor 
country.  This  anomaly  may  perhaps  be  explained  by  the  fact  that 
in  a  reallj  or  permanently  poor  country,  the  purchasing-power  of 
money  is  high,  because  the  nation  has  not  been  able  to  afford  to 
provide  itself  with  an  adequate  amount  of  money, — which  can  only 
be  done  by  converting  into  money  (i.e.,  the  precious  metals)  a 
portion  of  the  other  and  spare  wealth  or  property  of  the  country. 
But  in  a  rich  country  which  becomes  temporarily  poor,  through  a 
depression  of  trade,  an  adequate  supply  of  money  is  already  in 
existence ;  and  accordingly,  when  not  employed  or  in  circulation, 
it  accumulates  in  the  banks,  and  thereby  facilitates  the  making  of 
loans, — that  is,  produces  a  low  Bank-rate. 

I  may  offer  one  more  remark  upon  the  effects  of  the  condition 
of  trade  upon  the  value  of  Money.  That  more  Trade  requires  more 
Money  is  a  traism, — albeit  it  was  the  neglect  of  this  consideration 
which  mainly  occasioned  the  memorable  mistakes  as  to  the  Future 
of  Money  committed  by  nearly  all  our  leading  authorities  in  1860, 
and  for  a  good  many  years  thereafter, — the  only  correct  appreciation 
of  the  effects  of  the  new  gold  mines  which  I  can  find  being  that 
made,  with  marvellous  sagacity,  by  Messrs.  Tooke  and  Newmarch 
in  the  concluding  volumes  of  the  "History  of  Prices."  It  may 
be  said  generally,  that  in  any  particular  country  and  stage  of  its 
economical  development,  any  given  amount  of  Trade  will  require 
a  similar  amount  of  Money  to  carry  it  on.  But  this  is  merely  a 
starting  point — a  general  proposition  which  does  not  help  much 
under  the  variations  which  one  meets  in  actual  circumstances. 
The  amount  of  Money  required  at  any  given  time,  even  in  the 
same  country,  does  not  depend  merely  upon  the  amount  of  Trade- 


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12  Patteeson — Is  the  Value  of  Money  Einng  {^hUtr. 

transactions,  bnt  also  npon  the  spirit  and  conditions  under  w^Hich 
that  amount  of  Trade  is  carried  on.  When  Trade  is  progressive 
and  prosperous,  more  Monej  is  required  than  when  the  aame 
amount  of  transactions  is  being  carried  on  under  a  stationary  or 
falling  Trade.  For  example,  say  that  the  Exports  and  Imports  of 
a  country  (which  ronghlj  represent  the  state  of  Trade)  amount 
to  400  millions :  the  amount  of  Money  required  to  carry  on  that 
amount  of  business  will  be  larger  when  Trade  rises  to  that  pointy 
than  when  we  come  back  to  that  point  owing  to  a  decline  of 
Trade.  Although  the  number  of  exchanges  or  business-transactions 
be  the  same,  Trade  is  rising  and  prosperous  in  the  former  case,  and 
depressed  in  the  latter.  And  when  Trade  is  prosperous.  Prices  are 
high,  requiring  more  currency  to  carry  on  the  same  amount  of 
business ;  and  when  Trade  is  depressed,  Prices  are  low,  so  that  less 
currency  is  required. 

From  these  and  other  considerations,  it  is  obvious  that  at  a 
time  like  the  present ,  when  a  severe  commercial  depression  pre- 
vails, any  reasoning  or  any  statement  of  £Etcts  relative  to  tlie 
Value  of  Money  would  be  utterly  misleading,  unless  the  effects  of 
this  Depression  be  taken  into  account.  First,  as  to  gold  and  silver 
separately.  Let  us  suppose  that  but  for  this  commercial  depres- 
sion, Prices  would  have  remained  as  they  were  in  1873.  In  sucli  a 
case  the  import  or  significance  of  the  change  which  since  then  has 
occurred  in  the  relative  value  of  gold  and  silver  would  be  greatly 
altered.  If  gold  stood  simply  at  its  old  value  (i.e.,  had  not  risen), 
then  the  recent  change  in  the  gold-price  of  silver  would  shew  a 
real  depreciation.  On  the  other  hand,  as  prices  stand,  gold  lias 
risen  so  much  compared  with  general  commodities  that  the  decline 
of  silver  relative  to  gold  is  not  a  depreciation  at  all,  but  merely  a 
lesser  rise  in  its  value  as  measured  by  commodities.  Both  gold  and 
silver  have  risen  in  purchasing  power  (t.c.  relative  to  general  com- 
modi  ties),  but  silver  has  not  risen  so  much  as  gold  has  done ;  that 
is  all.  But  how  the  case  between  the  two  metals  will  stand  when 
the  Depression  comes  to  an  end,  remains  to  be  seen. 

Secondly,  a  depression  of  trade  in  each  country  where  it  prevails 
exerts  a  similar  masking  effect  as  regards  money  as  a  whole — 
whether  it  be  gold  and  silver  conjointly,  or  gold  alone,  or  silver 
alone  :  it  masks  or  temporarily  obscures  the  normal  and  ordinary, 
or  what  may  be  called  the  natural,  value  of  money.  The  present 
depression  of  trade  is  an  exceptional  condition  of  affairs,  and  exerts 
an  exceptional  influence  upon  the  value  of  money — an  influence 
which  must  cease  when  the  depression  has  ceased. 

But  when  the  depression  is  over,  there  will  come  into  play  not 
one  single  and  easily  computable  influence,  but  two  absolutely 
conflicting  influences.     When  the   depression  is   over,  Trade  of 


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1880.]  in  England  and  throughout  the  World  ?  13 

course  will  expand;  and  this  increase  of  trade,  with  its  concomitant 
increase  of  monetary  transactions,  will  increase  the  requirement 
for  money  ;  therefore  it  will  tend  to  radse  the  valne  of  money :  in 
other  words,  if  this  particnlar  agency  stood  alone,  there  would  be 
low  prices.  On  the  other  hand,  profits  will  increase,  the  old  losses 
will  be  repaired;  the  national  wealth  will  augment.  Wages  also  will 
increase ;  and  both  employers  and  employed  having  more  to  spend 
will  spend  more,  and  with  more  profusion  or  less  niggardly;  the 
money  in  bank  will  be  called  into  circulation,  and  prices  vnU  rise. 
In  fact,  with  prosperous  trade,  wages  rise  along  with  profits ;  and  a 
rise  of  prices  is  the  invariable  concomitant.  Another  usual  result 
of  such  circumstances  is  a  high  Bank-rate.  Thus,  there  will  be 
cheap  money  as  regards  prices,  but  dear  money  as  regards  money 
on  loan : — ^another  of  those  anomalies  and  apparent  contradictions 
which  have  to  be  taken  into  account,  yet  which  have  often  been 
overlooked  by  authorities  in  forecasting  the  yalue  of  money. 

Thus  the  various  effects  of  Trade  and  of  Demand  upon  the 
value  of  money  are  really  of  the  most  complex  character.  In 
former  times,  and  at  least  as  late  as  1858,  when  M,  Chevalier 
published,  and  Mr.  Cobden  translated,  his  well  known  book  on 
"The  Coming  Fall  in  the  Value  of  Gold," — a  book  which  even 
so  thoroughly  practical  a  man  as  Mr.  Cobden  endorsed  and  com- 
mended wamingly  to  the  English  public,  yet  which  proved  entirely 
wrong, — a  very  simple  sum  in  proportion  was  thonght  enough  to 
forecast  the  value  of  money.  "  Here,"  it  was  said,  speaking  of 
the  new  gold-mines,  "is  a  prodigious  increase  in  the  quantity  of 
"  money;  therefore  the  value  of  Money  must  fall,  and  Prices  rise 
"  in  proportion."  Since  that  time  the  world  has  received  many 
instructive  lessons  from  Experience,  and  we  now  know  how  to 
avoid  some  of  the  errors  formerly  made ;  nevertheless  the  subject 
is  still  so  highly  complicated  that  any  one  may  shrink  from  the 
task  of  actual  prediction. 

V. — Production  and  Employment  of  the  Precums  Metals. 

I  may  venture,  however,  in  addition  to  what  has  been  already 
said,  to  speak  with  some  confidence  upon  two  points.  These  points 
relate  to  the  effects  of  the  actual  Production  and  Employment  of 
the  precious  metals.  The  future  supply  of  gold  and  silver  from 
the  earth  is  too  conjectural  a  matter  to  be  dealt  with  here.  New 
and  rich  mines  will  doubtless  be  discovered,  but  no  man  can  say 
where,  or  what  is  much  more  important,  when  ;  and  even  as  regards 
the  existing  mines,  we  can  only  afl&rm  that  they  are  not  likely  to 
be  soon  exhausted.  But  although  only  conjectures  could  be 
offered  as  to  the  future  Production  of  the  precious  metals,  we  can 


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14  Patterson — h  the  Value  of  Money  Rising  [Mar. 

speak  pretty  safely  as  to  the  Employment  of  the  present  produce, 
— the  use  which  is  made  of  it  by  nations  or  their  (Governments. 

It  is  needless  to  say  that  the  recent  widespread  demonetisation 
of  silver  mnst  greatly  tend  to  reduce  the  value  of  that  metal.  The 
chief  and  paramount  requirement  both  for  gold  and  silver  now-a- 
days  is  as  money ;  consequently  the  chief  and  paramount  source  or 
element  of  their  value  arises  from  the  fact  that  they  are  money. 
The  common  saying  that  gold  owes  its  value  as  Money  simply  to 
its  natural  pBeciousness  as  a  commodity,  I  hold  to  be  exceedingly 
incorrect.  As  money,  gold  acquires  a  legal  value,  besides  its  ordinary 
value  as  merchandise.  Demonetise  both  gold  and  silver — as  it  is 
quite  conceivable  may  be  the  fate  of  those  metab  ultimately  in  the 
remote  future — and  the  value  of  those  metals  would  at  once  be 
immensely  reduced,  it  may  be  to  a  half,  or  even  a  quarter  of  the 
value  which  they  at  present  possess  as  the  costly  counters  which 
nations  have  agreed  to  trade  with  and  accept  as  a  measure  of 
value.  Already,  in  the  most  advanced  countries,  gold  and  silver 
might  be,  and  to  a  large  extent  are,  dispensed  with  in  domestic 
cvrculation.  Even  now,  specie  is  indispensable  only  in  international 
payments — or  rather,  for  a  small  part  of  them,  viz.,  the  **  balance ; " 
and  if  the  nations  come  to  suffer  severely  from  changes  in  the 
relative  value  of  the  two  metals — ^the  depreciation  of  one  and  the 
appreciation  of  the  other, — they  will  be  tempted  to  see  whether 
such  fitful  measures  of  value  cannot  be  still  further  supplanted  by 
other  means  of  exchange,  even  in  international  transactions. 

Needless  though  it  be  to  say  that  silver  must  fall  in  value  from 
the  recent  work  of  legislative  Demonetisation,  it  is  highly  important 
to  bear  in  mind  a  corollary,  and  necessary  sequence,  of  this  change. 
The  Demonetisation  of  silver  carries  with  it  an  inevitable  rise  in 
the  value  of  gold.  The  amount  of  silver  demonetised  must  be 
replaced  by,  and  cause  to  be  absorbed  in  new  transactions,  an 
equal  amount  of  gold.  If  there  were  a  great  plethora  of  gold,  such 
a  change  might  be  advantageous,  and  could  not  be  embarrassing. 
But  there  is  no  such  plethora  of  gold ;  and  the  amount  of  this 
metal  required  to  take  the  place  of  the  demonetised  silver,  must 
inevitably  produce  a  scarcity  of  gold — dear  M&ney,  in  this  and 
every  other  country  which  has  adopted  a  single  gold  standard. 
The  amount  of  gold  required  for  this  new  use  must  be  very  large, 
and  each  year  in  the  future  will  make  the  amount  larger.  If  the 
world  had  remained  as  it  was  in  1870,  the  seven  millions  a-year 
of  new  silver  from  the  Nevada  Mines  would  have  been  readily 
absorbed ;  indeed  such  a  sum  would  hardly  have  done  more  than 
annually  replace  the  mass  of  lost  and  worn-out  silver  tbroughont 
the  world.  But  since  1872,  besides  the  collapse  of  Trade,  several 
of  the  leading  Governments  of  the  West  have  followed  the  example 


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1880.]  ifh  EngloMd  and  throughout  the  World  /  15 

of  England  in  adopting  a  single  gold  standard ;  while  France  and 
the  other  States  of  the  Latin  Union  have  stopped  the  coinage  of 
silver.  Thus  a  vast  amount  of  silver-money  has  been  actually 
demonetised,  while,  almost  throughout  the  whole  Western  world, 
the  entire  replacement  of  the  worn  metallic  currency  or  coinage, 
and  also  all  the  additions  to  it,  must  henceforth  be  made  in  gold. 
And  it  will  hardly  be  questioned  that  these  requisite  additions  will 
be  of  no  small  amount. 

A  scarcity  of  gold,  under  snch  circumstances,  is  inevitable. 
Indeed  the  leading  merchants  and  bankers  of  the  City  of  London, 
a  few  months  ago  addressed  a  memorial  to  the  Prime  Minister, 
complaining  that  metallic  money  is  growing  scarce.  The  event  is 
commonly  spoken  of  as  if  it  were  a  visitation  of  Providence, — a 
thing  as  much  beyond  man's  power  of  prevention  as  the  bad 
seasons  with  which  we  have  recently  been  afflicted ;  and  yet  this 
scarcity  of  metallic  money  is  entirely  of  man's  making.  The  demo- 
netising of  silver  is  a  destrv^ciion  of  a  large  part  of  the  wcrrld's 
cu/rrency,  wilfdlly  produced, — a  measure  voluntarily  adopted  by 
Parliaments  or  enacted  by  Governments.  Legislation  creates  this 
difficulty,  and  legislation  could  remedy  it. 

The  common  and  strongest  arguments  in  &vour  of  a  single 
gold  standard  are,  firstly,  that  gold  is  best  suited  for  wealthy 
countries  where  large  payments  are  common.  But  even  in  England, 
as  we  all  know,  no  large  payments  are  made  in  coin  at  all ;  and  as 
regards  international  payments,  it  costs  no  more  to  send  silver  than 
to  send  gold,  because  the  cost  of  conveyance  is  not  reckoned  by  the 
weight  of  the  bullion  but  by  its  value.  The  other  and  more 
important  argument  in  favour  of  a  single  standard  (but  one  which 
be  it  noted,  is  as  much  in  favour  of  silver  as  of  gold),  is,  that  a 
standard  which  rests  upon  the  two  metals  is  doubly  unstable, 
because  liable  to  a  double  set  of  fluctuations.  I  venture  to  say, 
there  could  not  be  a  greater  mistake  than  this.  If  the  two  bases 
were  things  wholly  different  and  independent,  the  argument  would 
be  correct;  but  it  is  wholly  incorrect  when  the  two  things  are 
mutually  interchangeable — when  they  can  be  used  for  the  same 
purpose.  No  one  will  say  that  a  man  can  stand  better  upon  one  leg 
than  on  two!  I  have  never  heard  any  sane  man  complain  of 
having  two  legs  because  thereby  he  has  to  support  himself  upon 
"  a  double  set  of  fluctuations."  Or  put  the  case  in  another  way : — 
Would  any  one  think  of  maintaining  that  the  cost  ^  food  fluc- 
tuates more  when  men  can  live  both  upon  animal  and  vegetable 
food  than  if,  with  both  kinds  of  sustenanoe  within  reach,  they 
chose  to  live  upon  bread  or  butcher's  meat  separately  ?  If  either  of 
these  two  kinds  of  food  be  in  such  abundance  that  people  can 
wholly  do  without  the  other,  then  undoubtedly  the  people  may 


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16  Pattbbson — Is  the  Value  of  Money  Rising  [Mar. 

indulge  their  preference,  and  live  upon  that  one  kind  of  food  alone. 
But  if,  as  is  actually  the  case,  there  is  no  such  superabundance  of 
food,  people  would  be  foolish  indeed  if  they  were  to  create  an  arti- 
ficial famine,  and  starvation  for  themselves,  by  refusing  to  treat  as 
food  what  18  food.  In  like  manner,  it  seems  to  me  that  for  Gt)Tem- 
ments  or  Legislatures  to  forbid  the  use  of  silver  as  Money  at  a 
time  like  the  present,  when  metallic  money  is  growing  scarce,  is 
as  extraordinary  an  aberration  as  legislative  wisdom  could  possibly 
exhibit. 

To  prevent  misapprehension,  I  may  state,  or  rather  repeat,  that 
I  am  not  opposed  to  a  single  gold-standard,  whether  in  a  particular 
country  or  all  over  the  world,  provided  the  supply  of  that  metal  be 
suflQcient  to  maintain  such  a  monetary  system  stably;  but  I  am 
opposed  to  the  demonetisation  of  silver  at  a  time  when  the  supply 
of  gold  is  not  sufficient  to  meet  the  new  and  large  requirements  for 
it  so  created — ^that  is,  to  take  the  place  of  the  demonetised  silver. 

VI. — Summary  omd  Conclusion, 

Summing  up  the  remarks  which  I  have  had  the  honour  to 
submit,  I  would  say  that  under  the  present  remarkable  Depression 
of  Trade,  the  State  of  Prices  cannot  be  accepted  as  a  proof  of 
what  (from  the  imperfections  of  language)  may  be  called  the  natural 
value  of  Money.  At  no  particular  time  can  Prices  of  themselves 
be  relied  upon  to  show  whether  the  supply  of  the  precious  metals, 
as  money,  is  redundant  or  scarce ;  and  at  the  present  time  Prices  are 
so  abnormally  afEected  by  the  State  of  Trade  that  they  are  still 
less  reliable  than  usual  for  such  a  purpose.  But  we  may  safely 
reckon  that  ere  long  Trade  will  resume  its  progress  and  expansion, 
although  not  probably  at  the  marvellous  rate  which  the  present 
generation  have  witnessed ;  that  wealth  also  will  augment,  and  that 
the  requirement  for  money  or  the  precious  metals  will  become  greater 
than  it  is  at  present. 

Also,  if  we  look  at  the  production  of  the  precious  metals, 
especially  the  decline  of  the  gold-mines,  together  with  the  wide- 
spread demonetisation  of  silver,  I  think  that  (wholly  irrespective 
of  the  evidence  of  Prices)  it  can  hardly  be  questioned  that  Money 
must  be  already  growing  scarce  in  countries  which  have  a  single 
gold  currency,  and  that  this  scarcity  will  inevitably  become  greater 
and  severe. 

The  effects  of  the  fluctuating  conditions  of  Trade  upon  the  value 
of  Money,  are  the  most  interesting,  and,  owing  to  their  frequent 
occurrence,  perhaps  the  most  important,  and  certainly  they  are  the 
most  intricate  and  difficult  to  explain.  But  they  are  only  a 
transient  element  in  the  present  question ;  and  if  we  would  see 
what  substantial  change  is  in  progress  in  the  value  of  Money,  we 


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1880.]  in  Englcmd  cmd  throughout  the  World  ?  17 

must  look  to  the  more  permanent  element,  namely,  the  Supply  of 
the  Precious  Metals,  and  our  employment  of  them  as  Money.  The 
use  of  Money  throughout  the  world  is  always  extending  with  the 
spread  of  civilisatiou,  growth  of  population,  and  increase  of  Trade ; 
and  whenever  the  produce  of  the  mines  seriously  declines,  the 
probability  is  that  a  scarcity  of  Money  is  impending.  Upon  this 
matter  I  venture  to  state  my  conclusions  as  follows  : — 

(1).  As  r^ards  the  value  of  Money  in  India.  No  one  alleges 
that  the  Indian  currency  was  in  excess,  or  in  any  way  depreciated, 
prior  to  1873,  i.e.,  just  before  the  change  began  in  the  relative  value 
of  gold  and  silver.  Well  then,  since  1872,  the  annual  supply  or 
influx  of  silver  iuto  India,  has  been  only  one-fourth  what  it  used  to 
be  during  the  seventeen  years  previously.*  Accordingly,  coderis 
parihusj  a  rise  in  the  value  of  Money  in  India  would  be  natural ; 
and  certainly  it  is  inconceivable  that  there  should  have  been  a  fall, 
or  depreciation.  Moreover,  if  there  were  a  Fall  or  Depreciation, 
the  rupee  would  lose  a  portion  of  its  purchasing  power,  and  hence 
a  larger  quantity  of  silver  must  be  required  than  before, —  whereas, 
as  just  shown,  there  has  been  a  great  decrease  in  the  supply  of 
silver  in  India.  Mr.  Bagehot  has  justly  remarked  that  the  Indian 
metaUic  currency  is  so  large  that  a  depreciation  of  merely  2  per 
cent,  would  require  a  great  addition  to  the  stock  of  silver. 
Whereas,  I  repeat,  there  has  been  a  great  reduction  in  tlie  annual 
supply  since  1872,  when  the  change  began  in  the  value  of  silver 
compared  with  gold. 

(2).  Next,  as  to  the  value  of  Money  in  the  gold-countries,  or  in 
England  and  the  countries  of  the  Western  world  generally.  Since 
1872,  the  supply  of  gold  from  the  Mines  has  continued  to  decline, 
although  only  slightly,  and  at  present  the  supply  is  nearly  30  per 
cent,  less  than  it  was  between  1851  and  1860.  At  the  same  time, 
since  1872,  the  extensive  Demonetisation  of  Silver  has  created  a 
proportionate  increase  of  the  requirements  for  Gold.  Hence,  as  the 
gold-supply  has  somewhat  decreased  sinQe  1872,  while  the  require- 
ments for  gold  have  been  greatly  augmented,  the  tendency  of  these 
circumstances  must  certainly  be  to  raise  the  value  of  Money  in 
those  countries  where  gold  is  the  sole  or  chief  currency. 

(3).  tJpon  these  grounds  (apart  altogether  from  the  evidence 
of  Prices)  it  certainly  appears  that  the  value  of  Money  is  rising 

*  During  the  seventoen  years  ending  on  Slat  March,  1872,  the  nett  imports 
of  the  precious  metals,  or  the  increase  of  gold  and  silver  in  India  amount^  to 
236!  millions  sterling,  or  at  the  rate  of  13*9  millions  a-yoar :  of  which  amount 
154}  millions  were  silver,  giving  an  annual  average  of  9*1  millions  of  that  metal. 
During  the  next  four  years — during  which  period  the  Fall  of  Silver  relatively  to 
gold  occurred,  and  reached  its  maximum — the  nett  imports  of  silver  into  India 
amounted  to  913531584^  i  or  at  the  rate  of  2  J  millions  a-year,  or  little  more  than  a 
quarter  of  the  previous  rate  of  supply. — See  Appendix  A. 

VOL.   XLUI.      PAST  I.  C 


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18  Patterson — Is  the  Vcdtte  of  Money  Rising  [Mari 

throagboTit  the  world,  both  in  the  East  and  in  the  West, — the  rise 
being  greatest  in  gold,  the  metal  most  in  nse  among  the  chief 
trading  nations  of  the  world. 

(4).  I  see  mach  groand  for  believing  that,  bnt  for  the  wide 
demonetisation  of  silver  in  the  Western  world,  the  fall  in  the  valne 
of  that  metal  relatively  to  gold  wonld  at  most  have  been  slight 
and  transient.  The  Dse  of  silver-money,  especially  in  the  East,  is 
so  extensive  as  to  require  a  large  amount  of  that  metal  for  the  mere 
maintenance  of  those  silver  currencies,  as  well  as  for  the  additions 
which  are  naturally  required,  owing  to  the  growth  of  trade.  In 
1878,  the  expenditure  of  British  capital  for  the  railways  in  India 
had  come  to  an  end ;  and,  owing  to  the  world-wide  Depression  of 
Trade,  the  foreign  trade  of  India  became,  not  retrogressive,  but 
stationary.  And  under  these  circumslances  silver,  which  had 
previously  risen  in  value  compared  with  gold,  returned  to  its  old 
and  traditional  price  in  gold.  But  thereupon  the  work  of  demone- 
tising silver  commenced  in  Europe,  and  the  gold-price  of  silver  has 
fallen  greatly.  Bnt  for  this  arbitrary  change  (viz.,  the  demonetisa- 
tion), I  think  any  change  in  the  value  of  silver  relatively  to  gold, 
would  have  been  slight,  and  transient.  Since  the  world  proved  able 
to  absorb  some  20  millions  of  new  gold  annually,  is  it  not  probable 
(to  say  the  least)  that  now,  when  the  gold-supply  has  diminished 
to  the  extent  of  8  millions  sterling,  the  world  would  have  been 
able  to  absorb  the  7  millions  of  new  silver  from  Nevada  ?  In  fact, 
but  for  the  demonetisation  of  silver,  would  not  the  recent  deficit 
of  gold  have  been  just  compensated  by  the  increase  of  silver, — 
thereby  preventing  that  **  scarcity  of  metallic  money  **  whioh  the 
leading  merchants  and  bankers  of  the  City  of  London  now  deplore 
in  their  Memorial  to  the  Prime  Minister. 

When  one  of  the  metals  which  constitute  Money  is  becoming 
scarce,  it  is  a  strange  procedure  to  demonetise  the  otiier. 

VII. — The  Subject  at  Home. 

Passing  from  this  broad,  if  not  world-wide  view  of  the  question 
as  to  the  present  and  prospective  Value  of  Money,  I  shall  conclude 
by  coming  to  the  state  of  matters  at  home.  Gold  is  the  single 
money  of  this  country,  and  it  is  gold  that  is  becoming  scarce ;  and 
I  shall  briefly  call  attention  to  one  part  of  our  Monetary  System 
through  which  a  scarcity  will  first  make  itself  embarrassingly 
manifest. 

It  is  some  ten  years  since,  in  a  discussion  in  this  Society  upon 
an  able  paper  read  by  Mr.  Chubb,  I  drew  attention  to  the  matter 
of  which  I  shall  now  treat  more  fally,  and  which  in  the  interval 
has  acquired  additional  importance,  namely, — the  steady  increase  of 
tbe   note-circulation  of  the  Bank  of  England  pf  late  years,  and 


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1880.]  m  Etiglcmd  and  ihroughout  ihe  World  ?  19 

which  seems  bonnd  to  go  on, — requiring  a  larger  and  larger  amount 
of  gold  to  be  locked  up  in  the  Bonk  in  oonnectioa  with  its  note 
issues. 

VIIL — ISiecemt  Groitd%  of  the  Hote-^Ctrctilh^ion, 

For  twenty  years  after  1844^  the  Bioik's  note-tissues  remained 
stationary  in  STerage  amount,  or  indeed  averaged  somewhat  less 
than  at  the  time  whem>  the  Bank  Act  was  pegged.  At  first  sight 
this  circumstance  appears  somewhat  surprising,,  because  during 
those  twenty  years  the  trade  of  the -country  had  expanded  vastly ; 
more  Trade  requires  more  currency,  or  else  an*  improvement  in  the 
methods  of  economising  it.  The  new  gold-mines  of  California 
and  Australia  enabled  additions  to  be  made  year  by  year  to  our 
stock  of  ^ small  money,! ''the  gold  coins  in  permanent  circulation, 
and  these  annuaT  additions,,  in  the  aggregate,,  have  amounted  to  a 
very  large  sam ;  but,  simultaneously,,  ouriappliancefr  for  economising 
money  increased  in  a  still  more  remarkable  and  important  manner. 
The  employment  of  bank  cheques  in  payments  between  individuals 
became  general,  and  by-and-bye  universal.  Thereafter  the  "clearing 
''  system  **  established  a  similar  economy  of  money  between  the 
Banks, — the  system  being  gradually  extended  until  it  was  made 
complete  (in  its  present  form)  by  the  Bank  of  England  joining 
the  Clearing  House  in  1864.  This  sums  up  the  monetary 
economies  effected  during  these  twenty  years,  and  since  then  no 
new  economy  of  the  currency  has  oome  into  operation.  Con- 
sequently the  currency  itself  has  had  to  be  increased,  in  order  to 
meet  the  requirements  of  our  expanding  trade.  As  Mr.  Newmarch 
has  recently  shown  in  a  valuable  article  in  the  "  Banking  Magazine  " 
an  important  cause  of  this  rise  in  the  amouBit  of  the  Bank  of 
England's  note-issues  is  the  large  number  of  new  banking  offices 
(chiefly  branches),  which  have  been  opened  of  late  years  ;  each  of 
whichy  ef  ceuise;  has  to  keep  in<  hMid  some  amount  of  notes,  as 
the  basis  of  its  operations.* 

*  Mr.  Newmarch  sbowi  that  dnrmg  the  laat  tweutj  years  (since  1858)  the 
number  of  banking  offices,  taking  banks  and  brancbea  together,  in  the  Metropolis, 
haa  increased  from  84  to  ii  i,  or  nearly  threefold;  in  the  Wast  of  England  the 
increase  has  been  from  1,212  to  2,195,  or  8ii  per  cent.;,  in  Scotland  from  609  to 
950,  or  56  per  cent.;  and  in  Ireland  from  187  to  4*1,.  or  113  per  cent.  For  the 
whole  of  the  United  Kingdom,  Mr.  Newmarch  states  that  there  has  been  an 
increase  of  banking  offices  to  the  namher  of  1,546,  or  abo«t  77  per  cent.  Each  of 
these  new  offices,  of  course,  requires  a  certain  amoant  in  cai^  (notes  and  coin)  in 
hand  to  carry  on  its  business;  and  Mr.  Newmarch  says,  "  If  we  assume  that  the 
"  new  bank-offices  keep  on  the  arerage  no  larger  a  sum  than  3,oooZ.  in  Bank  of 
**  England  notes,  this  will  account  for  4*74  millions  sterling  out  of  the  total 
'*  increase  [in  the  Bank  of  England's  note  circulation]  of  6*60  milliona—- leaving  an 
"  unascertained  margin  of  only  1*86  mUlions — a  sum  most  probably  all  absorbed 
"  in  the  larger  bank-note  reserves  kept  by  the  older  bank-offices." — •*  Bunker's 
<«  Magaime/'  October,  1879. 

C2 


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20  Patterson — la  the  Value  of  Money  Einng  [Mar. 

The  following  statistics  show  the  extent  of  the  change  as 
regards  the  note- circulation  of  the  Bank  of  England.  On  the 
passing  of  the  Bank  Act  in  1844  the  note  issnes  of  the  Bank 
amounted  to  21,200,000/.,  and,  as  already  said,  they  remained  a 
little  below  this  amount  on  the  average  of  the  subsequent  twenty 
years;  that  is,  down  to  1864.  After  that  time  the  Bank's  note 
circulation  began  steadily  to  increase,  and  during  the  last  twelve 
months  the  increase  has  proceeded  with  unprecedented  rapidity, 
doubtless  owing,  in  great  part,  to  the  shaking  of  bank  credit 
generally,  by  the  scand^ous  and  disastrous  collapse  of  the  City  of 
Glasgow  Bank  and  others.  Although  the  banking  panic  has  quite 
passed  away,  I  think  that  the  addition  which  it  has  occasioned  in 
the  note  issues  of  the  Bank  of  England  as  it  now  stands,  and  when 
trade  revives,  is  likely  to '  be  permanent.  '  The  following  figures 
show  the  average  note-circulation  of  the  Bank  of  England  since 
1844,  and  the  great  expansion  which  it  has  undergone  since 
1864:— 

^ote  Circulation  of  the  Bank  of  England* 

£ 

1844  to  1864  20,500,000 

*66.    6th  July    to  25th  October  21,950,000 

*71.    5th    „       „  25th      „        25,800,000 

*72.    3rd    „       „  25th  September 2(>,6oo,ooo 

*73.    2nd    „       „  15th  October  .26^125,000 

'78.    8rd  April   „  Hth  August    27,900,000 

*79.     Ut  January  to'SOth  September 29,244,000 

Here  it  appears  that,  apart  &om  the  events  of  the  last  twelve 
months,  the  Bank's  note  circulation  since  1864  had  increased  by 
more  than  7  millions ;  and  at  present,  or  rather,  taking  the  avei'age 
since  the  commencement  of  the  present  year,  the  increase  has  been 
8|  millions  since  1864, — and  this  despite  an  almost  unprecedented 
depression  of  Trade,  and  consequent  diminution  .of  the  ordinary 
requirement  for  bank-notes. 

IX. — Rise  of  the  Bank^McUe. 

The  effects  of  this  change  are  of  a  serious  character  as  regards 
the  value  of  money  in  this  country,  especially  when  we  consider  the 
decline  of  the  gold-mines  and  the  new  requirements  for  gold  pro- 
duced by  the  demonetisation  of  silver.  As  is  well  known,  the  Bank 
Act  requires  that  for  the  portion  of  the  Bank's  note  circulation  in 
excess  of  1 5  millions  an  equal  amount  of  specie  (three-fourths  of 
which  must  be  gold)  shall  be  kept  locked  up  in  the  Issue  Depart- 
ment. Accordingly  nearly  9  millions  of  specie  have  thus  to  be 
kept  locked  up  more  than  was  necessary  in  1864  a^d  previously ;  and 
the  total  amoant  of  specie  thus  immobilised  in  connection  with  tJje 


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1880.] 


in  England  and  throughout  the  World  ? 


21 


Bank's  note  circnlation  is  now  upwards  of  14  millions, — an  amount 
twice  as  great  as  the  eniire  stock  of  coin  and  bullion  which  used  to 
be  held  by  the  Bank  previous  to»1842. 

The  effects  of  tl»is  change  have  t6ld  seriously  upon  the  Bank-rate, 
or  the  value  of  money  on  loan.  When  the  Bank-rate  rises  to  5  per 
cent.,  money  on  loan  begins  to  become  dear;  and  the  following 
tables  show  the  stock  of  coin  and  bullion  held  by  the  Bank  on  the 
several  occasions  when  the  bank-rate  was^fixed  at  this  point  (viz., 
5  per  cent.)  in  two  periods:  first,  between  1844  and  1864;  and 
secondly,  since  1864  to  the  present  date : — 


1847. 
'47. 
'63. 
'54. 
'56. 
'66. 
'66. 
'6a 
'60. 


8th  April   

23rd  December  .... 
20th  September.... 

8rd  August    

27th  September.... 

29th  May  

Ist  October    

14th  January 

12th  April 


1844-64 :  Ftve-per  Cent' 
£ 
9,236/)oo 
11,609,000 
15,066,000 
ii,594iOoo 
12,368,000 
10,766,000 

IO,2i7,000 

13,746,000 
13,890,000 


1860.  13th  November....  1 2,536,000 

'60.  28th        „        ....  12,419,00c 

'61.  11th  April.... 11,520,000 

'61.  Ist  August- 14,482,000 

'68.  28th  January;  ....  12,737,000 

'63.  2iid  Neyember ....  13,300,000 


15)183,496,000 


Average    12,233,000 


Since  1864  the  corresponding  statistics  have  been  asfollows : 


1870. 
'71. 
'72. 
'72. 
'73. 
'73. 
'78. 
'78. 


27th  July   19,252,000 

7th  October  19,500,000 

2nd       „        21,156,000 

11th  Decembw ....  23,244,000 

14th  May   ^,166,000 

9th  July 22,374,000 

Ist  October    21,^32,000 

4th  December    ....  21,667,000 


1865-79  :  Five  per  Cent, 
£ 


1874.  16th  November ....  20,201,000 

'75.  7th  January  22,085,000 

'76.  6th        „        21,215,000 

'77.  11th  October 22,788,000 

'78.  12th  August 21,683,000 

'78.  2l8t  November  ....  26,333,000 


Average  21,735,000 


)  Thus,  during  the  last  nine  years,  the  Bank-rate  has  been  fixed 
at  5  per  cent,  when  the  stock  of  specie  has  averaged  24 1  millions, 
as  against  12}  millions  in  the  previous  time,*— the  5  per  cent, 
point  being  now  reached  while  there  are  9I  millions  more  specie  in 
the  Bank  than  used  to  be  the  case  during  the  twenty  years  after 
1844  In  truth,  owing  to  the  increase  oi  the  note-circulation,  the 
Bank  is  in  no  better  position  now  with  22  millions  of  specie,  than  it 
used  to  be  up  to  1864  with  only  12  millions. 

The  statistics  above  given  show  that  the  connection  between 
the  increase  of  the  Note-circulation  since  1864  and  the  rise  of  the 
Bank-rate  (relatively  to  the  stock  of  gold)  is  perfect, — the  Circula- 
tion having  increased  g\  millions,  and  the  Bate  standing  at  5  pei 


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22  Patterson — Is  the  Value  of  Money  Rising  [Mar. 

oent.  when  the  stock  of  coin  and  bullion  is  9I' millions  more  than 
in  1864  and  previoaslj. 

In  giving  these  figures  I  have  taken  the  averages, — a  procedure 
which  makes  the  extent  of  the  change  appear  considerably  less  than 
it  really  is ;  for,  as  the  figures  show,  the  amount  of  gold  in  Bank 
requisite  to  maintain  %  5  per  cent,  rate  of  discount  is  upwards  of 
a 6  millions ;  or  twice  as  large  as  was  thought  or  found  requisite 
in  1864,  and  nearly  three  times  as  large  as  in  1844.  In  relation 
to  the  stock  of  gold  in  the  Bank,  the  rate  of  discount  has  been 
rising  throughout  the  entire  period.  Indeed  it  is  a  point  worthy 
of  notice  that  even  during  the  twenty  years  ending  with  1864, — 
during  which  period,  as  already  shown,  there  was  no  increase  of 
the  Bank's  note-circulation, — the  Bank-rate  was  considerably  raised 
relative  to  the  amount  of  gold  in  the  Bank.  And  this  leads  me  to 
observe  that  the  policy  or  system  of  the  Court  of  Directors  may 
and  does  exert  a  great  influence  upon  the  Bank-rate,  irrespective 
both  of  the  stock  of  gold  and  ihe  amount  of  the  note-circulation. 
For  rather  more  than  twen^  years  past,  the  policy  of  the 
Directors  has  tended  towards  quicker  and  greater  elevations  of  the 
Bank-rate,  compared  with  the  available  stock  of  gold,  than  had 
been  customary  before,  and  for  some  years  immediately  subsequent 
to,  the  passing  of  the  Act  of  1844, — the  chief  causes  of  the 
change  being  the  ignoring  of  any  difference  between  Home  and 
Foreign  drains  of  gold  ;  these  were  treated  entirely  alike, — a  pro- 
cedure which  I  ventured  to  object  to  in  two  Papers  which  I  had 
the  honour  to  read  before  this  Society  in  1870  and  1871.*  The 
worst  and  only  serious  form  of  a  Home  Drain  is  that  which  occurs 
during  a  Commercial  or  Banking  Crisis ;  and  such  drains  always 
end,  after  a  month  or  two,  by  creating  a  plethora  of  gold  in  the 
Bank.  A  year  ago,  however,  during  the  Banking  Crisis,  the  Bank 
Directors  very  considerably  altered  their  practice,  and  the  change 
which  they  then  made  was  not  only  highly  beneficial  to  the  com- 
munity, but,  as  seems  to  me,  perfectly  correct  in  principle. 

Both  the  Act  of  1819,  and  the  Act  of  1844  recognised  bi- 
metallism— both  gold  and  silver — as  the  basis  of  the  note-circula- 
tion  of  the  Bank  of  England.  For  a  good  many  years  after  1844, 
the  Bank  used  to  keep  a  portion  of  the  specie  in  the  Issue  Depart- 
ment in  the  form  of  silver ;  but  some  years  after  the  gold-discoverios, 
when  silver  rose  above  its  old  value,  the  Bank,  very  naturally, 
preferred  to  keep  its  locked-up  specie  entirely  in  the  cheaper  metal, 
gold.  At  any  time  the  Bank  can  recur  to  its  old  practice,  by 
keeping  one-fourth  part  (about  3^  millions)  of  this  specie  in  silver : 

•  "  On  Our  Home  Monetary  Drains,  and  the  Crisis  of  1866  (1870)."  «*  On  the 
^  Rate  of  Interest,  and  the  Effects  of  a  High  Bank-rate  daring  Commercial 
"  and  Monetary  Crises  (1871)." 


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1880.]  in  England  and  ihroughotd  the  World  ?  23 

but,  even  if  this  be  done,  we  shi^ll  still  be  in  a  much  worse  position 
tkan  in  1864,  because,  as  already  shown,  the  increase  in  the  note- 
circulation  requires  some  13  millions  more  specie  to  be  kept  looked 
op,  or  immobilised  in  the  Issne  Department. 

While  the  note-circulation  of  the  Bank  of  England  has  thus 
been  increasing,  and  to  all  appearances  is  bound  to  increase,  I  need 
hardly  say  that  there  is  another  increasing  requirement  for  gold 
at  home — ^viz.,  the  annual  absorption  of  gold  coin  into  the  cir- 
culation of  this  country.  In  1867,  when  preparing  my  book 
on  "the  Science  of  Finance,"  I  obtained  statistics  from  the  Mint, 
which  showed  that  this  annual  absorption  of  gold,  during  the 
twenty-two  years  ending  with  1865,  averaged  fully  4^  millions, 
exclusive  of  silver  coin.*  This  absorption,  which  is  necessary 
owing  to  the  want  of  small  notes,  proceeds  very  irregularly, — ^being 
largest,  of  course,  when  trade  is  brisk  and  prosperous ;  and  it  was 
exceptionally  large  in  1853,  when  the  total  net  issue  of  coin  from 
the  Mint  amounted  to  nearly  12  millions, — a  considerable  portion  of 
which  sum  was  taken  abroad  by  emigrants,  and  to  supply  metallic 
money  for  Australia  and  California,  before  mints  were  established 
in  those  countries.  What  the  present  rate  of  absorption  of  gold 
into  our  currency  is  at  present,  I  have  not  inquired  ;  but  if ,  as  is 
probable,  under  ordinary  circumstanoes  of  trade,  it  amounts  to 
about  5,000,000/.,  we  have  here — ^in  the  mere  requirement  for  small 
change  at  home — a  source  of  annual  absorption  equal  of  itself  to 
one-fourth  of  the  present  supply  of  gold  from  the  mines.  This 
requirement  for  gold,  then,  must  be  taken  into  account,  in  consider- 
ing the  Future  of  Money,  along  with  the  increase  in  the  note- circu- 
lation of  the  Bank  of  England,  which  necessitates  a  corresponding 
addition  to  the  stock  of  coin  and  bullion  immobilised  in  the  Issue 
Department  of  the  Bank. 

Such,  then,  is  the  joint  in  our  harness  through  which  the  scarcity 
of  gold  will  first,  and  most  obviously,  make  itself  felt. 

I  had  intended'  to  include  in  this  Paper  the  suggestion  of 
some  remedial  measures  for  the  scarcity  of  gold  which  appeals 
to  be  impending,  or  to  some  extent  is  already  existing.     If  it  bo 

•  The  total  amount  of   gold  and  silver  coined  at  the 'I  «o  ,,    ^-- 

Mint  between  1848  and  1866  was J  '"»n9»4*7 

The  amount  of  light  gold  and  silver  ooin  withdrawn \  1%  Acq    08 

from  circulutioD  during  the  same  period  was j  *  ^  * 

Net  issue  of  ooin  from  Mint 109,489,119 

or  at  the  average  rate  of  4, 7  60*400/.  a-year. 

The  total  net  issue  of  gold  coin  during  these  twenty- three  years  was 
103,807,138/.,  or  on  the  average  rather  more  than  4i  miUbns  a-year.  The 
statistics  are  given  in  full  iu  "  The  Science  of  Finance/'  p.  677. 


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24 


Pattebsoh — Is  ike  Value  of  Money  Biting 


[Mar. 


the  pleagnre  of  the  Society  I  Bh»Il  be  hi^j  to  treat  of  these 
matters  on  another  occasion.  For  the  present,  it  is  enongh  to 
submit  to  joa  the  &cts  and  amsiderations  abeadj  stated  as  to  iiie 
present  value  of  money,  and  the  probability,  as  I  think  the  cer- 
tainty, that  the  leading  oonntrtes  of  the  world— at  least  if  the 
demonetisation  of  silver  be  adhered  to — are  about  to  encounter  a 
period  of  Dear  Money,  and  a  reversal  of  the  monetary  circum- 
tftanoes  which  so  happily  set  in  thirty  years  ago. 


Appkkdee  a. 


Absorption  of  Silver  in  Indian 

Table  showing  the  Kett  ImporU  or  Absorption  tf  Silvmb,  in  India^  1851-75 ; 
together  with  the  Contemporaneous  Produce  of  the  Silver  Mines.  The 
Figures  represent  the  Annual  Average  for  Quinquennial  Periods^  in 
Millions  Sterling, 


8iin»h» 

Inermsed  Mtofftwm 

laporUorSUTcr. 

of  Silver  ui  Iii<iia. 
Muked  PlM  or  Minus 

•ad 

•coordinc  u  it 

Price  of  Sflver, 

tke  Avenge 

rrodactaoaorSihtr. 

Escceds  or  faUs  fthort 
of  the 

perOmnee. 

after  18»S. 

of  surer. 

Nett 

Imports. 

iBcrme. 

UercMe. 

d.          d. 

1851-65 

2-6 

— 

8-14 

— 

— 

61     to6U 

'56-60 

IO-03 

7-43 

814 

None 

+  7*43 

61A..62Vy 

'61-65 

997 

7-87 

9*^3 

1*40 

+  5*88 

60H„61t^ 

'66-70 

9*43 

6-83 

lO'il 

207 

+  4-76 

6U    ,.60t^ 

'71-75 

3 -05 

•45 

13  94 

5*80 

-5'35 

601    „56i 

The  total  Surplus  Imports  of  Silver  into  India  daring  these 
twenty-one  years  subsequent  to  March,  1855,  amounted  to  164 
millions  sterling.  The  total  Produce  of  the  Silver  Mines  during 
the  same  years  amounted  to  220  millions,  of  which  amount  50 
millions  came  from  the  new  Mines, 


The  Indian  Trade-Balances,  cmd  How  they  were  Settled, 

The  aggregate  Trade-balances  (or  excess  of  exports  of  mer- 
chandise over  imports)  in  favour  of  India  during  the  official  years 
1855-56  to  1877-78  amounted  to  455  millions.  Of  this  vast  amount 
276  millions  were  paid  in  specie  imported  into  India,  and  148 


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1880.]  in  England  amd  throughout  the  World  ?  25 

millions  by  "  Conncil  Drafts,"  or  bills  drawn  by  onr  Government 
upon  the  Government  of  India.  This  leaves  a  balance  of  31 
millions  nnaccoanted  for,  bnt  which  doubtless  was  settled  by 
'*  private  remittances," — i.e.,  bills  drawn  upon  the  Indian  banks  by 
Englishmen  resident  in  India  (chiefly  for  the  support  of  their 
iamilies  in  England),  and  payable  in  England. 

The  aggregate  Trade-balance  in  favoui*  of  India  during  the 
twenty-nine  years  subsequent  to  1848  amounted  to  511  millions 
sterling ;  the  entire  production  of  gold  and  silver  during  the  same 
period  was,  as  nearly  as  can  be  computed,  940  millions — of  whicb 
amount  (taking  the  production  at  the  beginning  of  1848  at 
16  millions)  464  millions  was  the  produce  of  the  old  mines, — leaving 
476  millions  as  the  produce  of  the  new  mines  since  1848.  Thus  it 
appears  that,  but  for  the  Council  Drafts  and  private  remittances 
from  India,  the  Indian  Trade  would  have  absorbed  35  millions  rrvore 
than  the  entire  new  stock  of  gold  and  sUvei' — i.e.,  the  entire  produce 
of  the  gold  and  silver  mines  discovered  since  the  beginning  of 
1848. 

These  statistics  are  taken,  chiefly,  from  various  documents 
printed  in  the  Appendix  to  the  Report  of  the  Select  Committee  of 
the  House  of  Commons  on  the  Silver  Question  in  1876. 


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26      Patteeson — la  the  Value  of  Money  Eisvi%g  in  England  ?  [Mar. 
Appendix  B,--Prices  and  the  Bank-Rate, 


Tables  of  Prices.                         1 

Yew. 

BMk-                        ^_,_,,_ ,__,_ 

Tew. 

Economist. 

Bourne. 

Jevons. 

Bate. 

i:«ouuMO  ATvuia. 

1845... 

g>f"5 

|j3i 

Railway  Mania 

1845 

'46... 

:i '  "^ 

'46 

*47.... 

^  LI22 

Irish  Famine.    Panic  and  Com- 
mercial CnsiB 

'47 

'48.... 

106 

8f 

•48 

'49.... 

^ 

1 

lOO 

8 

'49 

I860.... 

b 

^ 

«  ^ 

1  r 

-^        lOI 

■ir^t 

Average  price  of  Consols  96I 

1850 

'61... 

^104*  ^ 

103«  |2 

P'   103 

1*18 

'51 

'62... 

X07     # 

114    • 

>•  1 101 

(2  u 

C<»)solflieaehed  io»,aTeraged  99I 

'52 

'58... 

116     ^ 

Zi 

'53 

'54... 

'130"^ 

'6 

■^ 

'54 

1855.. 
'56... 

-a 

* 

A 
^ 

1. 
1 

»a5 
129 

■a, 

4i 

6i 

Russian    War.     Loan   of   16 
millions 

1855 
'56 

'57.... 

136*  k 

140*  ^ 

.132 

1 

.64 

Severe  Commercial  Crisis 

'57 

'58.... 

119     # 

123     « 

118" 

81 

•68 

'59... 

ti5^ 

118^ 

120 

2f 

'69 

1860... 

122'* 

123 

124 

Financial  depression  in  India 

1860 

'61... 

124 

124 

123 

American  Civil  War  began 

•61 

'62... 

131 

125 

124 

21 

Cotton  Famine 

•62 

'63... 

158^ 

1 

144"] 

I 

'*3 

4i 

'63 

'64... 

172 

151 

122 

M  rn 

•64 

1865.. 

162 

•  a 

B 

138 

J 

'*'      ^ 

■M\ 

4i 

Inflation  of  Joint  stock  enterprise 

1865 

M 

:! 

4) 

"Financial  A  Commercial  Crisis. 

'66.... 

162^ 

141^ 

1 

128»S 

• 

k 

^7 

J  Fall  of  Overend  and  Gurney's. 
1      Bimk-rate   10  per  cent,  for 

'66 

Im 

three  months 

'67.... 

137 

128 

118 

•67 

'68.... 

122/ 

122 

120 

|l2i 

'68 

'69.... 

121 

118^ 

119 

8i 

'69 

1870.... 

122/ 

119 

S 

1870 

'71.... 

118 

118 

3k 

Trade  proceeds  "  by  leaps  and 
.    bounds."    Bubble  Companies 

•71 

'72... 

129 

133 

•a  Mi 

and  Foreign  Loan  Mama 

•72 

'78t 

134 

142 

Semi-Crisis  in  November 

'73* 

'74... 

131 

186 

St 

•74 

1875... 

126 

130 

3i 

^  Collapse  of  Foreign  Loans 
Bad  harvests  and  Depression 

1875 

'76... 

1^3 

123 

Low2f 

'76 

of  Trade  begin 

'77.... 

113  i' 

126 

8 

. 

•77 

1878.... 

1161I 

118T^ 

8i 

Banking  Ciisis.      Fall  of  City 
of  Glasgow  Bank 

1878 

'79t 

Jan.  101 J  ^ 

loej^ 

1  - 

J  Harvest  equal  to  only  half  acrop 

•79f 

t  As  above  shown,  tbe  TabuUr  nurol>er  which  the  "  Economist "  employs  to  represent  the  stnte  of  prices  in  187S  m  134. 
and  for  JanoHry,  IB.V,  the  Tabular  number  is  loi, — the  difference  in  figures  being  33.  But  thi»  is  not  a  fall  of  33  pm-  cemi^ 
as  one  of  the  speakers  in  the  debate  inadvertently  assumed,  bat  a  fall  of  24^  per  cent.,  as  stated  iu  the  Paper. 


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1880.]  •   27 


Discussion  on  Ms.  Pattibson's  Papeb. 

Mb.  Gohbn  said  that  Mr.  Patterson  had  left  little  for  anybody  else 
to  say  on  the  subject.  There  were  two  points,  on  both  of  which 
the  dednctions  were  strongly  in  unison  with  these  at  which 
Mr.  Patterson  has  arrived,  to  whicli  he  had,  however,  not  alluded 
in  his  paper.  They  were,  firstly,  the  change  from  paper  currency 
to  gold  currency  in  the  United  States  of  America ;  and  the  slow 
oontraction  in  a  similar  direction  which  was  going  on  in  Europe ; 
and  secondly,  the  very  large  works  to  which  France  had  committed 
herself  during  the  next  decennial  period.  With  respect  to  the  first 
point,  the  initial  effect  of  the  introduction  of  paper  currencies  in 
many  of  the  great  countries  of  the  world  which  enjoyed  a  large 
metallic  medium,  was  to  set  freo  a  very  large  amount  of  gold  and 
silver.  In  the  United  States  for  the  last  eight  or  twelve  years, 
there  had  been  a  very  large  amount  of  created  money,  as  it  were, 
which  was  accepted  by  the  country  itself,  in  lieu  of  metallic  medium. 
In  the  very  first  year  in  which  the  greenback  currency  was  no 
longer  compulsory,  its  place  had  to  be  taken  by  a  very  large  amount 
of  metal,  thereby  increasing  the  absorption  and  consequent  deamess 
of  the  latter.  In  Europe  this  was  aJso  going  on.  For  example, 
in  Austria  and  Italy  there  were  similar  causes  at  work  in  the  same 
direction,  to  a  less  extent ;  and  although  the  absorption  of  silver 
was  undoubted,  such  had  been  the  depreciation  of  silver,  from  its 
demonetisation  elnewhere,  that  its  value  fell  too  far,  as  compared 
with  the  bank  note ;  and  the  two  Governments,  especially  that  of 
Austria,  took  advantage  of  that  circumstance,  to  reduce  the  amount 
of  paper  currency.  Then  there  was  also  France  itself,  which  now 
had  made  the  bank  note  convertible,  and  although  previously 
practically  convertible,  it  was  not  legally  convertible  up  to  the 
commencement  of  last  year.  France  now  had  to  maintain  a  large 
circulation  of  gold.  Therefore,  as  to  the  first  point,  all  these 
countries  were  operating  in  the  same  direction,  and  the  writer  of 
the  paper  had  not  specially  alluded  to  these  circumstances,  possibly 
considering  them  as  natural  causes.  Then  as  to  the  second  point, 
experience  showed  that  one  of  the  great  factors  in  the  price  of 
money  was  the  value  of  labour.  There  was  an  immense  absorption 
of  money  created  by  any  large  scheme  of  public  works,  producing 
apparent  prosperity  which  was  really  only  fictitious,  because,  when 
great  public  works  were  in  progress,  the  prices  of  commodities 
rose  at  the  same  time,  and  necessitated  a  larger  individual  expen- 
diture of  money.  The  French  legislature  has  sanctioned  a  scheme 
by  which  an  expenditure  of  132,000,000/.  sterling  would  be  made  in 
the  next  ten  years.  It  had  authorised  the  creation  of  debt,  the 
annual  issue  of  which  was  to  be  regulated  by  the  ChamberH,  but 
which  would  amount  to  at  least  12,000,000/.  sterling  per  annum  for 
the  next  ten  years.  Besides  this  French  scheme,  large  public  works 
had  been  undertaken  elsewhere,  and  the  effect  of  them  had  already 


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28  Discusdon  [Mar. 

l)een  shown  in  the  enhanced  value  of  commodities.  America,  and 
each  of  our  colonies,  were  engaged  in  works  which,  although  highly 
productive,  must  tend  to  the  absorption  of  metals  for  the  purpose 
of  paying  the  workmen  who  were  engaged  in  their  construction. 
The  world  was  now  in  a  stage  of  constructive  work  larger  than  it 
had  attempted  for  sometime  past.  This  small  island  had  made 
railways  at  a  rapid  rate,  and  its  wealth  was  so  large  that  it  was 
enabled  to  do  so  in  advance  of  other  countries.  But  there  was  now 
a  concurrent  desire  for  railway  making  in  all  parts  of  the  world. 
GiM^ntic  railways  were  being  made  from  the  extreme  west  of  Russia 
in  Europe,  to  the  extreme  east  of  Russia  in  Asia ;  and  experience 
would  show  that  unless  there  was  some  new  secret  source  of  wealth 
to  be  discovered,  the  value  of  gold  must  gradually  appreciate  from 
this  cause  alone,  if  from  no  other.  These  considerations  were  of 
importance  to  the  artisan  and  to  the  trader.  It  was  not  a  misfor- 
tune that  there  should  be  a  period  of  moderately  dear  money ;  but 
it  was  a  misfortune  when  jerks  in  trade  were  produced  by  commit- 
ments to  gigantic  enterprises,  which  required  longer  periods  for 
their  dcTelopment  than  the  impatience  of  some  countries  was  pre- 
pared to  afEord. 

Mr.  Hbnby  Hoabe  thought  that  although  it  was  not  difficult  to 
arrive  at  a  general  notion  of  figures  and  statistics,  there  was 
nothing  so  vague  as  the  knowledge  about  the  value  of  monev  and 
the  value  of  gold.  Everyone  admitted  that  the  value  of  gold  was 
dependent  upon  the  quantity  of  goods  that  people  would  give  for 
it,  and  as  this  naturally  varied  from  time  to  time,  it  must  de|iend 
upon  the  amount  of  supply  and  demand.  The  amount  of  gold  had 
been  estimated  to  be  about  1,200  million  pounds ;  and  the  amount 
of  gold  that  had  been  transplaced  and  had  been  taken  from  the 
general  stock  and  brought  into  new  quarters  was  something  like 
200  millions.  At  the  time  of  the  German  war,  the  French  Govern- 
ment had  borrowed  60  millions  from  the  Bank  of  France,  and  he 
believed  that  the  greater  part  of  that  was  in  gold.  The  amount  of 
gold  absorbed  in  Germany  was  something  like  60  millions,  and 
there  had  been  a  similar  amount  absorbed  in  the  United  States, 
therefore  under  those  three  heads  there  was  in  round  numbers 
about  180  millions,  the  whole  of  which  had  been  taken  from  the 
general  stock  of  gold  and  put  in  circulation  into  new  quarters, 
replacing  paper  money  in  France,  replacing  silver  and  paper  money 
in  Germany,  and  replacing  paper  money  in  the  United  States.  He 
thought  a  good  deal  more  wanted  to  be  worked  out  in  relation  to 
the  difference  between  gold,  as  money,  and  paper  money  and  bank 
balances.  In  a  time  of  great  trade,  a  large  number  of  bills  were 
current,  and  these  would  produce,  for  the  time,  the  same  effect  as  a 
large  quantity  of  gold.  He  thought  the  natural  contraction  of  the 
currency  in  times  of  depression  would  in  a  great  measure  account 
for  the  low  prices  then  ruling. 

Mr.  BoTTRNK  thought  that  Mr.  Patterson  failed,  as  he  himself 
seemed  disposed  to  admit,  to  make  out  that  the  rise  shown  by  the 
alteration  of  prices  really  substantiated  any  increase  in  the  value  of 


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1880.]  on  Mr.  Patterson's  Paper.  29 

money ;  for  this  reason  principally,  that  if  the  alteration  in  prices 
had  resulted  from  an  alteration  in  the  real  yalne  of  the  money  by 
which  those  prices  were  estimated,  there  would  have  been  some- 
thing like  regularity  and  fixity  in  their  relations.  The  point  on 
which  he  wished  to  touch  was  this :  that  there  was  no  irregularity 
in  the  changes  in  prices  at  all  comparable  or  at  all  equivalent  k> 
the  changes  in  the  quantity  of  gold  in  existence  at  the  time,  or  the 
amount  of  gold  produced.  Now,  it  would  be  expected  that  if  it  was 
an  alteration  in  the  value  of  gold  itself  that  effected  a  change  in 
prices,  the  various  articles  would  follow  the  same  rule.  Mr.  Patterson 
had  alluded  to  prices  in  India,  and  spoke  of  two  articles  selected 
by  Mr.  Crawford;  but  these  in  themselves,  although  they  were 
individually  fitting  articles  to  be  chosen  as  examples,  were  not 
sufficient  to  regulate  the  whole  comparison.  He  agreed  with 
Mr.  Patterson  in  that  opinion,  for  he  (Mr.  Bourne)  had  himself 
attempted  to  draw  a  comparison  of  prices  in  India,  and  found  it  was 
utterly  impossible.  The  cotton  at  one  time  showed  a  rise,  and  wheat 
at  another,  and  the  various  causes  operated  to  produce  a  difference 
in  price  utterly  irrespective  of  the  quantity  of  gold  in  circulation  or 
the  value  of  silver.  He  therefore  inferred  that  the  change  had  been 
in  the  prices  of  the  goods  themselves,  and  not  in  the  gold  by  which 
they  were  represented.  This  would  make  all  the  difference  in  their 
calculations^  and  he  thought  such  would  be  fully  made  out  on  an 
examination  of  the  case.  Again,  Mr.  Patterson  had  spoken  of 
silver  as  though  it  had  absolutely  risen  in  value  in  our  own 
country ;  but  he  (Mr.  Bourne)  rather  thought  that  the  figures  to 
which  Mr.  Patterson  had  referred,  did  not  support  the  conclusion 
to  which  he  had  arrived,  and  he  was  not  able  to  reconcile  these  with 
the  present  state  of  prices.  The  '^Economist "  said  that  the  value 
of  silver  as  compared  with  gold  was  1 1  per  cent,  less  than  the  value 
of  gold  compared  with  other  commodities.  At  the  present  time  he 
thought  it  was  22  per  cent.  In  1873  the  "  Economist "  prices  were 
134  and,  in  1879,  loi,  which  made  a  difference  of  33  per  cent,  in 
prices;  at  the  same  time  -there  was  13  per  cent,  only  in  silver; 
therefore  the  difference  was  t2  instead  of  11.  He  thought 
Mr.  Patterson  had<made  his  calculations  last  year,  and  that  they 
were  not  in  accordance  with  the  present  state  of  things.  Recently 
there  was  an  undoubted  rise  in  prices,  which  seemed  to  impugn  the 
conclusion  at  which  Mr.  Patterson  had  arrived.  The  inflation  of 
1873  was  one  which  could  not  possibly  last,  and  he  thought  it  was 
hardly  fair  to  take  those  prices  as  a  test,  and  to  compare  them  with 
the  prices  of  the  present  time,  when  they  wanted  to  judge  of  the 
value  of  money.  Allusion  was  made  to  the  variations  in  the  prices 
as  shown  by  the  "  Economist "  and  himself.  He  (Mr.  Bourne)  had 
ventured  to  alter  those  of  the  "  Economist,"  because  the  selected 
articles  embraced  four  descriptions  of  cotton,  and  thus  the  great 
fluctuations  in  the  price  of  the  raw  material  affected  the  general 
results  fourfold.  In  like  manner  he  thought  his  friend  Mr.  Giffen, 
in  his  paper  on  the  "  Prices  of  Exports,*'  bad  selected  a  year  in 
which  the  coal  famine  had  abnormally  raised  all  articles  into  which 
the  price  of  coal  entered,  and  thus  vitiated  the  comparison  between 
that  year  and  1877.     Mr.  Patterson  bad  spoken  of  the  falling  off  in 


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30  Diteuisicn  [Mar. 

India.  Now  it  seemed  to  bim  that  tbat  depended  very  mnch  upon 
the  state  of  her  export  trade.  In  1873  the  surplns  of  India's 
exports  over  her  imports  was  3 1  millions,  and  in  1876  only  19  millions, 
making  a  difference  of  12  millions;  that  bad  to  be  supplied  by 
silver,  and  which  would  account  for  the  falling  off  of  the  quantity 
of  silver  in  India.  Again,  precious  metals  were  not  like  articles  c^ 
consumption,  which  went  on  importing  at  the  same  rate.  Tbe 
importations  were  expected  to  be  regulated  by  the  trade.  He  took 
it  that  the  real  necessity  for  the  use  of  gold  in  settling  intemationml 
balances,  did  not  so  much  depend  upon  the  aggregate  amount  of 
trade,  as  upon  the  balances  of  trade  that  bad  to  be  settled.  Talcing 
the  case  of  America  and  England  at  the  present  moment,  there 
could  be  no  doubt  that  if  our  transactiona  with  America  were  settled 
by  the  agency  of  circulating  medium,  we  should  be  denuded  of  ^old 
in  a  very  short  time,  because  America  was  taking  from  us  60  millions 
or  70  millions  worth  of  goods  more  than  we  were  taking  from  her, 
the  reason  being  that  the  balances  were  settled  by  the  use  of  securities 
of  various  kinds  which  one  nation  parted  with  and  another  nation 
took,  instead  of  being  taken  by  means  of  gold.  There  was  no  don^bt 
that  at  the  present  moment  Ama*ica  was  settling  her  balance  "vritii 
us  by  the  purchase  from  us  of  the  securities  we  held  formerly  in 
her  country,  and  hence  the  extreme  difference  had  not  been  made 
manifest,  because  it  had  been  quietly  going  on  in  that  way.  Bnt^ 
again,  they  coald  scarcely  conceive  01  a  metalHe  scarcity  at  the 
present  moment.  There  was  no  want  of  it  experienced  in  this 
country  nor  in  America.  The  great  extension  of  banking  facilities 
in  this  country,  the  use  of  cheques,  the  ease  with  which  securities 
were  transferred  from  one  counts'y  to  another,  seemed  aHl  to  supply 
the  place  of  a  metallic  medium. 

Mr.  GiFPEN  remarked  as  to  what  Mr.  Bourne  bad  said  with 
reference  to  there  being  no  deficiency  of  metallic  money  at  the 
present  time,  that  this  was  no  answer  to  the  statement  tbat  a 
deficiency  of  metallic  money  had  caused  an  unusual  fall  of  prices ; 
the  fall  having  taken  place,  money  was  again  abundant  for  the 
moment :  but  only  for  idie  moxient.  To  compare  the  present  time 
with  1873  merely  was  a  very  insufficient  process.  The  only  way  in 
which  any  profitable  result  could  be  arrived  at,  was  to  take  as  many 
cycles  of  prosperity  and  adversity  as  was  possible,  and  to  compare 
the  prices  of  one  prosperous  period  with  those  of  another  pros- 
perous period,  and  also  to  compare  the  prices  of  one  depressed 
period  with  those  of  another.  If  that  were  done  and  it  was  found 
that  at  one  period  of  prosperity  the  aggregate  level  of  prices  did 
not  rise  quite  so  high  as  in  the  previous  period  of  prosperity,  or 
rose  highei*,  then  at  the  next  period  of  depression  it  was  found  that 
the  fall  was  to  a  much  lower  level  on  the  average  than  in  the 
previous  period  of  depression,  or  to  not  quite  so  low  a  level,  he 
thought  that  from  these  facts  there  would  be  an  indication  of  the 
genei-al  rise  or  fall  of  prices  ;  and  that  general  rise  or  fall  of 
prices  was  only  another  way  of  stating  that  there  was  a  deprecia- 
tion or  appreciation  of  the  standard  money  in  which  the  prices 
were  expressed.     This  very  point  was  dwelt  upon  a  great  deal  in 


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1880.]  on  Mr.  Patterson's  Paper.  31 

a  famoTis  book  of  Mr.  Jevons,  in  whicli  he  showed  that  a  ^eat 
fall  in  gold  took  place  between  1848  and  1860.     He  proved  that 
the  averags  lerei  in  prices  was  higher  in  1860  than  it  was  in  1848, 
and  it  was  found  that  a  sovereigpi  did  not  go  so  far  at  one  period 
as  at  another.     This  was  what  was  meant  by  a  general  rise  of 
prices.     Since  then  there  was  an  indication  that  there  had  been  a 
movement  in  the  opposite  direction.     Comparing  one  prosperous 
period   with  another,  and  comparing  a  depressed  period  with  a 
depressed  period,  it  was  fonnd  that  a  sovereign  now  went  farther 
than  it  did  some  ten  years  ago.      He  thonght  that  was  only  an 
indication;  bat  it  was  no  sufficient  answer  to  say  that  at  a  par- 
ticular moment  money   seemed  to  be   abundant,  and  there  was 
plenty  of  money  in  the  banks.     He  thonght  also  there  had  been 
a  gi'eat  deal  of  evidence  to  show  that  there  was  now  a  scarcity 
of  bullion  for  all  the  wants  of  the  world.     The  recent  stringency 
in   the   United  States  was  an  unmistakable  proof.      The  United 
States  had  lately  wanted  metal  very  much^  and  he  should  say 
that  very  nearly  i6  millions  sterling  from  the  1st  of  August  last 
had  been  shipped  from  England  and  France  to  the  United  States 
[Mr.  Lionel  Cohen — 19  millions],  and  part  of  that  money  had  actu- 
ally been  nsed  in  the  United  States,  and  in  a  quarter  where  scarcity 
of  money  would  show  itself  most,  namely,  in  the  reserve  of  the 
banks.     The  New  York  banks  alone  held  7  millions  or  8  millions 
sterling  more  than  in  August  last.     Although  then  quite  lately 
the  sarplns  in  the  Bank  of  England  and  the  Bank  of  France  seemed 
to  be  so  enormous,  it  had  gone  away  quickly,  and  both  these  banks 
had  raised  their  rates.     Mr.  Bourne  had  repeated  the  challenge  to 
some  of  his  (Mr.  Giffen's)  figures,  but  nothing  he  had  said  affected 
the  comparison  he  had  made  between  1873  and  1877  in  point  of 
fact.     Taking  a  certain  group  of  articles,  and  taking  the  average 
prices  of  those  articles  in  1873,  and  comparing  them  with  the  actual 
prices  in  1877,  would  be  a  good  comparison  as  far  as  it  went.     In 
fact  it  would  be  found  that  the  average  price  of  these  articles  in 
1877  was  very  ifauch  less  than  that  of  1873,  and  any  diminution  of 
the  decline  in  these  two  dates  must  be  a  decline  in  price  only.     It 
might  be  true  that  the  figures  in  1873  were  abnormal ;  but  that 
did  not  affect  the  correctness  of  the  actual  comparison  in  the  two 
years.     Referring  to  Mr.  Patterson's  paper,  he  should  like  to  make 
a  small  correction  as  to  what  Mr.  Patterson  had  sa^d  regarding  the 
annual  consumption  of  gold  in  the  coinage  of  this  country  at  the 
present  time.     He  did  not  think  it  was  necessary  for  Mr.  Patterson's 
argument  to  put  it  so  strongly,  but  he  thought  that  Mr.  Patterson 
had  a  good  deal  overstated  what  the  consumption  really   was. 
Mr.  Patterson  had  put  it  at  between  4  or  5  millions.    Some  years  ago 
it  might  have  reached  that  sum,  and  he  believed  it  did  reach  it,  but 
during  the  last  ten  years  the  consumption  of  gold  in  the  United 
Kingdom  for  the  coinage  had  not  been  so  much  as  4  or  5  milHons. 
So  ^r  as  he  could  make  out,  the  proper  figure  of  the  consumption 
of  gold  in  the  coinage  would  not  exceed  about  2  millions  per  annum 
during  the  last  ten  years.     The  sum  was  rather  a  difficult  one  to 
do,    because  one  would   have  to  take  the  actual  coinage,  which 
during  the  last  ten  years  had  been  about  47  millions  sterling,  and 


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32  Discussion  [Mar. 

to  dednct  from  that  the  light  coin  -withdrawn,  and  that  had  heen 
melted  and  re-coined.  That  would  bring  it  to  3  5  or  36  millions ; 
and  after  that,  there  had  to  be  deducted  the  excess  of  the  exports 
of  British  gold  coined  over  the  imports.  There  was  a  constant 
movement  going  on,  and  the  net  export  of  coin  in  this  way  could 
not  be  put  in  the  last  ten  years  at  less  than  1 5  millions  sterling,  and 
that  would  bring  the  consumption  at  home  to  about  20  millions 
sterling,  or  2  millions  a-year.  In  addition,  however,  a  large  export 
of  coin  took  place  in  the  pockets  of  travellers,  and  that  would  reduce 
the  estimate  of  coin  going  into  circulation  in  this  country  still  more. 
Another  comparatively  small  point  seemed  to  be  in  regard  to  what 
Mr.  Patterson  said  about  India.  He  (Mr.  GKfEen)  did  not  think  it 
was  quite  fair  to  take  the  last  few  years,  and  compare  them  with 
the  seventeen  years  previous,  for  the  reason  that  those  seventeen 
years  included  a  most  extraordinary  time,  the  time  of  the  cotton 
famine,  in  which  the  consumption  of  silver  in  India  was  on  a 
most  abnormal  scale.  The  silver  then  went  to  India  in  enormous 
quantities  for  special  purposes,  and  was  absorbed  in  a  special  way. 
It  appeared  to  him,  as  far  as  the  average  consumption  of  silver  in 
India  was  concerned,  if  the  time  say  before  1850  was  compared  with 
the  present  time,  it  would  be  found  that  there  had  been  an  enor- 
mous increase  in  the  import  trade  in  India.  He  was  also  inclined 
to  think  that  in  some  parts  of  India,  there  had  been  a  considerable 
rise  in  prices,  in  consequence  of  the  enormous  absorption  of  silver 
in  the  seven  years  ending  about  1870.  Certainly  in  some  parts  of 
the  Bombay  presidency  there  had  been  such  a  rise  in  prices  as  he 
had  hardly  known  of  anywhere.  The  particulars  of  it  were  to  be 
found  in  some  official  papers  published  a  good  many  years  ago, 
showing  that  enormous  changes  had  taken  place  in  India  in  con- 
sequence of  the  absorption  of  silver  owing  to  the  cotton  &mine. 
What  he  wished  to  say  generally  about  Mr.  Pattersou^s  paper  was, 
that  he  believed  there  were  indications  of  a  gold  scarcity  which 
it  was  very  difficult  to  estimate  at  the  present  moment,  because  so 
little  time  had  elapsed  to  show  the  actual  reduction  in  the  range  of 
prices  at  the  present  time  compared  with  what  it  was  ten,  twelve,  or 
twenty  years  ago.  It  took  a  long  time  to  show  these  things  statis- 
tically.  There  had  been  since  1860  a  lower  range  of  prices  all 
round,  and  it  seemed  to  indicate  a  state  of  things  that  might  be 
called  a  gold  scarcity,  which  might  be  expected  to  go  on.  He  thought 
Mr.  Cohen  had  explained  very  well  how  we  would  be  affected  by 
the  demands  of  the  United  States.  Taking  all  these  things  into 
consideration,  and  also  the  fact  that  we  were  in  a  present  state  of 
depression,  we  might  look  forward  for  the  next  few  years  to  high 
rates  of  discount,  and  as  a  consequence  of  that,  eventually  a  fall  of 
prices.  He  should  like  to  dissent  from  the  apparent  impression 
given  by  Mr.  Patterson's  paper,  that  he  held  opinions  in  favour  of 
bi-metallism.  It  seemed  to  him  that  to  condemn  the  general 
demonetisation  of  silver  as  unwise,  was  really  a  very  different  thing 
from  approving  of  bi-metallism,  and  Mr.  Patterson  had  apparently 
confounded  the  two  things. 

Mr.  BouBNA  said  he   did  not  for  one  moment  impugn  Mr. 

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1880.]  on  Mr.  PaUersan^s  Paper.  33 

Giffen's  calcnlations,  he  simply  said  he  did  not  think  the  variation 
of  the  prices  in  two  such  years  at  all  went  to  establish  the  fact 
that  there  had  been  any  dilEerence  in  the  value  of  the  money. 

Mr.  Walfobd  said  he  conld  not  help  feeling  that  while  the 
paper  was  a  nataral  efEort  to  eliminate  a  ilieory  ont  of  the  question 
of  the  rise  in  value  of  money  or  the  decrease  in  money,  the  author 
had  not  taken  into  account  sufficiently  accidental  circumstances, 
such  as  the  question  of  supply  as  regulated  by  good  or  bad 
harvests,  which  in  his  judgment  regulated  the  question  of  prices 
much  more  than  the  actual  supply  of  currency.  There  was  only  a 
small  portion  of  the  currency  in  use  in  the  case  of  international 
exchange  for  commodities.  There  was  another  point  which 
affected  the  question  very  much,  and  that  was  legislative  inter- 
ference. In  some  coantries  the  customs  on  imports  had  to  be  paid 
in  gold,  some  in  silver,  and  some  in  other  ways ;  and  there  seemed 
to  be  always  a  legislative  interference  going  on  which  would  affect 
the  bullion  requirements  in  those  countries.  In  the  United  States, 
during  his  recent  visit  of  some  months,  he  observed  that  the  people, 
having  got  used  to  paper  money,  would  not  voluntarily  use 
bullion ;  but  the  Gk)vemment  were  forcing  the  use  of  gold  and 
diver  by  withdrawing  the  paper.  It  could  not  be  said  that  the 
bullion  now  flowing  over  to  America  was  in  the  natural  course  of 
events.  The  abundant  harvests  there,  and  the  deficient  ones  in 
Europe,  had  caused  a  very  large  amount  of  money  to  go.  This 
circumstance  fitted  in  with  the  policy  of  the  Government  there  at 
the  moment.  Bullion  after  all  was  only  one,  and  a  smaU,  element  in 
the  mercantile  transactions  of  the  world,  and  a  temporary  neces- 
sity for  it  in  any  one  locality  caused  fluctuations.  Bank  notes 
must  always  be  an  important  medium  in  home  dealings ;  and  Bank 
of  England  notes  were  every  year  becoming  a  more  extended 
medium  of  exchange  in  different  parts  of  the  world.  They  were 
all  indebted  to  Mr.  Patterson  for  a  very  able  paper. 

The  President  (Thomas  Brasaey,  M.P.)  said  he  could  not  claim 
to  be  in  any  sense  an  authority  on  the  complex  and  important 
question  that  had  been  brought  under  their  notice  in  Mr.  Patter- 
son's able  paper.  It  was  a  valuable  contribution  to  the  Journal 
of  the  Society,  and  he  was  sure  they  were  all  very  much  in- 
debted to  Mr.  Patterson  for  the  labour  he  had  bestowed  upon 
it.  Having  had  a  good  deal  to  do  with  commercial  matters,  he 
(the  President)  had  many  reasons  for  appreciating  Mr.  Patterson's 
difficulty  in  satisfactorily  determining  the  appreciation  or  depre- 
ciation in  prices.  Mr.  Patterson  had  drawn  an  inference  with 
reference  to  the  valae  of  gold  from  a  comparison  of  prices  at 
the  present  time  with  those  current  in  the  year  1873.  That  was 
rather  too  short  a  period  to  justify  any  generalisation.  If,  how- 
ever, exception  were  taken  to  the  policy  of  our  Government  in 
selecting  gold  as  the  standard,  a  policy  which  had  been  framed 
-with  the  idea  of  using  that  metal  which  was  most  likely  to  be  the 
best  in  point  of  value,  the  fluctaations  of  prices  as  detailed  in  the 
appendix  to  Mr.  Patterson's  paper,  showed  that  that  policy  on  the 

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34  Discussion  on  Mr.  FcMersoifCs  Paper,  [Mar. 

whole  was  justified  by  experience.  It  had  been  said  that  prioes  had 
fallen  very  sensibly  since  1873.  Were  they  to  trace  that  faD  in 
prices  entirely  or  mainly  to  the  appreciation  of  gold  ?  On  that 
point  he  would  venture  to  say,  as  a  commercial  man,  that  prices 
had  fallen  from  causes  with  which  the  question  of  gold  had  not 
any  direct  relation.  Certainly  prices  had  fallen,  in  part  because 
producers  and  manufacturers  had  been  obliged  to  forego  the  profits 
they  were  realising  in  1873,  and  also  because  the  labouring  class 
had  been  obliged  to  submit  to  a  veiy  considerable  reduction  of 
wages.  It  was  a  question,  therefore,  whether  this  fiuctuation  in 
prices  was  not  as  much  a  depreciation  in  profit  and  wages  as 
^preciation  in  gold.  Looking  along  the  columns  compiled  by  the 
"  Economist "  and  Mr.  Bourne,  he  would  venture  to  say  that  the 
value  of  gold  would,  on  the  whole,  appear  to  have  been  remarkably 
steady.  Mr.  Gifien  had  said  that  prosperous  years  must  be  compared 
with  prosperous  years,  and  unprosperous  years  with  unprosperous 
years.  There  was  a  remarkable  recurrence  of  the  same  average  of 
prices  at  different  periods  in  the  period  embraced  in  the  table.  For 
instance,  the  figure  1 18  appeared  in  the  tables  of  prices  in  1878,  in 
1871,  in  1869,  in  1859,  and  again  in  1853.  So,  too,  in  regwxl  to 
the  bank  rate,  the  same  figures  were  found  occurring  from  time  to 
time  over  a  long  period  of  years.  In  view  of  these  facts,  he  ven- 
tured  to  say  that  on  the  whole  the  policy  of  the  Government  in 
adopting  gold  as  the  standard  had  been  justified  by  experience.  It 
was  known  that  in  India  another  metal  had  been  adopted  as  the 
standard,  and  in  India  there  had  been  a  serious  fall  in  the  value  of 
silver.  That  had  recently  been  the  subject  of  an  elaborate  parlia- 
mentary inquiry.  The  value  of  silver  in  India  had  been  very 
seriously  impaired  by  the  policy  unfortunately  adopted  in  Germany 
of  the  demonetisation  of  silver.  That  policy  had  thrown  a  large 
amount  of  silver  on  the  market,  and  had  affected  prejudicially  the 
value  of  silver  in  India.  Something  had  been  said  in  regard  to 
what  seemed  to  be  a  waste  of  money  when  the  wages  rose  unduly. 
He  should  be  very  sorry  to  advocate  an  undue  rise  of  wages ;  but 
he  thought  they  had  heard  a  good  deal  of  late  with  reference  to  the 
impaired  activity  of  trade  in  the  home  market,  and  its  depressing 
effect  upon  our  manufactures  generally.  This,  he  thought,  was 
very  certain,  that  the  distribution  of  money  in  the  form  of  wages 
did  cause  a  demand  for  commodities,  and  it  was  equally  certain  that 
serious  reductions  in  wages  pi^ejudicially  affected  the  home  market 
and  our  trade  generally.  He  was  sure  he  was  doing  what  all 
present  would  desire,  when  he  expressed  to  Mr.  Patterson  their 
acknowledgments  for  the  great  services  which  he  had,  not  for  the 
first  time,  rendered  for  the  Statistical  Society,  in  preparing  such  an 
able  paper  upon  so  difficult  and  important  a  subject. 


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1880.]  36 


The  Stbikbs  of  the  Past  Tin  Yeaes. 
By  Q.  Phillips  Bbvan,  F.S.S.,  P.G.S. 

[Read  before  the  Statistical  Society,  20th  Jaimaiy,  1880.] 

I  APPBOAGH  the  subject  of  my  paper  this  eyening  with  the  greatest 
diffidence,  and  a  strong  distmst  in  my  own  powers  to  deal  with  it  as 
it  shonld  be  dealt  with.  The  subject  itself  is  not  a  grateful  one ; 
and  I  am  sure  that  all  who  have  paid  any  attention  to  the  labour 
question,  will  join  with  me  in  the  appreciation  of  the  difficulties  with 
which  it  is  surrounded,  and  in  a  very  decided  feeling  of  dissatis&c- 
tion  at  the  results  of  our  inquiries  into  the  particular  branch  of  trade 
disputes.  Indeed,  at  the  very  outset,  the  thought  naturally  occurs, 
cui  bono  ?  For  what  object  are  we  examining  the  strikes  of  the 
past  decade  ?  What  can  be  the  good  of  raking  up  quarrels  which 
should  never  have  been  begun,  and  that  should  be  consigned  to 
limbo  as  soon  as  finished ;  and  why  should  we  seek  to  disinter  the 
chronicles  of  disputes  which  have  passed  into  the  regions  of  history  P 
To  this  not  unreasonable  question  I  would  reply,  that  it  would  be 
well  for  this  country  if  strikes  had  become  a  matter  of  history, 
instead  of  being  episodes  of  the  present  time,  so  constant  as  to  be 
the  rule  and  not  the  exception.  Striking  has  become  a  disease,  and 
a  very  grave  disease,  in  the  body  social,  a  remedy  for  which  has 
long  occupied  the  attention  of  learned  sociologists  and  legislators, 
but  which  as  yet  shows  no  sign  of  having  run  its  course.  I  think 
therefore  that  it  is  not  only  useful,  but  necessary,  for  all  who  are 
interested  in  the  proceedings  of  capital  and  labour  (and  who  are  not, 
directly  or  indirectly?),  to  examine  and  diagnose  this  great  evil 
in  all  its  bearings,  as  it  is  only  by  so  doing  that  we  can  arrive  at  any 
hope  of  alleviation.  For  myself,  I  do  not  believe  in  any  speedy 
cure  by  legislative  measures  or  any  one  course  of  action.  What 
I  have  endeavoured  to  do  in  this  short  paper,  is  to  bring  together  as 
many  cases  of  strikes  as  I  have  been  able  to  collect,  that  have 
happened  within  the  last  ten  years,  as  a  text  upon  which  the 
opinions  and  discussions  of  this  Society  may  be  founded.  It  is,  I 
have  reason  to  think,  the  first  time  that  this  subject  has  been' 
brought  before  the  Statistical  Society:  and  although  many  a 
pleasanter  one  could  have  been  selected,  not  one  could  be  discussed 
which  is  of  more  vital  importance  to  the  country.  I  am  happy  to 
know  that  it  will  be  discussed  by  an  assembly  which  is  so  eminently 
calculated  to  do  so  judicially  and   distwjBsionately,  free  from  the 

d2 

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36  Bevan— On  the  Strikes  of  the  Pad  Ten  Tears.  [Mar. 

bias  with  which  the  employer  naturally  views  the  question,  or  from 
the  intemperate  spirit  which  so  often  characterises  the  disputants  on 
the  other  side.     I  feel  sadly  conscious  that  my  investigations  have 
been  most  imperfect :  for  I  have  met  with  more  difficulties  than 
I  expected  in  the  way  of  procuring  information.     Strikes,  numerous 
as  they  are,  have  been  so  imperfectly  chronicled,  even  in  those 
journals  and  publications  which  profess  to  devote  most  attention  to 
industrial  matters,  that  the  labour  of  getting  at  the  simple  ^t  of 
their  occurrence  has  been  very  considerable,  and  in  a  vast  number  of 
oases  I  have  only  been  able  to  state  that  such  and  such  a  strike  did 
take  place,  without  any  further  information.     Even  this  bald  state- 
ment, however,  is  not  without  its  uses,  for  it  has  enabled  me  to  make 
an  aggregate  of  the  number  of  labour  disputes,  which  may  perhaps 
startle  those  who  have  engaged  in  them,  if  they  ever  do  happen 
to  reflect  upon  the  enormous  hindrance  to  labour  and  trade  that 
these  quarrels  represent.     The  causes  of  strikes  are  so  few,  that  it 
becomes  monotonous  to  read  them :  nor  is  it  perhaps  very  essential 
to  our  subject  to  know  what  is  the  reason  of  each  strike,  as  long  as 
the  strike  takes  place.     But  the  points  of  information  which  are 
most  lacking,  and  the  absence  of  which  I  very  much  regret,  are  the 
results.  There  is  an  especial  difficulty  about  getting  at  the  results  of 
the  termination  of  a  strike,  unless  it  happens  to  be  one  on  a  very 
large  scale,  so  large  as  to  be  chronicled  from  day  to  day  in  the 
public  papers :   the  reason  being,   that  whether  masters  or  men 
are  victorious,  neither  side  are  anxious  to  trumpet  forth  the  fact, 
but  prefer  to  let  the  whole  quarrel  glide  into  obscurity  without 
enlightening  the  outside  world  as  to  its  specific  features.     I  have 
however  been  able  in  a  great  number  of  cases,  the  majority  indeed, 
to  ascertain  pretty  correctly  the  duration  of  the  strike,  a  very 
important  fact  when  we  try  to  arrive  at  any  calculation  as  to  the 
cost  of  a  strike  to  the  country.       In  the  case  of  very  large  and 
important  strikes,  we  are  often  informed  as  to  the  probable  loss 
sustained,  sometimes  stated,  as  it  were,  ex  cathedrd,  in  the  report  of 
a  trade  society,  bat  more  frequently  the  result  of  a  simple  guess, 
which  as  often  as  not  is  exceedingly  wild  and  vague.     Supposing  it 
were  possible  to  arrive  at  an  accurate  conclusion  as  to  the  loss  in 
wages  of  the  aggregate  strikes,  which  seems  to  me  to  be  scarcely 
feasible,  considering  the  lack  of  data,  I  fear  that  the  figures,  gigantio 
as  they  would  be,  would  have  no  appreciable  effect  in  checking 
the  recurrence  of  strikes ;  for  the  moment  that  a  fresh  casus  belli 
arises,  all  prudence  seems  to  be  flung  to  the  wind.     The  losses,  the 
miseries,  the  starvation,  the  debt,  the  destruction  to  trade,  which 
have  occurred  on  previous  occasions,  are  forgotten  in  the  bitterness 
of   fighting ;  and  it  is  only  the  sober  few,  whose  age  and  ex- 
perience remind  them  sadly  of  the  past,  that  hold  up  their  hands 


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1880.]         Bbvan— On  the  Strikes  of  the  Past  Ten  Tears.  37 

for  peace,  and  council  a  more  pradont  policy.  This  is  supposing 
the  quarrel  to  be  a  bond  fide  one,  and  not  a  question  of  deliberate 
war  carried  by  the  trade  societies  into  the  enemies'  ground.  It  is 
much  to  be  feared  that  an  ofEensive  campaign  of  this  kind  has  not 
unfrequently  been  commenced  and  persisted  in  as  part  of  a  deter- 
mined scheme,  against  which  the  feelings  of  the  majority  of  work- 
men, who  have  to  contribute  to  the  strike  fund,  would  decidedly 
pronounce,  if  full  opportunity  and  free  licence  of  opinion  were 
allowed.  K  however  the  statements  made  by  Mr.  George  Howell  in 
"  Eraser's  Magazine  "  for  December  last  are  correct,  it  appears  that 
strikes  are  frequently  carried  on  because  it  pays  the  strikers  to  do 
so ;  and  if  undertaken  in  this  way  as  an  investment,  I  confess  that 
1  do  not  see  much  hopes  of  any  solution  of  the  difficulty. 

The  following  table  shows  the  number  of  strikes  that  have  taken 
place  during  the  last  ten  years,  as  far  as  I  have  been  able  to  obtain 
the  facts,  to  amount  in  the  aggregate  to  2,3 52^  viz. : — 


1870  30 

'71  98 

'72  343 

'78  365 

'74  286 


1875     245 

'76    229 

'77    180 

'78    268 

*79  (to  let  December)  308 


The  numbers  of  1870  and  1871  are  out  of  all  proportion  to  those 
of  succeeding  years,  and  the  only  way  in  which  I  can  account  for 
it,  is  the  fact  that  a  great  epidemic  of  strikes  broke  out  at  the  end 
of  the  latter  year — an  epidemic  which  has  unfortunately  become 
chronic,  and  seems,  if  anything,  to  grow  in  intensiiy.  It  may  be,  too, 
that  public  attention  was  not  so  much  directed  to  these  questions 
as  it  has  been  of  late  years ;  so  that  many  disputes  might  have 
taken  place,  which  were  not  chronicled  in  the  local  papers.  The 
causes  of  strikes  are  monotonously  due  to  either  demands  for  advance 
of  wages  and  resistance  to  a  reduction,  or,  what  seems  to  be  the 
same  thing,  an  increase  or  a  decrease  of  working  hours.  The  great 
number  of  strikes  that  took  place  in  1872-73,  which  have  not 
been  equalled  either  before  or  since,  happened  at  a  time  when,  as 
we  all  remember,  industry  was  at  its  highest.  Labour  was  in 
extreme  demand ;  there  was  a  great  inflation  of  prices,  which  culmi- 
nated about  1874 ;  and  as  a  matter  of  wage,  men  could  get  pretty 
well  what  they  liked  to  ask  within  fairly  reasonable  limits ;  some- 
times, indeed,  the  limit  might  well  have  been  pronounced  extrava- 
gant ;  still  they  were  not  satisfied ;  and  though  the  generality  of  them 
were  earning  more  money  than  they  had  ever  earned  before,  they 
determined  to  work  the  question  in  another  way,  and  demand  a 
reduction  of  working  hours — a  reduction  which  in  the  main  was 
universally  complied  with,  though  not  until  after  many  disastrous 


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38  BiVAK— 0»  the  Strikes  of  ihe  Past  Ten  Tears.         [Mar. 

qoarrelfl.  At  the  present  time  we  see  the  oonverse  of  ihia  state  of 
things.  Times  are  bad — ^worse  almost  than  we  have  ever  known 
them — and  although  the  inevitable  decline  of  wages  which  has  taken 
place  during  the  increasing  depression  of  trade  has  provoked  manj 
strikes,  the  men  have  been  obliged  to  bow  to  the  necessities  of  the 
occasion,  and  have  not  been  able  to  carry  on  their  resistance  wiih. 
the  same  pertinacity  which  they  could  afEord  to  exercise  in  brisk 
seasons.  The  masters  have  seized  their  opportunity,  and  done  in 
1879  exactly  what  the  men  did  in  1872-73,  viz.,  made  an  effort  to 
win  back  the  extra  hour  which  they  then  conceded.  This  is  partly 
the  explanation  of  the  large  number  of  strikes  in  1879. 

Looking  through  the  detailed  list  of  later  quarrels,  I  find  that 
amongst  the  extraneous  causes  are — alterations  of  old  rules  in  fac- 
tories and  workshops;  piecework;  refusal  of  the  men  to  allow 
women  to  participate  in  their  employment  (as  in  the  case  of  the 
Nottingham  hosiers  in  1871)  ;  dismissal  of  workmen;  insubordina- 
tion (as  in  the  case  of  the  gas- stokers  at  Beckton  in  1872,  when 
they  nearly  succeeded  in  plunging  London  into  darkness);  the 
importation  of  foreign  labour  (as  in  the  case  of  the  experimentiJ 
beetroot  sugar  nuiking  at  Lavenham,  in  Suffolk,  in  1873) ;  the 
introduction  of  juvenile  labour ;  legislative  interference  (as  in  the 
case  of  the  chain  cable  makers  of  Newcastle,  who  struck  in  1873 
because  the  Act  required  a  chain  of  stronger  straining  power  than 
they  had  been  in  the  habit  of  making)  ;  an  increased  speed  of  loom 
(as  in  the  case  of  the  carpet  weavers  at  Elderslie  in  1874) ;  disUke 
to  check  weighmen  (as  in  the  case  of  the  Tyldesley  and  the  Bamsley 
colliers  in  1876,  the  Ryhope  colliers  in  1877,  and  the  Wigan 
colliers  in  1879)  ;  the  introduction  of  labour  saving  machinery  (as 
in  the  case  of  the  bootmakers  of  Leeds  in  1876)  ;  disapproval  of  an 
arbitration  award  (as  in  the  case  of  the  Ashton  towel  weavers,  and 
the  Middlesbrough  ironworkers  in  1878);  the  Manvers  Main 
colliers  who  struck  against  Mr.  Mundella's  arbitration ;  the  colliers 
at  Dodsworth,  in  1877 ;  the  Northumberland  colliers,  in  the  same 
year,  who  declined  to  accede  to  Mr.  Herschel's  arbitration;  the 
painters  at  Preston,  and  the  Wolverhampton  joiners.  Colliers  have 
also  struck  against  the  use  of  a  more  stringent  safety  lamp  (as  in 
the  case  of  the  Carlton  Main  and  Rawmarsh  colliers,  in  1878)  ;  and 
there  have  been  strikes  also  against  the  employment  of  non- 
unionists  (as  in  the  case  of  the  Padiham  building  operatives) ; 
against  riddling  in  collieries  (as  in  the  case  of  the  Kippax  oollieries, 
1878).  These  are  amongst  the  minor  causes  that  have  produced 
quarrels,  the  great  majority  being,  as  before  stated,  against  a  reduc- 
tion or  for  an  advance  of  wage.  The  persistence  with  which  large 
bodies  of  men  have  fought  a  hopeless  battle  is  worthy  of  the  highest 
praise,  were  the  energy  a  bit  better  directed.     The  Manchester 


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1880.]         Beyah— On  ihe  StHhes  of  ike  Past  IW  YewB. 


39 


joiners,  in  1878,  fonght  for  a  whole  year  for  an  increase  of  wages; 
and  at  the  end  of  that  time,  those  who  did  not  find  their  places 
filled  up,  were  glad  to  get  back  at  less  than  the  original  terms ; 
while  in  the. same  year  the  Dundee  slaters  disputed  unsuccessfully 
for  two  months  for  an  extra  halfpenny  per  hour,  and  the  Gorton 
Main  colliers  stuck  out  for  many  weeks  against  what  amounted  to 
five-eighths  of  a  penny. 

Let  us  now  examme  how  many  trades  have  struck  in  the  last 
ten  years,  and  which  are  the  industries  that  seem  most  open  to  this 
course  of  proceeding.  I  have  drawn  up  two  tables  on  this  subject — 
the  first  rather  more  in  detail,  and  the  second  dealing  with  the 
trades  in  groups.  The  subdivisions  of  labour  are  so  numerous  in 
the  present  day,  that  I  have  been  obliged  to  comprise  a  good  many 
classes  under  one  head.  Under  that  of  the  iron  trade,  for  instance, 
are  included  not  only  the  workmen  in  an  iron  or  steel  establishment, 
such  as  furnace  men,  pnddlers,  rollers,  hammerers,  &c.,  but  also 
blacksmiths,  moulders,  foundrymen,  and  other  subsidiary  classes  of 
operatives.  Under  the  heading  of  engineers  are  comprised  fitters, 
mechanics,  and  engine  tenters;  while  under  that  of  the  cotton 
trades  are  winders,  piecers,  self-acting  minders,  strippers,  grinders, 
spinners,  weavers,  &>q.  The  result  of  the  list  shows  that  iii 
trades  are  implicated  in  these  disputes.  Of  course,  as  might  be 
expected,  the  staple  industries  exhibit  the  largest  number  of  strikes ; 
but  it  is  encouraging  to  find  how  few  of  the  trades  do  strike  in 
comparison  with  those  who  do  not.  Even  some  of  those  who  figure 
in  our  list  might  almost  be  eliminated,  as  far  as  the  number  and 
duration  of  their  strikes  go ;  for,  what  we  may  call  the  striking 
trades  are  limited  to  some  forty  or  so.  Taking  the  last  census 
tables  of  the  industrial  population  as  a  general  guide  to  the  number 
of  trades,  we  find  that  they  are  set  down  at  187,  and  it  is  perhaps 
a  source  of  congratulation  to  observe  the  small  proportion  of  indus- 
trial combatants,  although  the  fighting  instinct  in  this  proportion 
is  a  matter  of  regret. 


Table  XL 

Tr.de. 

70. 

71. 

72. 

78. 

74. 

75. 

76. 

77. 

78. 

79. 

Tbtal. 

Agricultural  labourers... 

Anchor  makers 

Ail<f  Tnakers 

1 

1 

3 
10 

4 

I 

1 

7 
1 

4 
8 

1 

I 

4 

3 
1 

I 

1 

6 

1 

I 

2 
2 

1 

1 

8 
1 

1 

5 

4 

6 

1 

1 
1 

4 

17 

t 
I 

Bakers  

23 

1 
I 

Beetsugar  makers    

Bobbin  makers 

Boilermakers    

27 

Bookbinders 

6 

Brass      and     copper  1 
workers j 

II 

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40  Bevan — On  the  Strikes  of  the  Fast  Ten  Years, 

Table  Ti—Contd, 


[Mar. 


T^e. 

70. 

71. 

72. 

78. 

74. 

75. 

76. 

77. 

78. 

79. 

Total. 

SnavAn ...•.••— 

1 

1 

I 

I 
I 

4 

3 

I 

I 

I 

I 

2 

1 

1 
4 

1 

1 

2 
15 

1 
5 

5 
5 

4 

1 

2 

10 
2 

I 
6 
1 
6 
3 

I 
4 

34 

I 

5 

I 
6 

26 

4 

3 

4 

1 

lO 

4 

3 

i6 

I 

8 

2 

1 
I 
2 

4 

1 

3 
I 

»5 

8 

6 
2 
4 

8 

27 
1 

8 

2 

5 
46 

4 

11 
2 

5 
6 
6 

1 

16 
3 

1 
12 

2 

1 
1 

1 
1 

1 

19 
1 

2 
lO 

4. 

3 

i3 

4 

1 

6 

41 

2 

6 
3 

2 
5 

15 
1 

I 
10 

2 

3 

10 

2 

6 

1 
2 

2 

25 
2 

1 

1 

2 

1 

4 

23 

1 

10 
2 

2 

1 

16 
3 

2 

1 

20 

2 

8 
3 
3 

6 

1 
5 

I 
I 

5 

20 
I 

7 

3 

2 
4 

2 
6 

12 

8 
8 

8 
25 

4 

8 

19 

1 
9 

1 
6 

4 

1 

1 

1 

4 

5 

3 
I 

2 
H 

8 

I 



4* 

2 

I 

4 

I 
3 

6 

3 

16 

I 

2 
6 

7 

3 

15 

1 

5 

1 
3 

4 

64 

1 

24 

5 

5 
2 

4 

13 
10 

3 

8 

2 

2 

1 

20 
2 

J 

Brick  and  tUe  makers  .... 
Srickbftt  makers  

15 
I 

Bricklftvors    

52 

Bnuliinakera     

9 

Building  operatiTee 

Butchers   

43 

2 

Cabinet    makers    andl 

polishers    J 

Carpenters  and  joiners 
Cametmakers   ,T--t"- 

37 

187 
6 

Carriage  and  waggon  1 

builders J 

Caseraakers  - 

CausewaT  layers  

30 

1 
1 

Cement  makers... .--^-- 

2 

Chain  makers   

Chemical  operatires 

China-clay  diggers   

Cloth  and  wool  opera- 1 

tires  J 

Colliers 

16 

2 

37 
314 

Combmakers 

1 

Confectioners    

I 

Coopers   and  packing! 

case  makers  J 

Corkcutters  

13 

Cotton  hands   

120 

Cutlers  and  tool  makers 
Distillers   

22 

Dock  labourers 

23 

Drivers  and  carmen 

Dyers  and  printers 

£lectroDlat>erB 

14 
I 

Engineers  and  fitters  .... 
Farriers 

96 
4 

Fender    and    fireiron 

makers  

Fisbermen 

2 
2 

Flax,  linen,  and  jutel 
haiids J 

Floor  clotb  and  mati 
makers  J 

Fustian  cutters..... rr- 

56 

4 
I 

Gttrdeners 

Ghaswork  men   

6 

Glass  makers 

31 

Gun  makers 

I 

TTfirdware  makers...... 

3 

Hatters 

4 

Hinfl^  makers  „r..,r r 

1 

Horseshoe  makers   

Hosiery  hands 

1 
14 

Indiarubber  workers   .... 
Iron  workers 

I 
127 

Tiftce  hands  , r..„. 

8 

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1880.]         Bevan— On  ths  Stakes  of  the  Past  Ten  Tears. 
Table  II— Cbn^. 


41 


Trade, 

70. 

71. 

72. 

73. 

74. 

75. 

76. 

77. 

78. 

79. 

Total. 

Labourers  (general) 

Lath  splitters    

Leather  workers  and! 

tanners J 

Lockmakers  



I 

I 

2 

5 

I 

I 

I 

2 

1 

1 

2 

1 

1 
1 

1 

1 

1 

4 
8 

1 
2 

6 
3 

2 

1 

1 
1 

I 
3 

2 

7 
3 

4 

3 
3 

2 

3 

2 
2 
I 

8 
6 

5 

2 

4 

I 

3 
8 

2 
20 

6 

4 

7 

2 

I 
I 

1 

1 

16 
1 
3 

4 
10 

1 

2 

5 

1 

2 

6 
6 

2 

1 
6 

5 

2 

8 

2 
2 

14 

25 

1 

5 

17 

4 

1 
1 

I 
i8 

I 

2 
2 

2 
lO 

X 

2 

3 

5 

4 

3 
5 
I 

3 

7 

I 
I 
8 

I 

1 
II 

2 
1 

I 
2 
I 

1 

1 

22 

1 
2 
2 

1 

6 

2 
8 
5 

3 
8 

1 
4 
1 

1 
14 

6 

6 
1 

10 

1 
1 

1 

I 

21 

X 
I 
2 

2 

i8 

2 

3 

3 

4 
3 

2 

3 

I 

n 

7 

I 
I 
5 

2 
I 
I 

1 

1 

1 

17 

2 

8 

1 
6 

1 

5 

3 

1 

4 

1 

1 
9 

3 

1 

7 

2 

4 
2 

1 
I 

I 

29 

2 

4 

I 

6 

6 

5 

4 

I 

6 
3 

2 

6 

4 

3 

3 

I 

12 

4 
5 

3 
2 

2 

2 

13 
6 

4 

3 

3 

4 

1 
8 

6 

3 

7 

5 
I 

Maltsters  

Masons 

151 

I 
7 

Military  clothing  makers 
Millers  

Miners  (metallic) 

25 

39 

6 

Kail  and  chain  makers 
Navvies 

Needle  makers 

I 

Nut  and  bolt  makers  .... 

Offif^if^lA  ,,, 

10 
4 

Painters    

57 
I 

Paupers 

7, 

Paviors 

2 

Pipe  and  tube  makers .... 
Plasterers 

6 
39 

Plumbers  ..« 

Porters 

28 
8 

Potters 

10 

Printers  and  compositors 
Professionals 

24 
I 

Ouarrvroen    ,.... 

37 

Bail  way  and  telegraph  \ 

employes   J 

Ropemakers 

13 

9 

19 

13 

Saddlers  and  harness! 

makers  J 

Sailors   

Snilmakers ..„ 

4 

8 

100 

Sawyers     and    wood  1 

cutters  

Shipbuilders 

Shopkeepers 

2 

Shoe  and  bootmakers  .... 
Silk  hands 

82 
9 

Skinners    

I 

Slaters   

40 

2 

Rprinfir  makera 

Stone     cutters      and  V 

polishers    J 

Tailors  

8 
72 

Tinplate  workers 

19 

Tobacco  pipe  makers   .... 
Tobacco  spmners 

3 

X 

Trunk  makers  

3 

I 

Wheelwrights  

3 

Whitesmiths 

4 

Wire  workers   

7 

Zinc  workers 

I 

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42  BEVks—On  ihe  Strikes  of  the  Pad  Ten  Years.  [Mar. 

In  this  somewhat  long  list  the  colliers  figure  in  a  rather  unen- 
viahle  manner  for  314,  which,  while  we  bear  in  mind  that  they 
form  a  very  large  body  of  workmen,  amounting  to  500,cxx)  in  ronnd 
numbers,  is  out  of  proportion  to  the  strikes  in  other  trades.  While 
dispassionately  searching  for  and  reviewing  the  causes  that  lead  to 
so  many  coal  mining  disputes,  one  cannot  but  be  struck  with  the 
fact,  that  colliers,  more  than  any  other  class  of  workmen,  appear  to 
live  in  a  chronic  state  of  excitement  as  to  the  wages  question,  and 
that  there  seems  to  be  a  perpetual  distrust  between  the  employed 
and  employers.  I  simply  state  the  circumstances  as  I  find  them 
recorded  in  the  public  papers,  which  anybody  can  read  for  them- 
selves ;  and  these  records  are  of  a  continuous  succession  of  restless 
advice  and  inflammatory  speeches,  made  by  those  who  assume  the 
control  of  the  colliers'  policy  in  Great  Britain.  As  to  whether  the 
colliers  are  to  be  envied  or  pitied  for  thus  being  drilled  into  a 
perpetual  state  of  industrial  warfare,  I  offer  no  opinion,  my  wish, 
as  far  as  possible,  in  this  paper,  is  to  try  and  get  at  facts  and  figures. 
Grouping  the  subdivisions  into  more  compact  bodies,  we  find  the 
following  results  as  to  the  industries  engaged  in  strikes : — 

Table  III. 

Building  trades  598 

Metal  trades    390 

Colliers  and  miners 339 

Textile  trades 277 

Clothing  trades  163 

Ships  and  shipping 140 

Potterj  and  glass  trades 63 

Wood  trades   63 

Stone  trades  (not  masons) 54 

Food  and  drink  trades  39 

Carrying  trades  35 

Carnage  building  trades    33 

Leather  trades  (not  shoes)    28 

Fibre  trades 2X 

Agricidtural  trades 18 

The  building  trades,  which  head  this  list  with  the  formidable 
number  of  598,  are  composed  of  a  good  many  sections,  which  have 
separate  organisations  and  interests,  and  yet  which  seem  to  follow, 
as  by  an  irrepressible  impulse,  the  infectious  habit  of  striking. 
They  comprise  masons,  carpenters  and  joiners,  slaters,  bricklayers, 
plasterers,  plumbers,  builders'  labourers,  with  certain  minor  occu- 
pations ;  and  it  is  not  unnatural  to  find  all  these  branches  in  an 
unsettled  state  under  certain  conditions  of  trade.  The  carpenters 
and  joiners  have  the  proud  distinction  of  being  the  most  restless, 
there  having  been  187  strikes  under  this  head;  and  next  to  them 
come  the  masons,  with  151.     There  are  several  reasons  which  may 


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1880.]         Bevan— On  the  Strikes  of  the  Fast  Ten  Tea/rs.  43 

account  for  the  building  trades  striking  so  often: — 1st.  It  is  a 
class  of  industry  which  feels  almost  instantaneously  the  ups  and 
downs  of  trade  depression  or  revival.  2nd.  The  employers  are,  as 
a  rule,  men  of  but  moderate  means,  and  in  a  great  many  cases 
men  who  have  emerged  more  or  less  recently  from  the  ranks  of  the 
employed.  Capital  being  short,  and  speculative  building  being  rife, 
it  is  not  a  matter  of  surprise  that  extreme  cutting  should  be  prac- 
tised in  the  matter  of  wages,  and  that  disputes  should  frequently 
happen  between  two  classes  of  men  so  little  divided  from  each  other 
by  position.  Of  course  there  are  giants  in  the  building  trade,  as  in 
all  others;  to  them  these  remarks  will  not  apply;  but  the  great 
majority  of  building  strikes  have  happened  amongst  the  rank  and 
file  of  employers ;  and  this  fact  will  also  seem  as  a  reason  why,  as 
a  rule,  the  building  strikes  are  not  only  soon  settled,  but  also  much 
more  frequently  in  favour  of  the  men  than  in  other  trades.  3rd.  The 
inequality  of  wages  may  be  also  a  reason  as  to  the  frequency  of 
these  disputes.  At  the  time  of  the  Manchester  joiners*  strike,  in 
1877,  they  were  paid  8|d  per  hour,  whereas  in  Liverpool  the 
wages  at  the  same  time  were  8  jd,  at  Bradford  8c?.,  at  Lincoln  7f  tf., 
at  Lancaster  7c?.,  at  Cambridge  6|c?.,  at  Gloucester  6rf.,  at  Win- 
chester 5^c?.,  at  Frome  4|c?.  The  amount  of  labour  being  the  same, 
and  the  prices  of  living  being  so  little  different  in  all  these  towns, 
it  is  a  natural  feeling  that  the  lower- waged  should  seek  to  be  on  a 
little  better  level  with  the  higher- waged.  The  next  point  of  interest, 
though  we  cannot  call  it  one  of  very  much  importance,  is  as  to  the 
localities  in  which  strikes  abound.  It  is  to  be  expected  that  the 
greatest  number  of  strikes  would  be  found  in  the  largest  industrial 
centres ;  and  this  is  true  to  a  great  extent,  though  at  the  same  time 
some  industrial  towns  with  large  populations  are  much  freer  from 
strikes  than  others,  proving  that  certain  trades  which  afiect  those 
towns  are  not  so  much  given  to  strikes.  But  throughout  England 
and  Scotland  the  value  of  the  special  industry  figures  is  a  good 
deal  detracted  from  by  the  perpetual  recurrence  of  the  building 
strikes,  which  may  happen  in  a  little  town  like  Margate  just  as  they 
do  in  Glasgow  or  London.  I  will  first  of  all  give  a  sort  of  strike 
chart  by  ooxmties,  taking  Scotland,  Ireland,  and  Wales  each  as 
one. 


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44  Bevan— On  the  Strikes  of  the  Past  Ten  Yewrs, 

Table  IV. 


[Mar. 


Scotland 

Yorkshire    

Lancashire 

Northumberland 

South  Wales  

Durham  

Staffordshire  

Ireland    

Middlesex   

Warwickshire 

Gloucestershire  .... 

North  Wales  

Monmouthshire  .... 

Cumberland    

Nottinghamshire 

Derbyshire 

Chesliire 

Worcestershire  .... 

Deronshire 

Leicestershire 

Kent    

Cambridgeshire  .... 

Suffolk    

Northamptonshire 

Lirerpool    

Norfolk   

Hampshire 

Salop   

Westmoreland    .... 

Sussex 

Essex  


473 
388 
149 

138 

135 

131 

80 

65 
58 
5* 
51 
40 

33 
32 
30 
2% 
zS 
24 
M. 
23 
20 

>9 
II 
II 
10 

9 

5 

4 
4 
3 

I 


Character  of  Trades. 


y  Coal,  iron,  textiles,  shipping 


>  Coal,  iron,  shipping 

Coal,  iron,  hardwares,  pottery 

Linen,  shipping 

Metal,  wood,  decorative  trades 

Coal 

Shipping,  agriculture 

Coal,  iron,  mining 

K  Coal,  iron,  shipping 

Y  Coal,  textiles 

Shipping,  agriculture 
Coal,  iron 
Mining,  shipping 
Coal,  textiles 

V  Agriculture 

Agriculture,  textiles 
Mining,  leather 
Iron,  agriculture 
Agriculture 

„  shipping 

„  mining 

Mining 
Agriculture 


The  most  noteworthy  feature  in  the  foregoing  list  is  the  extra- 
ordinary prevalence  of  strikes  in  Scotland,  which,  with  the  excep- 
tions of  the  counties  of  Lanark,  Roxburgh,  Ayr,  Forfar,  and  Fife, 
has  no  industrial  population  to  compare  with  those  of  the  same 
character  in  England.  A  large  proportion  of  the  Scotch  strikes 
are  in  the  coal  mining,  and  I  must  confess  that  I  cannot  dissociate 
these  particular  strikes  from  the  policy  of  the  individuals  to  whom 
I  have  alluded  before,  who  claim  to  direct  this  organisation,  and 
whose  particular  aim  it  seems  to  be  is  to  prevent  any  possibility  of 
unanimity  or  friendly  feeling  growing  up  between  masters  and  men. 
At  the  same  time,  I  cannot  find  that  the  same  important  influence 
exists  in  the  case  of  other  Scotch  strikes,  and  am  quite  unable  to 
give  any  reason  for  their  frequency.  It  would  be  tedious  to  detail 
every  place  in  which  a  strike  has  occurred  during  the  ten  years, 
and  I  content  myself  therefore  with  specifying  the  principal  ones. 


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1880.]         Beyajs— On  the  Strikes  of  the  Past  Ten  Tears. 

Table  V. 


45 


85 
73 
66 

63 
56 
48 
46 
45 
44 
43 
4^ 
36 
36 
30 
30 
29 
29 
28 
z8 

27 
26 
26 
24 
H 
11 
22 
21 
21 
19 
19 
19 
18 

17 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
15 
14 
14 
U 
13 
13 

13 
13 
12 
II 
10 
10 
10 

Character  of  Trtdet. 

fl-Wgow 

Shipping,  textiles,  railway  works,  chemicals 
Iron   60ft]    plnth    Hat 

Leeds  

Sheffield  

Edinburgh  and  Leith 

Newcastle   

Iiondon    .,„ 

Coal,  iron,  glass,  cutlery 

Shipping,  milling,  printing 

1,        coal,  iron,  glass,  chemicals 
„        general  industries 

Co&l   iron  liriAn 

Bamsley 

Dundee   

Shipping,  linen,  and  jute 

Coal,  iron 

Cotton,  silk,  coal,  iron,  engineering 

n        coal,  engineering 
Shipping,  coal,  glass 
H&rdw&ntH   imn 

Merthyr 

Manchester 

Bolton 

Sunderland 

Birmingham 

Bradford 

Stuff  and  worsted 

The  Tyne    

Shipping,  coal,  glass,  chemicals 
Lace,  silk,  coal 
Shipping,  engineering 

„        iron,  jute 
Cotton,  engineering 
Coal   iron   nflilfi 

Nntitingham 

Liyerpool    

Barrow    

Oldhf^Tn 

Dudley    

Huddersfield  

Woollens 

Bristol 

Shipping,  coal,  leather 
Linens,  shipping 
Coal,  shippmg 
Cotton 

Belfast    

Shields    

Blackburn  

Middlesbrough  

Derby 

Iron,  shipping,  engineering 
WoolI«nfl 

Forest  of  Dean 

Iron,  coal 

Ashton    

Cotton 

Dublin 

Shipping,  general  trades 
Iron,  coiJ,  hardwares 
Coal  iron 

WoWerhampton 

'Rnthflrhi^m  , 

Ghreenock 

Shipping,  sugar  refining 
Cotton 

Preston   

Hartlepool 

•  Shipping,  iron 

Textiles,  coal,  iron 
Shipping,  engineering 
Pottery,  coal,  iron 
Shipping,  quarries,  woollens 
Mining,  iron 
G-eneral 

Stockton 

"Wigan 

HuU 

Potteries 

Aberdeen 

Clereland    

York    

Perth  

Dyeing,  woollens 
Cotton    aoaI 

Bunbury 

Alloa   

Glass,  pottery,  linen 
Shipping,  engineering 
Hats  and  cape,  cotton 
Shipping,  iron,  coal,  tinphite 
Hosiery,  coal 

Woollftna 

Birkenhead 

Carlisle    

Cardiff 

Leicester 

Dumfries 

Hali&x    

Cloth    womf»d 

Whitehaven    

Shipping,  mininpr,  coal 

„         quames 
Copper,  iron,  coal 

Plymouth   

Neath 

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46  BByAH— On  ihe  Strikes  of  the  Pcut  Ten  Tears.  [Mar. 

In  addition  to  this  list,  there  are  87  towns  which  haye  ex- 
perienced strikes  varying  from  i  to  9,  of  which  there  is  no  occasion 
to  give  anjr  detailed  account.  The  next  point  to  which  I  would 
briefly  direct  attention,  is  the  duration  of  time  which  these  2,352 
strikes  have  lasted.  Although  in  nearly  half  of  them  I  have  been 
able  to  ascertain  the  time  which  was  wasted,  in  the  remaining 
portion,  viz.,  1,256,  there  is  nothing  to  guide  us,  so  that  I  think  we 
are  warranted  in  giving  each  of  them  a  duration  of  one  week  only. 
Some  may  have  lasted  more,  and  some  less,  but  in  the  latter  case  we 
are  quite  safe  in  assuming  that  the  work  of  that  week  was  first 
broken  into  and  destroyed.  The  following  table  gives  the  time  each 
year  spent  in  strikes : — 

Table  VI. 

Weeki. 

1870 68 

*71 279 

'72 988 

'73 1,093 

'74 „ 81a 

'76 684 

'76 95a 

'77 759 

'78 1,621 

'79  (up  to  Ist  December)  1,774 

Total  9.027  weeks  or  54,162  working  days. 

The  durations  of  strikes  are  frequently  of  very  considerable 
length,  and  one  can  only  account  for  them  either  by  supposing  that 
the  strike  allowance  is  of  so  comfortable  a  nature,  that  the  striker 
really  does  not  care  whether  he  works  or  not,  or  that  the  object  to 
be  gained  is  considered  to  be  sufficiently  valuable  to  repay  the 
great  sacrifice  of  time  and  money.  The  following  are  some  of  the 
principal  durations  of  strikes  since  1870  : — 

Table  VII. 


TnulM. 

Weeks. 

Yean. 

Heywood  

28 
27 
5i 
40 

11 

27 

47 

57 
20 

23 

1872 

Wolyerhampton  

Manchester  

'77 
'77 

Carpenters  and  joiners  ....  i 

Dunfermline 

•78 

Hartlepool    

'78 

Shields  

'78 

V 

r 

Merthyr    

'74 

J 

Blanafon  

'76 

Tailors < 

AUam^aam 

'76 

'78 

1 

Bradford  

Dock  labourers  

Shields  

'73 

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1880.]         Bevan— On  the  Strikes  of  the  Fast  Ten  Yecen. 
Table  VTl—€orUd. 


47 


Trades. 


Colfien    

Iron  workers  .. 

Ship  buflden .. 
Okas  workers.. 


ICasons 


Spring  makers    ^ 

Tin  piste  workers 

Sngineers    \ 


Baihimy  men 

Tobacco  spinners 

Flnmbers    ^ «... 

Compositors    


Towns. 


South  Wales 

Burnley 

Dronfield  

Pembrokeshire  .. 

Kinneil 

Church  Lane    .. 
Bianyers  Main  .. 

Wishaw    

Middlesbrough.. 

Parkgate   

Abeidare  

Bradford  

Q-laagow    

Dumbarton   

Buncom    

Glasgow    

Sunderland  

Glasgow    

Alloa 

London 

Newcastle 

Kirkcaldy 

Wigan    

Bamsley    

Sheffield    

Edinburgh    

Newcastb 

Asbton 

Belfast  

TafP  Vale 

Newcastle 

Nottingham 

Darlington    

Dublin  « 


Weeks. 


21 

iS 
36 
28 
26 
36 
26 
20 
29 
22 
26 
3<5 
20 
28 
26 

^3 
26 

33 
56 
33 
H 
36 
30 
31 
28 

33 
21 
22 
26 
25 

38 
37 
31 


Years. 


1875 
76 
77 
76 
78 
78 
78 
78 
73 
75 
79 
79 
70 
76 
76 
77 
76 
76 
78 
77 
78 
78 
'79 
79 
75 
79 
71 
79 
'79 
76 
79 
78 
76 
78 


The  two  next  points  to  be  examined  are  nnf  ortnnately  the  most 
disappointing  in  the  whole  inqniry,  viz.,  the  nnmbers  engaged  in 
tiiese  strikes,  and  the  results  of  the  strikes.  It  is  obvions  that 
unless  we  can  form  some  approximate  idea  of  the  numbers  of  men 
who  are  idle  in  ^srj  particular  dispute,  we  can  give  a  very  poor 
estimate  as  to  the  amount  of  money  lost,  and  the  same  may  be  said 
as  to  the  results.  Those  results  which  I  have  been  able  to  collect 
are,  on  the  face  of  them,  unfavourable  to  the  strikers;  but  in 
taking  this  view,  we  must  not  forget  that  many  a  successful  strike 
entails  far  greater  advantages  than  the  mere  fact  of  the  strike 
ehows,  as  a  small  section  of  a  trade  may  fight  a  battle  for  the  whole 
trade,  and  by  winning  it  obtain  very  considerable  pecuniary  results 
extending  over  a  long  period.  The  number  of  strikes  of  which  I 
have  been  able  to  ascertain  any  results  for  certain  are  ridiculously 
few,  and  bear  no  reasonable  proportion  to  the  bulk  of  the  disputes. 
Such  as  they  are,  however,  I  give  them. 


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48  Bbyan— On  the  Strikes  of  the  Pad  Ten  Years. 

Table  VIIL 


[Mar. 


Number 
of  Strikes. 

Lost 

Won. 

Aeoonnted  for. 

Unknown. 

1870  

71  

72  

73  

74 

75  

76  

77  

78  

'79  

30 

98 

343 

365 

286 

H5 
229 
180 
268 
308 

1 
5 
6 

28 
24 
15 
43 
72 

8 
10 

8 

No 
No 
17 
15 

7 

3 

3 

2 

11 

8 

details 
detoils 
9 
16 
10 
15 
20 

II 
26 
22 

49 
55 
3i 
61 

95 

19 
72 
321 
365 
286 
196 
174 
148 
207 
213 

Total.... 

a»35a 

189 

71 

91 

351 

2,001 

Meagre  and  almost  useless  as  this  list  is  for  dedncing  facts 
from,  it  shows  nevertheless  that  of  the  results  really  known,  the 
balance  is  very  considerably  against  the  strikers,  and  also,  that 
there  is  an  increasing  tendency  to  compromise,  which  is  so  far  a 
hopeful  sign,  which  may  soon  lead  to  an  agreement  before  the  battle 
has  commenced.  The  cases  in  which  the  numbers  actually  engaged 
are  given  are  also,  I  regret  to  say,  very  few,  though  perhaps  they 
are  sufficiently  definite  for  us  to  form  some  idea  of  what  those 
particular  strikes  cost  in  actual  loss  of  wages.  The  following 
table  is  one  of  1 10  strikes  in  which  the  numbers  engaged  and  the 
duration  are  based  on  reliable  facts.  I  have  estimated  the  loss  on 
wages  as  the  daily  loss  of  4s.  for  five  days  in  the  week,  and  consider- 
ing that  in  the  ten  years  we  have  had  the  maximum  and  the  minimum 
of  wages,  and  considering  also  that  men,  women,  and  children  are 
all  implicated  in  the  strikes,  I  do  not  think  that  I  have  placed  the 
average  wage  too  high. 


Table  IX. 

Dtte. 

Trmde. 

Locality. 

Dnration 

in 
Weekt. 

Numbers. 

LOM. 

1870 

Naflers  

Netberton 

600 
3,000 

600 
1,500 
1,400 

200 

400 
1,500 

500 

240 
2,000 

160 

6CQ 

70 

Cotton  operatives 

Ck)llier8  

Wigan    

3,000 
600 

70 

Vron  

70 

Miners    

Cleveland  

3,000 
800 

70 

Joiners  

G-laegow 

70 

Waggon  builders 

ColHers  

Saltley    

71 

Hanley  

400 
9,000 

500 

240 

2,000 

*71 

Shoemakers   

Rotherbam    

71 

Cotton  spinners 

Perth 

71 

Pottery  pressers    

Colliers  

Stoke  

71 

Butterley  

71 

Railway  men 

L.  Y.  B 

160 

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1880.]         BEVAN—On  ths  Strikes  of  the  Past  Ten  Years. 


49 


Dite. 


LocalHy. 


Duration 

in 

Knmben. 

T^eeks. 

200 

3,000 

500 

20 

9,000 

35,000 

40 

1,600 

12 

18,000 

11- 

700 

1,700 

SOO 

200 

400 

400 

14 

700 

14 

1,700 

600 

600 

2,500 

5,000 

100 

1,300 

600 

IJ. 

10,000 

600 

800 

•  2 

400 

2,000 

500 

400 

2,000 

700 

11 

70,000 

500 

Z5 

1,500 

10 

1,000 

600 

200 

300 

33 

1,700 

300,000 

700 

1,200 

350 

2,000 

250 

15 

250 

160 

11 

2,000 

10 

700 

1,700 

26 

1,000 

2,000 

700 

700 

300 

Loss. 


1871 
'71 
'71 
'71 
'71 
'71 
'71 
'71 
'71 
'71 
'71 
'71 
'72 
'72 
'72 
'72 
'72 
'7a 
'72 
72: 
'72 
'72 
'72 
'72 
'72 
'72 
'72 
'72 
'72 
'72 
'72 
'73 
'73 
'78 
'78 
'73 
'73 
'76 

.  '77 
•78 
'78 
'78 
'78 
'78 
'78 
'78 
'78 
'78 
'78 
'78 
'78 
'78 
'78 
'78 
'78 


Telegnph  derks^  

Engineers  

Glass  workers   

Engineers 

Cotton  hands    

Nut  and  bolt  makers 
CoUiers  

j>        • 

Iron  workers 

Colliers  

Joiners   

Bakers    

Saucer  makers  

Hosiers  

Linen  weayers  

Printers 

Engineers 

Moulders   

Carters  

Steamboat  men 

Railway  men 

Dock  labourers 

Building  operatiyes  ... 

Shoemakers   

Engineers  

Bailwaj  men 

Colliers  

Engineer» « 

»i        

Colliers  

Miners   

Colliers  

Linen  hands 

Colliers  

Iron  workers 

Plasterers  

Joiners  

Masons  

Cotton  hftnds 

II  

»  

Colliers  


Manchester   .... 
Sunderland   .... 
>i 

Newcastle" 

Oldham 

Smethwick 

South  Wales.... 
Forest  of  Bean 

Leeds 

Sheffield 

Darwen 

London 

Longton 

Nottingham  .... 

Banbury 

Edinburgh 

Sheffield 

Xeighlej    

Liyerpool  

M.  8.  L.  R 

G-lasgow. 

Hull   

London 

Norwich 

Birkenhead-  .... 

L.  N.  W.  

Ryhope 

Q-lasgow 

N.  B.  R 

South  Wales .... 

Cleveland  

South  Wales .... 

Bed  worth 

Bamslej    

Wishaw. 

Clarence 

Leeds 

Southampton  > 

London 

Lancaster  

Macclesfield.... 

Glasgow 

Aldwark 

Bestwood  

Park  Gate 

Rawmarsh 

Unstone- 

Leeds ^ 

DenabyMain.... 
Chadderton  .... 
Manyers  Main 

Kippax  

Rosa  

Thorp  Chiwber 
Wednesbury .... 


£ 

200 
9,000 

500 
180,000 

35»ooo 

60,000 

216,000 

7,700 

1,700 

300 

400 

3,600 

3,600 

9,8  DO 

18,700 

4,200 

I,200 

10,000 

5>ooo 

100 

1,300 

600 

1 20,000 

600 

4,800 

800 

2,000 

500 

400 

2,000 

700 

770,000 

1,000 

37,500 

10,000 

600 

200 

300 

56,100 

2,700,000 

2,100 

2,400 

350 
18,000 

250 

3i75o 

160 

22,000 

7,000 

1,700 

26,000 

2,000 

700 

700 

300 


VOL.  XLIII.   PART  I. 


E 

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50  Bbvan— On  ihe  Strikes  of  the  Fast  Ten  Tears. 

Table  JX^C(mtd. 


[Mar. 


Date. 


Tnde. 


LoMOity. 


Duration 

in 
Weeks. 


Nnmbera. 


1878 
78 
78 
78 

•  78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
'78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
79 
79 
79 
79 
'79 
79 
79 
79 
79 
79 
79 
79 
'79 
'79 
'79 
'79 


Collien 


Moulders 
Joiners  ... 


Nailers  

Navvies 

Painters 

Plumbers  

Railway  men.. 

Silk  hands 

Tailors    

Cotton  hands.. 


Waggon  builders 

»>  

Building  operatives . 


Chemical  workers.. 

Flax  hands    

Colliers  


Masons  

Joiners   

Ship  builders.. 


Harrington    

Eddlewood    

Seaham 

Rother  Vale 

Pemberton 

Bristol    

Stourport  

Spon  Lane 

Boroughbridge . 

Bolton    

Aberdeen  

Staffordshire 

Hartlepool 

Liverpool 

Edinburgh    

N.  B.  R 

Macclesfield  

Bradford   

Macclesfield  

Oldham 

Leiffh 

Todmorden   

Bristol   

Radcliffe    

Rhodes  

Glasgow 

Daubhill 

Oldham 

Carlisle  

Ashton  

Macclesfield  

Stockport  

Gorton  

Liverpool  

Manchester  

Wigan    

Northallerton    .. 

Widnes 

Porfer    

Aberdare   

Tyldesley  

Bristol   


Tyne 


1 
1 
I 
I 

I 

12 

2 

4 

I 

i6 

I 

10 

I 

10 

9 
>5 

I 

20 

4 
5 
4 
I 
6 

5 
1 

2 
1 

4 

.22 

5 
7 

2 
2 

4 
13 

2 
I 

17 
4 
I 
I 
8 

2 

3 


577 


200 

800 

150 

800 

500 

500 

200 

760 

120 

200 

500 

25,000 

400 

1,600 

200 

900 

4,000 

200 

1,600 

5,000 

500 

150 

2,000 

2,000 

150 

400 

1,000 

10,000 

600 

5,000 

1,000 

400 

1,500 

500 

1,000 

500 

400 

6,000 

1,000 

2,000 

1,200 

1,000 

1,000 

8,000 


£ 

200 
300 

300 

500 
6,000 

400 
3,000 

120 
3,200 

500 
250,000 

400 

16,000 

1,800 

I3»500 
4,000 
4,000 
6,400 

25,000 
2,800 

«5o 

12,000 

10,000 

150 

800 

1,000 

40,000 

600 

25,000 

7,000 

800 

3,000 

2,000 

i3»ooo 

10,000 

400 

85,000 

4,000 

2,200 

1,200 

8,000 

2,000 

24,000 


—       4,468,950 


To  this  sum  we  may  add  a  few  totals  of  well-known  strikes, 
which  I  have  taken  at  the  time  from  the  public  papers,  viz.,  the 
engineers*  strike  of  London  during  1879,  which  is  said  to  have  cost 
28,875/.;  *^®  Clyde  shipbuilders'  strike  of  1877,  which  cost  300,000/. ; 
the  Longton  colliers*  strike  of  1878,  which  cost  30,000/. ;  and  the 
Durham  miners'  strike  of  1879,  on  which  240,000/.  is  said  to  have 


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1880.]         Bevan— On  the  Strikes  of  the  Past  Ten  Tears,  51 

been  lost,  sweUing  the  total  amount  to  5,067,825/.  This  being  the 
.snm  lost  in  1 1 4  strikes,  what  are  we  to  say  for  the  losses  on  the 
remaining  2,238  ?  As  we  have  no  figures  to  go  upon,  it  is  impos- 
sible to  form  even  an  estimate,  though  the  sum  must  clearly  be  a 
very  enormous  one.  Mr.  Howell,  to  whose  recent  paper  in  "  Eraser's 
'*  Magazine  "  1  have  already  alluded,  puts  as  an  asset  in  favour  of 
the  men  on  strike  a  sum  averaging  about  los,  per  week,  which  they 
received  as  strike  pay,  and  this  of  course  would  amount  to  many 
thousands  to  be  put  to  their  credit.  But  I  fail  to  see  by  whab  right 
he  can  call  this  sum  in  any  degree  a  set-off,  or  even  partial  set-off,  to 
the  losers,  except  indeed  that  portion  of  the  strike  fund  which  may 
have  been  contributed  by  other  sections  of  trades  or  the  public 
for  the  maintenance  of  the  men  on  strike.  Unless  1  am  wrong  in 
my  conjectures,  the  strike  fund  has  been  contributed  to  the  trade 
society  by  the  men  themselves,  and  the  payment  to  them  of  so 
much  when  on  strike,  is  really  only  giving  them  back  their  own 
money,  which,  were  there  no  strikes,  would  be  accumulating,  to  be 
spent  in  what  we  may  hope  would  be  a  more  profitable  manner. 
Mr.  Howell  seems  to  be  right,  in  my  opinion,  in  putting  forward  a 
statement,  that  many  a  strike,  though  resulting  in  the  expenditure 
of  a  large  sum  of  money  at  the  time,  has  resulted  also  in  the  gain 
of  a  more  or  less  permanent  advantage  to  the  great  body  of  the 
trade.  I  think,  however,  that  he  has  cousiderably  exaggerated  both 
the  permanence  and  the  amount  of  these  benefits,  even  when  the 
strikes  have  been  successful ;  but  my  own  observations  find  this  to 
be  so  seldom  the  case  comparatively,  that  1  cannot  help  thinking 
the  many  losers  far  outbalance  the  few  gainers. 

Whatever  these  losses  or  gains  may  be,  we  must  remember  that 
they  are,  after  all,  only  those  of  the  employed,  and  that  in  calcu- 
lating or  considering  the  results  of  strikes  to  the  country,  the 
employed  only  form  one  part  of  the  social  economy.  Who  is  to 
gauge  the  individual  losses  to  the  masters  ?  To  estimate  these 
would  be  impossible,  for  very  few  employers  would  care,  perhaps, 
to  make  the  amount  of  their  losses  known,  even  if  they  could  esti- 
mate them  themselves,  which  would  not  be  an  easy  task,  and  espe- 
cially during  prolonged  strikes.  There  are  doubtless  many  cases  in 
which  employers,  and  particularly  those  who  have  not  much  capital, 
might  welcome,  or  at  all  events  not  disapprove  of,  a  strike,  as  being 
the  means  of  relieving  them  from  a  losing  contract,  or  freeing  them 
from  the  obligation  of  paying  higher  wages  than  they  can  afford. 
It  is  better,  they  may  say,  to  keep  the  works  idle,  than  make  a  loss 
on  each  day's  production.  On  the  other  hand,  idleness  of  a  mill, 
factory,  ironwork,  or  colliery,  means  not  only  unprofitable  capital  for 
the  time,  but  a  very  serious  depreciation  of  plant  and  machinery;  not 
to  mention  the  chances  (and  very  probable  ones)  that  the  customers 

e2 

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52  Bbvan — On  the  Strikes  of  the  Past  Ten  Years,  [Mar. 

will  go  elsewhere  for  what  they  want,  and  will  perhaps  never  return. 
Let  US  think,  too,  of  the  deterioration  of  house  property  in  all  neigh- 
bourhoods which  have  been  the  subject  of  a  great  strike ;  of  the 
dwellings  uncared  for  and  left  without  tenants;  of  the  rents  unpaid; 
of  the  shopbills  in  arrear ;  of  the  tradesmen  left  with  heavy  legacies  of 
debt ;  of  the  accumulating  poor  rates ;  of  the  deteriorated  physique ; 
the  illness,  and  the  consequently  lessened  labour  value  of  the  work- 
men, and  their  wives  and  families.  "Sot  must  we  omit  to  take  cog- 
nizance of  the  cases  in  which  a  whole  industry  has  been  driven 
away  to  more  kindly  localities.  Trade  is,  after  all,  but  a  tender 
plant,  which  will  not  survive  many  rude  shocks ;  and  nrore  than  one 
instance  has  happened,  in  which  it  has  been  completely  scared  away 
from  the  neighbourhood.  The  Thames  shipbuilding  at  Mill  wall  is 
a  well  known  instance  of  this,  the  still  idle  yards  standing  even 
now  as  a  monument  of  the  perversity  and  folly  of  those  who  once 
gained  their  livelihood  in  them,  while  Sheffield,  Dundee,  and  other 
industrial  towns  can  bear  witness  to  similar  occurrences,  where 
capital  and  machinery  have  been  transplanted  to  foreign  countries, 
in  which  labour  was  more  pliable  than  at  home.  I  believe  that  if  all 
these  results  could  be  put  into  figures,  they  would  double  and  treble 
the  actual  losses  of  wages,  though  it  is  impossible  to  do  more  than 
allude  to  them  in  this  general  manner. 

Whatever  the  figures  that  I  have  been  able  to  bring  forward 
this  evening  may  be  worth,  they  at  all  events  show  what  a  terrible 
cancer  we  have  got  in  the  midst  of  our  industrial  body,  and  should 
make  all  earnest  and  thinking  men  set  vigorously  to  work  to  see 
what  can  be  done  to  lessening  the  evil.  Strikes  have  been  discussed, 
and  remedies  proposed  to  any  amount  within  the  last  few  years, 
but  we  seem  to  get  no  nearer  the  solution  of  the  difficulty.  I  may 
perhaps  be  permitted  to  add  my  contribution  to  the  subject,  feeling 
that,  at  all  events,  its  importance  warrants  any  suggestions.  Many 
people  have  a  firm  belief  in  arbitration  as  the  best  settlement  of  the 
vexed  question.  I  confess  that,  looking  back  on  the  results  of  arbi- 
tration,  I  do  not  share  in  that  belief,  but  think  that  the  success  of 
arbitration  is  far  too  doubtful  to  seek  the  remedy  in  that  direction. 
Arbitration  has  been  treated  in  so  fast  and  loose  a  way,  and  has  been 
so  often  played  with,  that  it  has  lost  all  its  dignity  and  respect. 
Striking  has  been  made  a  business  of  by  the  workman,  and  it  has 
become  an  institution  in  the  country.  I  would  make  also  the  treat- 
ment of  strikes  an  institution,  so  that  those  who  commence  the 
quarrel  should  know  what  they  would  have  to  expect.  It  would  not 
be  amiss  perhaps  to  glance  at  our  neighbours  in  France  and  Belgium, 
and  see  what  results  their  Conseils  des  Prtid^hommes  have  pro- 
duced. I  find  that  in  France,  previous  to  the  Franco- German  war, 
the  number  of  cases  that  came  before  these  tribunals  were  very 


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1880.]         Bbvan— On  the  Strikes  of  the  Fast  Ten  Years, 


68 


large,  viz.,  43,807  in  1860,  and  45,001  in  1868.  After  the  war  they 
decreased,  being  29,913  in  1873;  and  since  that  year  they  have 
gradually  increased  to  31,244  in  1874,  33,907  in  1875,  34,774  in 
1876,  and  35,046  in  1877. 

Of  this  number,  25,834  cases  were  heard  before  the  councils  in 
private,  and  a  reconciliation  was  effected  in  18,415  cases,  or  71  per 
cent.  7,419  could  not  be  conciliated,  and  were  remitted  for  hearing 
by  the  General  Council,  while  9,076  quarrels  were  settled  outside  the 
court.  As  to  the  causes  of  dispute,  21,368  or  61  per  cent,  were 
relative  to  wagetf,  4,733  ^^  '4  P^r  cent,  to  dismissals,  and  1,795  ^'^ 
5  per  cent,  to  apprenticeship  cases.  These  councils,  it  must  be 
remembered,  not  only  settle  disputes  between  the  masters  and  the 
men,  but  also  between  the  men  themselves.  In  Belgium  we  find 
the  results  of  their  operations  as  follows : — 

Table  X 


1862 
'63 
'64 
*65 
*66 
'67 
*68 
'69 
'70 
'71 
'72 
'73 
'74 
•75 
'76 
'77 


Caaea  Heard. 


2,761 

3»3i7 
3,38* 
2,999 
3»234 
3»494 
3,323 
3,536 
3,36« 
3,330 
3,5*<5 
3,638 
4.158 
3,8*3 
3,854 


Cases  Conciliated. 


2,345 
2,552 
2.759 
2,712 
2,425 
2,535 
2,646 
2,474 
2,687 
2,517 
2,492 
2,701 
2,815 
2,750 
2,738 
2,866 


Cases  Heard  before 

the 
Geoeral  CoonciL 


179 
aoo 

2ZI 

419 
403 
452 
581 
543 
579 
426 

497 

594 
580 
578 
267 
305 


Cases  Settled 

between 
the  Parties. 


201 
207 
214 
326 
840 
381 
251 
291 
242 
392 
304 
224 
220 
494 
432 
656 


These  results  in  both  countries  appear  to  me  to  be  exceedingly 
satisfactory,  and  I  should  wish  nothing  better  than  to  see  the 
establishment  of  similar  legalised  institutions  in  this  country. 
Twelve  council  boards  might  be  appointed  for  the  various  industrial 
centres,  viz. : — 

1.  Lancashire,  Oheehire,  and  Cnmberland. 

2.  Yorkshire. 

3.  Nortliomberland  and  Durham. 

4.  Staffordshire,  Warwickshire,  and  Worcestershire. 

5.  Nottinghamshire,  Leicestershire,  and  Derbyshire. 

6.  North  Wales  and  Shropshire. 

7.  South  Wales  and  Monmoathshire. 

8.  Somersetshire  and  South  West  of  England. 

9.  London  and  home  counties. 

10.  Lanarkshire,  Ayrshire,  and  South  West  of  Scotland. 

11.  Fifeshire,  Forfarshire,  and  East  of  Scotland. 

12.  Ulster. 


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54  Sevan — On  the  Strikes  of  the  Past  Ten  Tears.  [Mar. 

Each  board  should  be  composed  of  an  eqnal  number,  say  ten 
each,  of  employers  and  employed,  so  that  the  varions  staple 
indnstries  might  be  fairly  represented,  each  member  being  regularly 
elected,  like  the  School  Board  members,  for  a  term  of  years,  say 
three  or  five.  The  expenses  of  the  board,  which  would  only  sit 
as  often  as  required,  might  be  met  by  a  scale  of  fees,  based  upon 
the  amount  in  dispute.  My  own  belief  is,  that,  if  a  wages  quarrel 
arose  in  the  district,  which  could  not  be  settled  amicably  at  first 
hand  between  the  parties,  and  that  if  this  dispute  was  obliged  to 
come  before  the  board  for  hearing,  each  party  to  contribute  before- 
hand a  sum  in  proportion  to  the  amount  in  question,  a  great  many 
disputes  would  be  nipped  in  the  bud.  To  strike  costs  nothing  in 
the  way  of  preliminary  expenses,  but  when  a  certain  round  sum 
had  to  be  paid  down  before  the  necessary  hearing  could  be 
obtained,  it  might,  and  I  think  would,  considerably  modify  the 
state  of  alFairs.  A  superior  board  of  appeal  should  be  constituted 
for  the  whole  kingdom,  consisting  of  twenty-four  members,  one 
employer  and  one  employed  out  of  each  district  board.  The 
decisions  of  the  boards,  not  being  self-constituted  or  voluntary, 
would  carry  legal  weight  with  them,  and  should  be  enforced  just 
in  the  same  way  as  the  orders  of  a  magistrate  or  judge.  I  believe 
that  under  some  such  arrangement  as  this,  a  vast  number  of  disputes 
would  never  come  to  the  stage  of  publicity  at  all — and  that  the 
great  majority  of  those  that  did  come  for  hearing  would  be  settled 
by  the  board,  the  very  composition  of  which  could  not  fail  to  inspire 
confidence  in  the  minds  of  the  disputants.  Of  course,  circumstances 
might  arise,  in  which  a  body  of  men  might  decline  to  abide  by  the 
decision  of  the  district  board,  and  even  of  the  after  decision  of  the 
superior  board.  In  that  case,  the  strikers  would  be  in  the  position 
of  men  who  had  simply  outlawed  themselves  by  not  obeying  the 
laws  of  the  country,  and  should  be  dealt  with,  if  necessary,  as  such. 
I  say,  if  necessary,  for  this  reason :  a  disputant  or  a  body  of  dis- 
putants would  probably  not  go  on  with  their  work  (although  they 
might  do  so)  until  the  .case  was  fairly  settled  by  the  superior 
court.  If  decided  in  a  way  by  which  they  declined  to  abide,  their 
only  alternative  would  be  to  leave  their  work  and  let  the  masters 
fill  up  their  places  ss  best  they  could,  without  attempt  at 
interference  or  molestation  of  any  kind.  The  least  approach  to 
this,  either  by  moral  suasion  or  physical  force,  should  be  most 
striugontly  punished.  Some  plan  such  as  this  appears  to  me  the 
most  likely  to  work  with  reasonable  smoothness ;  at  all  events,  I 
offer  it  for  what  it  is  worth.  Unsatisfactory  in  many  ways  bs  are 
my  data,  I  think  they  are  full  enough  to  show  the  gravity  of  the 
complaint,  and  that  the  subject  is  one  which  may  well  invite  the 
discussion  of  the  Statistical  Society. 


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1880.]  65 


Discussion  on  Mb.  G.  P.  Bevan's  Papbb. 

Thb  Chaibmak  (Sir  Bawson  W.  Bawson),  in  mviting  discussion  on 
the  paper,  said  that  paiticnlar  attention  ought  to  he  devoted  to 
the  suggestion  of  the  author  as  to  the  Gonseile  des  Prud*hommes, 
There  was  no  donht  that  if  there  were  constituted  bodies  to  arbi- 
trate in  these  matters,  their  decision,  coming  from  a  body  not 
appointed  for  a  special  case,  but  a  permanent  body,  consequently 
likely  to  be  disinterested,  and  numerically  stronger  than  one  or  two 
or  even  three  arbitrators,  would  be  likely  to  influence  both  the  con- 
testing parties  more  than  the  decision  of  arbitrators  had  hitherto 
done.  That  was  the  practical  point  of  Mr.  Sevan's  paper;  but 
mpon  the  other  points,  which  the  author  had  not  been  able  fully  to 
elucidate,  some  gentlemen  present  might  be  able  to  supply  interest- 
ing and  useful  information. 

Mr.  Theo  Wood  Bukning,  Secretary  of  the  Northumberland 
and  Durham  Coal  Owners'  Associations,  said  that  having  been  asked 
to  attend  the  meeting  to  hear  the  paper  read  on  the  striken  of  the 
last  ten  years,  he  had  accepted  the  invitation  with  pleasure,  as 
having  b^n  actively  engaged  in  some  of  the  largest  of  them,  he  had 
gained  considerable  expenenoe  in  these  matters. 

Before  making  any  remarks  upon  the  general  questions  of 
strikes,  he  desired  to  point  out  an  important  error  in  the  paper. 
The  miners  of  Northumberland  did  not  strike  against  Mr.  Herschell's 
award,  but,  on  the  contrary,  both  the  owners  and  men  of  Northum- 
berland and  Durham  had  at  all  times  loyally  accepted  all  awards 
made  by  umpires.  He  also  deprecated  the  tone  of  some  parts  of 
the  paper,  for  all  such  expressions  as  *'  the  owners  seized  their 
opportunity,"  were  improper.  In  discussing  matters  of  this  kind, 
any  slighting  remarks,  whether  from  the  one  side  or  the  other,  did 
an  immense  amount  of  injury  to  the  efforts  of  those  who  were 
loyally  attempting  to  promote  friendly  relations  between  capital 
and  labour. 

He  further  stated  that  the  experience  gained  in  his  connection 
with  trades  unions,  of  upwards  of  thirteen  years,  had  resulted  in 
his  becoming  convinced  that  men  of  all  classes  have  pretty  much 
the  same  passions,  and  have  a  pretty  equal  percentage  of  reasonable 
and  unreasonable  men  amongst  them ;  and  that  they  all  have  the 
same  common  lever  by  which  they  can  be  moved,  namely,  **  seli 
interest ;"  and  the  reason  that  self  interest  does  not  operate  in  pre- 
venting strikes  is  that  each  party  is  unable  to  measure  and  allow 
for  the  interests  of  the  other. 

This  became  very  apparent  during  a  strike  that  took  place  in 
1866,  at  a  shipyard  on  tne  Tyne,  where  the  men  were  actually  on 
strike  because  they  wanted  to  work  a  certain  supposed  &wer 
number  of  hours  toan  was  the  custom,  whilst  in  fact  they  were 
actually  working  fewer  hours  than  they  were  asking  for.    The  men 


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56  Diicuasion  [Mar. 

wanled  to  work  nine  hours  a  day,  while  through  men  being  off 
work  on  Mondays  and  other  times,  for  their  own  pleasure,  the 
average  number  of  hours  worked  per  man  was  only  about  eight  and 
a  half. 

It  is  evident  Tiere  the  owners  might  reasonablv  have  said  that 
if  they  were  guaranteed  nine  hours  a  day,  it  would  be  worth  their 
while  to  close  every  day  after  that  number  of  hours  had  been 
worked,  and  this  seemed  so  reasonable,  that  the  wonder  is  that  both 
sides  did  not  see  -it,  and  mutually  help  each  other  in  carrying  it 
out ;  and  it  immediately  occurred  to  him  (Mr.  Bunning),  that  if  the 
owners  and  the  men  formed  separate  organisations  to  meet  together 
and  discuss  their  several  necessities,  that  half  of  the  difficulties  con- 
nected  with  the  relationship  between  capital  and  labour  would  be 
at  an  end. 

He  did  not  think,  from  the  nature  of  things,  that  strikes  would 
ever  cease,  bat  he  did  think  that  the  number  of  them  could  be 
much  diminished,  and  those  that  must  take  place  reduced  to  ques- 
tions which  scarcely  any  other  means  could  determine. 

It  might  as  well  be  said  that  domestic  quaii^ls  would  cease,  or 
that  merchants  could  be  compelled,  by  awards  or  acts  of  parlia- 
ment, to  continue  to  sell  their  goods  to  any  given  man  at  a  loss. 
There  must  be  abselute  freedom  and  perfect  equality  between  the 
contracting  parties,  and  the  bond  that  keeps  them  together  must  be 
mutual  self  interest.  These  remarks  apply  equally  to  capital  and 
labour,  the  relations  between  which  being  precisely  those  between 
two  merchants,  the  one  selling  and  the  other  buying. 

It  has  been  premised  that  all  classes  of  men  have  much  about 
the  same  average  of  good  and  bad  amongst  them ;  but  to  compose 
this  general  average,  there  must  be  some  who  are  more  or  less 
difficult  to  deal  with,  and  strikes  veiy  often  occur  through  men  who 
have  no  grievance  with  their  own  employers,  going  out  on  strike 
out  of  sympathy  for  others  who  have  left  work  en  account  of  a 
quarrel  started  through  the  unreasonableness  of  other  owners. 
This  class  of  strike  could  be  prevented  by  the  formation  of  large 
associations  of  masters  and  men,  where  the  average  intelligence  of 
the  two  bodies  would  have  more  chance  of  being  developed  and  of 
directing  the  councils  of  all,  so  that  there  would  be  less  difference 
between  badly  managed  places,  and  so  that  an  insubordinate  work- 
man would  be  more  under  the  control  of  the  better  informed  of  his 
class. 

The  immediate  effect  of  this  arrangement  is  no  doubt  to  drag 
down  the  best  managed  concerns  somewhat,  and  to  prevent  work- 
men from  individually  bettering  their  condition,  but  in  the  end 
these  defects  will,  if  not  disappear  entirely,  at  least  be  considerably 
modified;  besides,  these  large  associations  give  stability  to  all 
arrangements  mutually  agreed  upon,  create  precedent,  and  afford 
ample  opportunity  for  each  side  ascertaining  the  wants  and  feelings 
of  the  other. 

There  are  two  great  dangers  however  which  beset  these 
associations  from  the  commencement  of  their  existence :  the  one  is 
that,  formed  as  they  are  at  first  for  the  protection  of  the  interest  of 
their  members,  they  are  made  use  of  by  outsiders  for  political 


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1880.]  an  Mr.  Q.  P.  B&uan^s  Paper.  67 

pnrposes;  and  the  second  is,  that  thej  offer  a  convenient  opportunity 
for  advertising  nostrums  in  the  shape  of  political  economy  warranted 
to  cure  everything;  but  these  dangers  rectify  themselves  in  the 
end,  and  the  latter  especially  will  die  out  from  the  very  folly  of 
the  various  panacesd  suggested. 

It  must  not  be  for  one  moment  supposed  that  it  is  intended  that 
these  remarks  should  apply  to  one  side  only,  for  they  are  equally 
applicable  to  both,  and  are  made  with  the  belief  that  there  is  the 
most  absolute  equality  in  the  average  good  sense  of  all ;  and  this, 
combined  with  mutual  self  interest,  renders  a  joint  discussion 
amongst  all  parties  concerned  the  best  means  of  solving  difficulties. 

To  make  these  meetings  successful,  each  side  must  be  treated 
as  perfectly  on  the  same  footing;  there  must  be  the  most  rigid 
politeness  and  cordiality  observed,  and  there  should  be  a  total 
absence  of  all  patronising  lessons  in  morality  on  the  one  side,  and 
of  begging  appeals  to  benevoleeoe  on  the  other. 

Now  it  has  pleased  some  to  advert  to  the  north  as  a  country 
where  disputes  are  frequent,  and  where  there  is  an  absolute  igno- 
rance of  all  political  economy,  and  a  total  absence  of  all  sympathy 
between  the  masters  and  the  men. 

His  (Mr.  Bunning's)  experience  was  precisely  the  contrary ;  and 
he  thought  there  was  no  district  in  Great  Britain  where  more  had 
been  done  to  bring  men  and  masters  on  one  common  platform  of 
mutual  interest  than  in  Newcastle.  In  that  town  has  been  inaugu- 
rated the  most  important  ameliorations  in  the  relations  between 
capital  and  labour,  the  most  striking  of  which  may  be  summed  up 
as  the  joint  committee,  and  the  sliding  scale :  institutions  which 
are  rapidly  becoming  extended  over  England* 

It  is  not  averred  that  either  of  these  institutions  is  perfect,  or 
that  they  will  become  perfect,  but  it  is  fearlessly  asserted  that  no  two 
arrangements  have  done  more  to  open  the  eyes  of  both  sides  to  their 
mutual  necessities ;  for  instance,  before  the  adoption  of  the  sliding 
scale,  could  any  miner  be  got  to  believe,  that  while  coal  was  selling 
for  2  5«.  a  ton  in  London,  and  15s.  in  some  of  the  local  depdts,  the 
coal  owner  was  only  getting  4*.  ^d,  a  ton  over  an  output  of  26 
million  tons  in  the  counties  of  Northumberland  and  Durham  ?  but 
this  has  now  become  an  acknowledged  fact ;  the  working  of  the 
sliding  scale  has  thus  done  more  to  give  the  men  an  insight  into 
the  necessities  of  the  owners,  than  worlds  of  political  economy. 
Arbitration  may  also  be  said  to  be  a  child  of  the  north;  but  it  is 
one  which  certainly  has  not  developed  itself  so  rapidly,  or  done  so 
much  good,  as  the  joint  committee,  and  the  reascm  is  this :  the 
umpire  must  of  necessity  be  a  man  who  has  no  direct  interest  at 
stake ;  but  this  does  not  necessarily  prevent  his  having  a  personal 
bias,  while  it  precludes  him  from  having  the  least  technical  know- 
ledge of  the  interests  he  is  called  upon  -to  decide.  The  umpire  may 
have  a  pet  idea  like  restriction  to  advertise;  he  may  have  a 
peculiar  training,  which  may  cause  him  to  exclude  a  certain  class 
of  evidence ;  he  may  have  aU,  or  a  certain  number  of  defects ;  but 
he  never  can  have  a  perfect  knowledge  of  the  absolute  wants  of 
both  sides,  and  this  often  causes  mischievous  awards.  The  men 
themselves  are  annoyed  when  a  blundering  verdict  gives  them  all 


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58  Discwsion  [Mar. 

their  own  way,  foreseeing  tliat  the  necessities  of  the  case  would 
soon  assert  themselves,  and  that  arbitration  would  be  swept  away 
when  the  dam  was  let  loose,  and  a  struggle  for  existence  com- 
menced. Mistakes  such  as  these  can  be  cited,  in  which  awards 
have  screened  men  from  a  small  reduction,  at  a  period  when  a 
small  reduction  might  have  saved  a  trade  from  dire  loss,  and 
caused  the  men  to  have  to  submit  to  a  reduction  of  over  20  per 
cent,  a  few  months  afler. 

His  opinion  was,  that  arbitration  in  its  present  form,  where  the 
arbitrator  has  full  power  to  decide  on  matters  deeply  affecting  the 
interests  of  largo  districts,  was  a  great  mistake;  but  combined  with 
a  committee  of  both  the  interested  parties,  who  have  already  made 
concessions  to  each  other,  and  narrowed  the  issue,  it  may  be 
conducive  of  much  good. 

In  conclusion,  it  will  have  been  observed  that  the  gist  of  all  these 
remarks  is  to  endeavour  to  prove  the  necessity  of  bringing  masters 
and  men  to  discuss  their  interests  together,  with  a  view  of  letting 
each  know  the  necessities  of  the  other;  that  the  parties  should  meet 
and  talk  matters  over  with  a  view  of  narrowing  the  questions  in 
dispute,  leaving  not  the  whole  question,  but  the  question  so 
narrowed,  to  the  umpire ;  in  this  way  the  umpire  could  not  make 
any  very  improper  award. 

This  is  precisely  the  construction  of  the  joint  committee,  where 
the  two  sides  meet  and  discuss  before  the  chairman  their  several 
cases,  when  it  often  happens  that  an  arrangement  is  come  to  without 
having  recourse  to  an  umpire. 

Mr.  Alsaqer  Hill  said  he  rather  agreed  with  the  last  speaker, 
that  any  strong  language  made  use  of  in  a  matter  of  this  sort  was 
highly  inexpedient.  He  submitted  that  the  whole  of  Mr.  Bevan's 
facts  seemed  to  indicate  that  the  phenomena  of  strikes  were 
more  of  a  "  measly,"  than  of  a  "  cancerous  "  description.  These 
phenomena  of  strikes  were  simply  the  result  of  the  higher  organi- 
sation of  labour,  bringing  those  diseases  more  rapidly  to  a  head. 
Mr.  Bevan  himself  had  admitted  that  the  net  result  of  strikes  had 
been,  on  the  whole,  satisfactory  to  the  body  of  workmen  of  this 
country,  in  bringing  about  compromises  in  matters  of  dispute.  He 
thought  he  was  right  in  saying  that  the  average  condition  of  the 
industrial  classes  in  England  was  never  higher  than  it  was  at 
present,  and  even  taking  the  international  view,  he  did  not  think 
there  was  any  part  of  the  world  in  which  a  man  could  secure  better 
reward  for  his  labour  than  in  England.  As  far  as  the  building 
operatives  were  concerned,  they  came  naturally  to  the  front,  and 
after  them,  the  colliers.  The  latter  class  worked  under  more 
difficult  conditions  than  almost  any  other  class  of  men,  and  had  less 
leisure  than  those  who  generally  worked  during  the  day  time.  He 
did  not  think,  therefore,  that  any  great  value  was  to  be  laid  on  his 
friend's  calculations  with  regard  to  any  particular  class  of  people  on 
strike.  Mr.  Bevan  seemed  to  have  forgotten  that  it  was  only 
recently  that  the  industrial  classes  of  this  country  had  had  time  to 
organise.  The  question  was  entirely  one  of  general  economic  policy, 
and  the  main  difficulty  at  present  was  the  want  of  economic  know- 


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1880.]  on  Mr,  G.  P.  BevoAi's  Paper.  59 

ledge  on  the  part  of  those  who  constitnted  the  indastrial  classes. 
The  number  of  strikes  allnded  to  by  Mr.  Bevan  had,  in  a  great 
measure,  resulted  from  a  mere  matter  of  organisation,  because  the 
leaders  of  these  organised  strikes  were  able  to  insist  npon  having 
that  haggling  in  the  market  which,  Mr.  Bevan  had  said,  lay  at  the 
root  of  the  whole  question.  Mr.  Bevan  had  shown  that  a  large 
body  of  the  most  educated  portion  of  the  indastrial  classes  in  the 
north  of  England  and  in  Scotland,  had  come  to  the  conclusion  that 
these  particular  contests  were  in  their  interest.  He  had  in  his 
possession  the  last  report  of  the  Glasgow  Trades  Council,  which 
showed  that  the  secretary  was  only  paid  loL  a-year.  Mr.  Brassey 
some  time  ago  expressed  an ,  opinion  that  the  great  body  of  the 
people  who  formed  the  industrial  classes,  had  not  seen  their  way  to 
pay  their  own  servants  properly.  So  long  as  the  secretary  of  such 
a  body  as  the  Trades  Council  of  Glasgow  was  paid  only  loL  a-year, 
80  long  it  would  be  found  that  the  more  ignorant  section,  like 
colliers,  would  fight  when  they  did  not  get  what  they  thought  were 
the  market  wages. 

Mr.  Howell  said  he  had  come  rather  to  be  a  listener  than  a 
speaker.  He  felt  with  Mr.  Bevan,  that  the  more  that  was  known 
about  those  subjects  the  better.  He  thought,  however,  that 
Mr.  Bevan  ought  to  be  a  little  more  careful  in  some  of  his  facts. 
Mr.  Bevan  had  asserted  that  strikes  drove  from  the  Thames  the 
ship  building  industry.  He  (Mr.  Howell)  thought  if  there  was  any 
one  thing  that  was  proved  to  be  wrong,  it  was  that  statement. 
Mr.  Samuda,  who  was  an  authority  on  t£is  subject,  gave  what  he 
(  Mr.  Howell)  should  have  thought  a  quietus  to  that  statement,  and 
Mr.  Brassey  had  entered  into  statistics  upon  it,  and  it  was  well 
known  to  every  trades  unionist  in  London,  that  other  causes  had 
operated  to  drive  the  ship  building  from  the  Thames.  There  was 
one  thing  referred  to  by  Mr.  Bunning,  namely,  the  difference  of 
language  used  by  speakers  regarding  tbe  masters  and  the  men.  No 
one  could  find  fault  with  the  tone  of  Mr.  Bevan's  paper,  but  he 
(Mr.  Howell)  wished  to  note  the  difference  with  which  he  spoke  of 
one  very  simple  fact.  He  said,  "  I  am  happy  to  know  that  it  will 
be  discussed  by  an  assembly  which  is  so  eminently  calculated  to  do 
so  judicially  and  dispassionately,  free  from  the  bias  with  which  the 
employer  naturally  views  the  question,  or  from  the  intemperate 
spirit  which  so  often  characterises  the  disputants  on  the  other  side." 
He  did  not  think  it  was  intended  by  Mr.  Bevan  to  say  anything 
unkind  with  regard  to  the  men,  bat  he  could  assure  him  that  all 
the  "intemperance*'  did  not  belong  to  the  workmen.  He  was 
speaking  to  a  very  large  employer  in  the  building  trade  a  few  days 
ago,  who  was  chairman  of  the  association  in  the  district,  and  who 
had  suffered  from  strikes.  Refening  to  several  strikes  that  had 
taken  place  recently,  he  said,  "  Are  the  men  always  in  the  wrong  ?  " 
"  Oh,  no,"  he  said,  "  my  greatest  difficulty  is  to  keep  some  of  the 
masters  back.  They  woidd  be  getting  up  a  strike  every  week  if  it 
was  not  for  other  employers  that  restrained  them."  That  was  to 
say,  that  there  were  intemperate  spirits  among  the  masters  as  well 
as  among  the  men.  If  Mr.  Bevan  thought  that  he  (Mr.  Howell) 
wished  to  encourage  strikes  by  the  facts  he  brought  out  in  "  Fraser's 

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60  Discussion  [Mar. 

Magazine,"  the  conclnsion  was  a  wrong  one.  He  wanted  to  show 
that  certain  results  followed  from  certain  courses,  and  until  it  was 
known  whether  these  results  did  or  did  not  follow,  they  would  not 
feel  safe  ground.  He  (Mr.  Howell)  did  not  intend  to  say  that 
strikes  were  carried  on  because  it  paid  the  strikers  to  do  so.  What 
he  endeavoured  to  convey  was,  that  in  the  long  run,  having  no 
other  course  open  to  them  by  which  to  adjust  wages,  strikes 
ultimately  paid  the  men ;  and,  moreover,  that  it  was  often  the  only 
way  they  had  open  to  them  to  get  out  of  the  difficulty.  The  men 
were  not  always  to  be  blamed  for  causing  a  strike.  If  the  master 
attempted  a  reduction,  and  the  men  struck  against  this  reduction, 
the  one  who  was  originally  the  cause  «f  the  quarrel  seemed  to  be 
in  the  wrong,  unless  circumstances  showed  that  he  was  justified  in 
taking  that  step.  Although  it  was  stated  that  a  certain  course  of 
action  would  pay,  that  did  not  prove  that  the  action  was  right. 
Any  one  who  had  read  the  report  on  loan  mongering  with  foreign 
States,  could  not  but  say  that  it  paid  somebody  to  enter  very 
largely  into  that  basiness.  He  did  not  say  that  strikers  were  to  be 
brought  to  that  level;  but  he  did  say  that,  having  no  other 
recognised  means  of  adjusting  their  differences,  they  had  found  in 
the  long  run  that  this  would  pay  them.  Mr.  Hill  had  taken 
exception  to  the  calculation  that  he  (Mr.  Howell)  had  made  with 
regard  to  the  io«.  per  week  that  a  man  received  in  the  form  of  pay. 
He  did  not  think  it  oould  be  said  that  a  man  paid  himself  his  strike 
wages,  any  more  than  it  could  be  said  of  a  man  in  an  insurance 
society  that  he  paid  for  the  rebuilding  of  a  house  that  had  been 
burned  down.  He  paid  into  a  society,  a  first  class  benefit  society, 
which  gave  him  certain  advantages.  In  reality  they  paid  for  a 
great  number  of  benefits,  and  it  happened,  perhaps,  that  once  in  a 
life  time  he  was  thrown  out  on  strike  and  got  a  great  deal  of  strike 
payment.  In  those  great  labour  battles  a  very  small  proportion  of 
the  men  fight  the  battle  for  the  entire  class.  If  lo  or  even  20  per 
cent,  of  a  trade  fought  the  battle  for  the  whole  number,  that  class 
must  be  benefited  by  that  struggle,  and  the  loss  to  the  entire  body 
woald  be  very  small  indeed.  Supposing  >h  a  certain  district  200 
men  struck  for  two  months,  and  received  2«.  per  week  advance,  that 
was  a  small  number  of  men;  but  if  those  2CX5  men  fought  the 
battle,  and  gained  it,  for  say,  I,CX50  men  in  the  district,  and 
prevented  the  repetition  of  a  similar  straggle,  this  would  do  good. 
With  regard  to  arbitration,  he  believed  in  an  attempt  to  conciliate 
difEerences  between  masters  and  men  in  the  first  instance,  and  if  no 
snch  attempt  were  made,  he  thought  it  would  be  doing  a  wrong 
both  politically  and  socially.  The  issues  -ought  to  be  narrowed 
down  as  far  as  possible,  and  then  submitted  to  arbitration,  or  failing 
this,  to  an  umpire.  He  did  not  think  that  the  number  of  cases  in 
which  the  men  and  masters  had  repudiated  the  award  when  given, 
ought  to  lead  them  to  despair  of  the  remedy  of  arbitration.  He 
thought  employers  ought  to  be  the  first  to  welcome  it,  because  as  a 
class  they  were  more  intelligent  than  the  employed,  and  able  to  take 
a  broader  view  of  the  thing.  The  onus  ought  to  be  thrown  upon 
the  men  if  they  were  stupid  enough  to  refuse  to  submit  to 
arbitration.  It  had  been  the  worst  feature  in  the  arbitration 
question,  that  most  of  the  strikes  were  those  that  had  taken  place 

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1880.]  on  Mr.  (?.  P.  Severn's  Taper.  61 

on  tbe  most  trivial  subjects.  He  could  only  hope,  in  conclusion,  that 
the  discussion  on  the  paper,  and  on  others  of  the  same  kind  carried 
on  elsewhere,  would  lead  to  justice  being  done  on  both  sides. 

Mr.  Nbwmarch  was  glad  to  see  there  Mr.  Gfeorge  Howell,  who 
as  parliamentaiy  secretary   of  the    trades    union   societies,    had 
acquired  a  high  reputation.     Mr.  Howell  had  written  several  books 
and  articles  of  great  merit,  all  or  most  of  which  Mr.  Newmarch  had 
read  with  interest  and  profit.     Mr.  Howell's  article  in  "  Fraser's 
Magazine,'*  for  December  last,  was  temperate  and  very  ingenious, 
but  the  premises  were  assumed  with  considerable  freedom,  and 
there  was  good  reason  to  doubt  whether,  as  Mr.  Howell  represents, 
the  strikes   of  very  small   numbers  of  men   had   procured   solid 
benefits  for  the  great  and  large  number?  he  set  out  in  his  tables. 
The  legislation  of  the  last  few  years  had  entirely  abrogated  the 
repressive  features  of  the  old  combination  laws,  and  the  law  had 
now  most  properly  left  both  masters  and  men  to  form  any  combina- 
tion they  pleased,  so  long  as  absolute  freedom  on  the  part  of  each 
individual  is  not  impaired.     In  the  case  of  trades  union  societies, 
the  legislature,  by  means  of  an  Act,  which  Mr.  Howell  had  a  leading 
band   in  procuring,  has  gratnted   to  trade  societies  a  degree  of 
license  very  hard  to  defend  :  inasmuch  as  such  societies  are  per- 
mitted to  mix  in  the  same  fund,  contributions  received  by  them 
for  pxirely  life  insurance,  annuity,  and  sick  purposes,  and  contri- 
butions received  for  strike  and  trade  purposes ;  and  the  courts  of 
law  are  forbidden  to  give  any  remedy  to  contributors  unable  to 
procure  the  fulfilment  bv  any  such  society  of  its  life  insurance, 
annuity^  or  sick  obligations.     The  grievances  arising  out  of  this 
extravagant  liberiy  are  by  no  means  speculative,  as  was  shown  in 
the  painful  case  of  the  South  Yorkshire  Miners'  Fund  two  or  three 
years  ago,  in  which  some  hundreds  of  claimants,  rendered  widows 
and  orphans  by  a  colliery  accident,  could  not  get  either  money  or 
redress.    Mr.  Newmatcb  had  never  heard  any  reason  even  decently 
tenable  advanced  in  favour  of  the  confusion  of  contributions,  and 
denial  of  legal  remedies,  to  which  he  had  referred,  and  until  this 
scandal  be  removed,  the  trades  unions  will  most  properly  be  open 
to  severe  criticism. 

Trade  contentionff,  like  all  contentions  between  buyers  and 
sellers,  were  inevitable,  and  in  themselves  wholesome.  But  con- 
tentions about  wages  were  more  intrinsically  difficult  than  bargain- 
ings about  goods.  Hence  it  was  matter  of  real  congratulation  to 
both  men  and  masters,  that  latterly  the  subject  had  been  treated  in 
many  cases  by  both  sides  with  eminent  moderation,  intelligence,  and 
care.  Both  sides  seem  to  be  now  sensible  that  whether  it  is  a 
strike  or  an  arbitration,  there  is,  and  must  be,  unrepresented  at  it, 
that  important  third  party — ^the  public — and  the  willingness  or 
unwillingness  of  tbe  public  to  pay  higher  prices,  which  in  reality 
controls  both  wage  payers  and  wage  receivers.  It  may  be  assumed 
that  tbe  bad  days  of  trades  unions  were  over.  We  cannot  suppose 
the  encouragement  by  respectable  men  of  violence  or  intimidation  ; 
but  even  greater  order  and  peacefulness  cannot  remove  from  trades 
unions  their  fundamental  defect,  viz.,  that  in  their  essence  they 
seek  to  place  checks  and  difficulties  in  the  way  of  superior  skill. 

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62  Diacussicyii  [Mar. 

intelligence  and  industry,  for  the  benefit  or  supposed  benefit  of  the 
men  who  are  inferior  in  all  or  most  of  the  qualities  which  enable 
men  to  raise  themselves  in  the  world.  With  the  growth  of  educa- 
tion it  is  inevitable,  taking  human  nature  as  it  i^,  that  the 
superior,  active,  ambitious  working  men,  will  more  and  more 
refuse  to  be  put  under  disabilities  for  the  supposed  benefit  of  their 
inferior  comnules  and  competitors. 

Mr.  Sevan's  paper  was  a  veir  intelligent  and  praiseworthy 
attempt  to  collect  and  classify  the  racts  of  a  very  difficult  subject. 

Mr.  Walpord  thought  the  international  aspect  of  the  question 
ought  not  to  be  lost  sight  of,  because  there  could  be  no  doubt  that 
during  the  continuance  of  strikes  in  the  last  ten  years,  our  inter- 
national  interests  had  been  suffering.  A  large  proportion  of  certain 
branches  of  trade  had  gone  from  this  to  other  countries,  and  would 
no  doubt  continue  to  do  so  if  the  strikes  continued.  Belgium  had 
been  considerably  benefited  in  this  way;  and  still  more  so  the 
United  States,  who  had  supplanted  our  cutlery  over  the  entire 
continent  of  America,  was  usurping  our  former  supremacy  in  plated 
wares,  and  also  seriously  threatening  our  iron  industries  generally. 
He  could  give  further  instances  of  it  if  it  were  necessary  to  do  so. 

Mr.  Philip  Vanderbyl  said  the  author  of  the  paper  had 
omitted  to  give  a  definition  of  the  term  strike. 

If  the  refusal  of  a  clerk  to  perform  his  duties  without  increase 
of  salary,  or  the  objection  of  a  merchant  to  sell  his  goods  below  a 
certain  price,  were  to  be  considered  as  strikes — as  suggested  by 
two  of  the  speakers — it  is  clear  that  the  tabular  statements  of  the 
author  would  have  to  be  greatly  altered,  in  fact  it  would  be 
impossible  to  consider  the  subject  statistically. 

In  his  (Mr.  Vanderbyrs)  opinion,  a  stnke  might  be  defined  as  the 
refusal  of  a  number  of  persons  to  perform  certain  customary  work 
or  duties,  not  only  to  the  disadvantage  of  the  employer,  but  also  to 
the  injury  of  the  general  community. 

In  referring  to  the  causes  of  strikes,  the  author  had  omitted  one 
which  he  (Mr.  Vanderbyl)  thought  very  important,  viz..  the  stupid 
desire  of  workmen  to  be  placed  on  an  equal  footing  with  regard  to 
pay,  and  although  certain  men  were  infinitely  superior  to  others, 
they  insisted  that  the  inferior  workmen  should  be  paid  the  same  as 
the  best  men.  If  the  employer  were  allowed  to  classify  his  men, 
and  pay  according  to  merit,  it  would  not  only  be  a  great  advantage 
to  the  intelligent  workmen,  but  would  tend  to  prevent  strikes. 

The  Chairman  thought  the  idea  of  a  strike  was  shown  in 
Table  IX.  In  upwards  of  a  hundred  cases  the  minimum  number 
was  1 50  men. 

Sir  Edmund  Beckett,  Q.C,  thought  that  the  only  thing  that 
would  put  an  end  to  strikes  was  that  those  who  conducted  them, 
should  be  made  to  understand,  bettor  than  they  do  yet,  whether 
they  were  really  injurious  or  not.  Mr.  Howell,  and  those  whom  he 
led,  were  in  the  habit  of  coming  to  very  rough  and  ready  con- 
clusions about  cause  and  effect  in  a  manner  perfectly  illogical. 
They  continually  said  that  the  condition  of  the  working  man  was 

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1880.]  on  Mr.  0,  P.  Sevan's  Paper.  63 

improved,  and  then  jumped  to  the  conclnsion  that  that  mnst  be  due 
to  strikes,  whereas  it  might  just  as  well  be  in  spite  of  strikes.  The 
condition  of  everj  class  has  improved,  of  those  which  strike,  quite 
as  much  as  of  those  which  do  not.  The  condition  of  school  boys  and 
domestic  servants  has  improved  immensely,  and  he  did  not  know 
that  strikes  could  be  credited  with  doing  any  great  benefit  to  either 
of  them.  That  sort  of  reasoning  is  mere  begging  of  the  very 
question  in  dispute.  Then  Mr.  Howell  assumed  that  because 
strikes  are  most  numerous  in  the  north,  and  because  intelligence 
chiefly  lived  in  the  north  (which  compliment  he  [Sir  E.  Beckett] 
gladly  accepted),  therefore  strikes  must  be  right.  But  this  summary 
kind  of  logic  is  not  altogether  convincing.  Mr.  Howell  might 
perhaps  reflect  with  advantage  that  great  labouring  masses  are 
vastly  more  numerous  in  the  north  than  the  south.  Another  still 
more  amazing  fallacy  which  Mr.  Howell  persisted  in,  was  that  those 
who  strike,  being  only  a  small  proportion  of  the  whole  number  of 
workmen,  and  spending  only  the  money  they  already  have,  was 
analogous  to  an  insurance  company  against  fire.  A  more  unlike 
analogy  was  never  put  forward.  People  do  not  make  fires  on 
purpose,  as  they  do  strikes.  The  loss  by  fire  is  inevitable,  what  is 
called  in  law,  the  act  of  God,  and  the  object  of  insurance  is  to 
distribute  that  inevitable  loss  over  as  many  people  as  possible. 
But  a  strike  first  wilfully  makes  a  universal  loss  of  all  the  labonr 
and  its  produce  to  everybody,  and  then  consumes  all  the  savings 
of  the  working  class  alone  to  maintain  it  as  long  as  possible.  So 
long  as  Mr.  Howell  deludes  his  followers  with  reasoning  of  that 
kind,  the  visions  of  working  men  having  learnt  more  wisdom  than 
before  these  bad  times,  are  altogether  Imseless ;  and  he  was  sprry 
to  say  he  could  see  no  evidence  that  they  had  yet  learnt  anything. 

So  far  as  he  had  heard  this  eyening,  no  notice  seemed  to  have 
been  taken  that  mere  striking  for  money  was  not  by  any  means  the 
most  important  part  of  what  is  called  the  labour  question.  At  a 
meeting  of  the  Architects'  Institute,  two  years  ago,  Mr.  Lucas,  the 
great  builder,  said,  "  I  pay  for  labour  half  as  much  again  as  I  did 
some  yeara  ago,  and  I  do  not  get  half  as  much  done,  in  other 
words,  the  same  amount  of  work  costs  three  times  as  much  as 
it  did.  I  conld  stand  paying  more,  if  I  could  get  the  work  done  ;'* 
and  many  other  employers  o(f  all  kinds  say  the  same.  Until 
Mr.  Howell,  and  those  whom  he  leads,  learn  that  all  the  riches  the 
world  enjoys  come  from  two  things,  namely,  from  the  earth  itself, 
and  the  labour  spent  upon  it,  all  their  other  reasoning  would  be  in 
vain,  and  only  lead  to  mischief.  With  regard  to  the  present 
prospects  of  trade,  although  it  was  a  dangerous  thing  to  connect 
causes  and  efiects,  he  was  struck  with  the  fact  that  immediately 
there  was  a  good  harvest  in  America,  trade  began  to  revive  here 
in  consequence  of  increased  demands  from  America.  The  fiinda- 
mental  thing  was  to  get  as  much  work  out  of  the  earth  as  the  world 
could  do  without  doing  itself  any  harm,  i.e.,  working  too  hard  for 
health  ;  and  the  question  of  how  much  was  to  be  paid  for  it,  was  a 
minor  one,  though  of  course  all  important  in  competition.  B;ef  erring 
to  trade  outrages,  it  was  obviously  the  spirit  of  unionism  that 
caused  them.  Every  man  who  destroys  another's  tools,  or  breaks 
his  head,  because  he  disobeys  nnion  rules,  or  works  for  lower  wages 


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64  Discussion  on  Mr,  0.  P.  Bevcm^s  Paper,  [Mar. 

than  are  resolved  on,  is  ipso  facto  the  agent  of  unionism,  whether 
he  has  had  any  special  orders  from  a  nnion  council  or  not ;  and  it 
is  mere  absurdity  to  deny  them,  when  we  are  reading  them  con- 
tinually in  the  newspapers,  which  of  course  only  record  a  very  small 
proportion  of  what  really  happen. 

It  was  very  easy  for  Mr.  Howell  to  say  that  Mr.  Brassey,  or 
somebody  else,  has  proved  that  strikes  had  nothing  to  do  with  the 
driving  away  of  shipbuilding  from  the  Thames.  That  is  a  very 
common  desire  of  reasoners  on  many  subjects  who  have  awkward 
facts  to  deal  with,  or  arguments  that  they  cannot  answer,  viz.,  to 
say  that  somebody  else  has  answered  them  completely.  Nobody 
who  is  versed  in  the  ways  of  controversy,  accepts  statements  of  that 
kind,  except  as  proving  that  the  man  who  makes  them,  really 
cannot  answer  the  arguments  himself.  Has  Mr.  Howell  forgotten 
that  Messrs.  Bums  of  Glasgow  wrote  to  the  "  Times  "  two  years  ago, 
that  they  were  getting  carpentry  for  their  ships  from  Japan  ?  The 
union  orators  and  reasoners  never  seemed  to  take  any  account  of 
foreign  competition,  aided  by  English  strikes,  carrying  off  whole 
trades,  except,  indeed,  when  they  try  to  get  up  grand  international 
unions  for  universal  strikes. 

Mr.  PocHiN  said  that  the  constant  differences  that  arose  between 
masters  and  men,  were  very  deeply  to  be  regretted.  The  effect  was 
very  injurious  to  all  the  interests  concerned.  Arbitration  as  at 
present  conducted,  was  very  unsatisfactory,  as  it  had  no  settled  basis 
on  which  to  act.  Arbitrators  and  umpires  in  nearly  all  cases  had 
confined  themselves  to  an  inquiry  as  to  the  amount  of  wages  the 
masters  could  afford  to  pay  on  the  one  hand,  and  the  men  afford  to 
work  for  on  the  other  hand ;  that,  he  thought,  could  never  be  a 
satisfactory  basis.  He  knew  a  case  where  one  company  was  working 
six  collieries ;  in  some  of  those  collieries  the  coal  was  very  good, 
commanding  a  high  price  in  the  market,  and  was  easily  raised  ;  in 
the  other  collieries,  the  coal  was  inferior,  and  commanded  a  far  less 
price  in  the  market,  and  the  raising  was  attended  with  many  mining 
difficulties.  Arbitration,  on  the  terms  on  which  it  was  usually 
conducted,  would,  under  those  circumstances,  decree,  that  two 
colliers,  working  at  less  than  a  mile  distant  from  each  other,  should 
have  different  rates  of  wages,  for  precisely  the  same  amount  of 
work.  Until  wages  were  settled  purely  on  the  question  of  supply 
and  demand,  and  without  combinations  of  workmen  on  one  side, 
and  masters  on  the  other,  he  did  not  think  that  the  three  great 
interests  concerned  would  have  reason  to  be  satisfied  with  the 
results.  These  three  interests  being  the  masters,  the  workmen, 
and  the  public. 

Mr.  Bevan,  in  reply,  disclaimed  having  used  intemperance  of 
language  in  treating  the  subject.  Mr.  Howell  had  spoken  of  the 
violence  of  masters,  and  the  intemperate  spirit  of  the  employed. 
He  (Mr.  Bevan)  thought  the  one  was  as  bad  as  the  other.  To 
discuss  the  question  with  bias,  would  be  as  bad  as  to  discuss  it  with 
temper.  The  evil  was  a  terrible  one.  It  was  no  use  discussing 
what  caused  it,  but  they  ought  to  seek  to  remedy  it. 


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1880.]  65 

On  Certain  Changes  in  the  English  Rates  of  Mortality. 
By  Thomas  A.  Welton,  Esq. 

[Read  before  the  Statiitical  Society,  I7th  February,  1880.] 


CONTENTS : 


FAGS 

fL — Introductory  ^  66 

II.— The  Extent  of  the  Changee 

in  Mortality 69 


FAGS 

III. — ^The  Canses  of  the  Increased 
MortaKty  amongst  Males 
Aged  36-66    7» 


I. — Introdudory. 

The  leading  fact  in  relaMon  to  the  statistics  of  mortality  is  the 
reguloflrity  which  underlies  every  variation  of  death-rate^  whether 
snch  variation  be  found  to  exist  on  a  comparison  of  statistics  of 
several  localities,  or  of  the  same  locality  at  different  periods  and 
nnder  dissimilar  conditions ;  whether  the  reason  of  snch  variation 
be  traceable  to  the  inflnence  of  particular  occupations  npon 
mortality,  to  the  results  of  migrations  (in  search  of  employment, 
of  education,  of  amusement,  or  of  renewed  health),  to  the  unequal 
stamina  of  different  races  of  men,  to  the  circumstances  respectively 
affecting  the  two  sexes,  or  to  some  alteration  in  the  habits  of  the 
people. 

The  essential  nature  of  this  regularity  consists  in  the  graduation 
of  the  series  of  death-rates  at  the  several  periods  of  life,  beginning 
with  heavy  losses  in  the  earliest  years,  descending  rapidly  to  a 
minimum,  and  thenceforward  progressively  increasing  until  the  end 
of  life.  The  exact  place  of  the  minimum  may  fluctuate,  and  the 
increase  afterwards  may  not  proceed  by  similar  steps ;  the  absolute 
rates  at  all  periods  of  life  may  be  strongly  contrasted,  but  the 
general  likeness  of  the  series  remains.  We  may  say  with  truth 
that  a  resemblance  exists  between  curves  representing  mortality  at 
successive  ages,  even  greater  than  that  which  unites  in  one  category 
every  right-angled  triangle ;  for  the  sides  of  such  a  triangle  may  be 
of  any  length,  but  there  are  limits  beyond  which  the  variations  of 
death-rates  do  not  appear  to  go. 

Whilst  regularity  of  type  is  the  leading  feature  of  the  curves 
resulting  from  different  series  of  death-rates,  variability  of  detail  is 
the  next.  When  once  the  mind  has  grasped  the  idea  of  regularity 
of  general  character,  nothing  more  remains  to  be  learned  in  that 
direction ;  but  as  variations  in  the  amount  of  losses  by  death  are 
material  and  frequent,  they  afford  infinite  matter  for  study,  and 
observers  are  led  to  think  rather  too  much  of  momentary  changes 

VOL.   XLIII.      PART  I.  P 

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66 


Wblton — On  Certain  Oha/nges 


[Mar. 


and  contrasts,  and  too  little  of  the  substantial  similarity  and 
constancy  which  nnderlies  them  all. 

I  am  far  from  regretting  that  this  is  so,  for  whilst  the  losses  by 
death  are  so  frequently  excessive,  it  is  well  to  instil  the  lesson  that 
rates  of  mortality  a/re  changeable,  and  may  conseqnently  be  modified 
by  the  endeavours  of  mankind.  The  more  thoroughly  people 
appreciate  this  fact,  the  greater  the  probability  that  they  will  exert 
themselves  in  order  to  reduce  the  ravages  of  preventable  disease 
and  death. 

On  the  other  hand,  it  is  fit  that  from  time  to  time  the  data  for 
long  periods  should  be  examined,  and  the  stability  or  changefulness 
of  the  phenomena  considered.  Tendencies  may  thus  be  discovered 
which,  from  the  slowness  of  their  operation,  might  produce,  in  any 
short  period  of  time,  effects  so  slight  as  to  be  overshadowed  by  those 
resulting  from  transient  causes  of  disturbance,  but  which,  being 
persistent,  would  in  a  series  of  years  bring  about  changes  of  an  un- 
mistakeable  character. 

The  English  returns  were  comparatively  imperfect  until  the 
system  of  registration  had  been  some  years  in  existence ;  and  the 
population  tables  classifying  the  inhabitants  of  this  country 
according  to  their  ages  were  prior  to  1851  very  far  from  being 
reliable.  I  am  therefore  of  opinion  that  it  will  be  better  to  restrict 
our  comparisons  to  the  thirty  years  extending  from  18^6  to  1875, 
instead  of  commencing  with  1838,  the  first  year  of  registration. 

According  to  the  tables  of  annual  d^ath-rates  given  by  the 
Registrar-General  (Nos.  28  and  25,  in  his  thirty-eighUi  report),  the 
mortality  of  both  sexes  at  ages  5 — 25*  has  been  continuonsly 
reduced  with  hardly  an  interruption,  during  twenty-five  years, 
thus: — 


Meaa  Death-RatM  per  i,ooo  Uving. 

Males. 

Femelee. 

Age  6—10. 

AgeUK-U. 

Age  16-26. 

Age  6-10. 

Age  10-16. 

Agel6-Siw 

Arerage  1846-60 

„         '61-56  

'56-60  

„         '61-66  

'66-70  

„         '71-76  

9-6 
8-8 
8-3 
8-5 
7'9 
7'» 

5-4 
5-2 
4-6 
4-7 
4-8 
4-0 

8-6 
8-1 
7*4 
7*5 
71 
6-9 

9*3 

8-5 
8-3 
8-z 

7-4 
6-6 

5-7 
6-8 
4-9 
4-8 
4-3 
4-0 

8-9 
8-5 
7-8 
7-6 
7-1 
6-7 

Abatement  equal  to  1 
(per  cent.)    J 

26 

26 

20 

29 

80 

26 

*  The  mortality  tabulated  at  ages  0 — 6  has  diminished  thus  >— amongst  males 
from  74*1  per  i,ooo  in  1846-60,  to  70*0  per  1,000  in  1871-75  : — amongst  femakt. 


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1880.] 


in  the  English  Bates  of  Mortality. 


67 


At  ages  35 — 75  the  rates  of  mortality  amongst  males,  after 
being  somewhat  diminished,  have  become  higher  than  thej  were 
in  1846-50:— 


Mean  Death-RatM  per  i,ooo  Uring,  amongrt  Males. 

Age  86-46. 

Age  46-56. 

Age  66-66. 

Age  66-76. 

ATenige  1846-50    

'61-55    

'66-60    

»3*4 
iz-9 
IV4 

19-4 
18-6 
171 

33*4 
31.5 
30*0 

68*9 
66-8 
66*2 

Abatement  equal  tol 
(percent.)  j 

7 

12 

10 

4 

Arerage  1861-65    

'66-70    

„         '71-76    

»3'4 
13-6 
14*3 

18-8 
19-6 
201 

3^6 
33'5 
34*8 

66-6 
68-2 
69-6 

Later  increase  equal! 
to  (per  cent.) J 

16 

18 

16 

6 

Increase  on  the  whole  1 
period  (per  cent.)  J 

7 

4 

4 

1 

The  increase  in  male  mortality  wonld  appear  in  a  stronger  light, 
were  the  years  omitted  in  which  epidemics  occnrred.  Thns  taking 
that  year  of  each  qninqnenninm  in  which  the  average  mortality 
was  lowest,  we  have  the  following  death-rates  at  the  ages  men- 
tioned, viz. : — 


Mean  Beath-Bates  per  i,ooo  Uring,  amongat  Malea. 

Age  86-45. 

Age  46-65. 

Age  66-76. 

Tear  1860  Gowest  in  1846-60).... 

II-6 
12-4 
11*9 

17-2 
17-9 
16-4 

29-8 

30*3 
28*8 

62-8 
640 
61-6 

Abatement  equal  to  (per  cent.) 

8» 

6 

8 

2 

Tear  1862  (lowest  in  1860-66).... 
„       '67  (        „         '66-70).... 
„       '78  (        „        '71-75).... 

12-7 

13*5 
13-6 

181 
191 
19-5 

31*3 
33*5 
34*o 

62-6 
68*6 
70-4 

Later  increase  equal  to  (perl 
cent.)  J 

14 

19 

18 

14 

Increase  on  the  whole  period  1 
(per  cent.)  j 

17 

18 

14 

18 

•  Increase. 


ftom  63*9  per  1,000  in  1846-60,  to  6o**  per  1,000  in  1871-75.  The  rates  in 
1841-45  were  lower  than  any  since  shown,  but  the  earlier  records  at  this  period 
of  life  were  no  doubt  imperiect  in  comparison  with  more  recent  returns. 

f2 

Digitized  by  VjOOQ IC 


68 


Wilton — On  Oertam  Changes 


[Mar. 


The  average  mortality  amongst  females  at  the  ages  85  to  75 
appears  to  have  been  as  nnder,  viz. : — 


AgcS6-«. 

Age46-(S. 

Age  66-61. 

Age  66—75. 

Ayerage  1846-60    

•51-56    

*66-60    

13*5 

12-4 

ir6 

16-7 
16-6 
14-7 

29*4 
27-8 

27-1 

63-3 
690 
54-9 

Abatement  equal  to\ 
(per  cent.)  J 

14 

12 

8 

18 

Ayerage  1861-66    

^      •   '66-70    

'71-76    

IZ'O 
12*0 

16-4 
16-8 
15-8 

28-0 

28*0 

28-9 

57-9 
69-4 
61-2 

Later  increase  equal  1 
to  (per  cent.) J 

8 

8 

7 

U 

showing,  upon  the  whole,  a  reduction,  in  spite  of  recent  increase ; 
but  on  comparing  the  most  favourable  years,  as  in  the  case  of  males, 
a  tendency  towards  increased  death-rates  from  age  45  upwards  is 
observable : — 


Mean  Deatb-Ratet  per  i,ooo  Liring,  amongit  Femilet. 

Age  86—46. 

Age  46-66. 

Age  66— <6. 

Age  66-76. 

Tear  1850  Oowett  in  1846-60)  .. 
„       '51  (        „         '61-65).... 
„       '56  (        „         '66-60).... 

11*7 
11-9 
ll'3 

14-7 
15-2 
140 

z6'l 
26-8 
251 

57-3 
68-6 
51-2 

Abatement  equal  to  (per  cent.) 

8 

6 

4 

11 

Tear  1862  aoweetinl861.65).... 
„       '67  r        „         '66-70).... 
„       '78  (        „         '71-76).... 

11-8 
11-9 
"6 

14-7 
15-6 
16-6 

26-7 
27-6 
28-4 

67-2 
69-6 
61-8 

Later  increase  equal  to  (per  cent.) 

2 

11 

18 

21 

On  the  whole  then  the  tables  show  that  the  striking  abatement 
in  mortality  at  ages  5 — 25  has  been  attended  with  an  aggravation  of 
the  loss  by  death  at  higher  ages,  putting  aside  epidemic  years,  and 
tbat  such  aggravation  has  been  far  more  considerable  amongst 
males  than  amongst  females.  Every  circumstance  which  will  help 
us  to  measure  the  extent,  and  to  understand  the  causes,  of  such  a 
deterioration  in  the  vitality  of  males,  demands  attention. 

I  shall  proceed  before  the  close  of  this  paper,  to  point  out  the 
apparent  causes,  as  sbown  in  the  Registrar  GeDeraVs  tables,  leaving 
to  others  to  determine  how  these  have  been  brought  into  operation. 


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1880.]  in  ihe  EngUeh  Bates  of  Mortality.  69 


U.—The  Extent  of  the  Cha/nges  in  Mortality, 

The  tables  in  the  Registrar- General's  thirty-eighth  re|)ort, 
from  which  the  abov*e  ratios  were  extracted,  are  nse^l  enough  for 
ordinary  purposes;  bnt  when  we  have  to*grapp]e  with  qnestioos  of 
serious  import,  in  order  to  appreciate  which  small  and  gradual  but 
cumulative  changes  have  to  be  measured,  it  is  right  that  every 
correction  which  the  figures  need  should  be  borne  in  mind. 

I  have  arrived  at  the  conclusions  (1st)  that  the  census  returns 
as  to  ages  require  to  be  amended;  (2nd)  that  the  approximate 
proportions  of  births  which  annually  escape  registration  are 
discoverable ;  and  (3rd)  that  the  net  results  of  migrations  into  and 
from  the  country  may  also  be  measured. 

By  the  help  then  of  such  transpositions  of  the  numbers  stated  to 
exist  at  difEerent  ages  as  appear  to  me  to  be  necessary,  I  proceed  to 
show  what  I  believe  to  be  an  approximately  true  national  table  of 
mortality  for  1856-60,  when  the  upward  movement  seems  not  to 
have  commenced;  and  also  a  similar  table  representing  the  experience 
of  the  years  1871-75,  when  such  movement  had  attained  a  consider- 
able if  not  alarming  development.*  l^hese  two  tables,  for  males 
and  females  respectively,  and  showing  the  excess  of  either  sex 
surviving  at  different  periods  of  life  in  a  stationary  population  solely 
recruited  by  births,  are  here  contrasted  with  Dr.  Farr's  English  Life 
Table  No.  3. 

*  Besides  correcting  the  retomi  of  population  hy  ages  in  conformity  with  the 
suggestions  contained  in  my  paper  "  On  the  Inaccuracies  which  probably  exist  in 
"  the  Census  Returns  of  Ages,"  printed  in  the  **  Transactions  of  the  Historic 
**  Society  of  Liverpool,"  tor  1875-76,  vol.  iv,  which  will  be  found  in  the  Library  of 
the  Statistical  Society,  I  have  allowed  for  unregistered  births  in  conformity  with 
the  percentages  mentioned  in  the  same  paper;  and  then  having,  by  means  of 
estimates,  apportioned  the  recorded  deaths  under  the  quinquennial  periods  in 
which  the  persons  dying  were  horn,  I  have  arrived  by  way  of  ditferenoe  at  the 
probable  loss  or  gain  resulting  from  migrations  at  each  age  in  the  intervals 
between  the  censuses,  and  have  obtained  sets  of  ratios  showing  the  proportionate 
losses  by  death  out  of  the  population  existing  at  each  age,  in  1841,  1846,  1851, 
1856,  1861,  1866,  and  1871,  during  the  five  years  next  succeeding  each  of  those 
years.  Each  set  of  ratios  so  obtained  is  immediately  convertible  into  a  table  of 
mortality  (column  P^  according  to  Dr.  Parr's  notation),  capable  of  direct  com- 
parison with  the  English  Life  Table  No.  3,  because  based  on  an  equal  number  of 
•apposed  annual  births. 


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70 


Wblton— On  Certain  Ghanges 


[Mar. 


England 

I  and  Wales.    Population  resnlting  firom  a  Tbonaand 

Survirora  (Experience  of  1866-«0). 

SuiriTon  (Experience 

Age. 

Male. 

FemiOe. 

Females. 

Male. 

Female. 

ExceM. 

Deficiency. 

0—  6  .... 

2026-254 

1999-406 

26-849 

_ 

»030-349 

2005-758 

6—10  .... 

1823*021 

1803*464 

^9'557 

— 

1848*430 

1835*665 

10-15  .... 

1769*607 

1749*360 

20-247 

— 

i8oi*iio 

1791*242 

15—20  .... 

1724*129 

1701*429 

22*700 

— 

1760*946 

1750*043 

20—26  .... 

1659*129 

1634-392 

^4*737 

— *. 

1699-490 

1688*967 

26—30  .... 

1586*128 

1659-864 

26*264 

— 

1623-863 

1617-187 

30—36  .... 

J5I5-387 

1484*211 

3i'n6 

— 

1 543 '807 

1541*987 

35—40  ... 

H37'345 

1407*626 

29-719 



H53'34i 

1462-112 

40—45  .... 

i353'i6o 

1327*111 

26*149 

— 

1350*299 

1376*578 

46—50  .... 

»^59'o73 

1246*495 

I3'578 

— 

1 241  -060 

1284*761 

60—56  .... 

1152*430 

1157*812 

6*382 

1119*189 

1189*946 

65—60  .... 

1025*893 

1057*893 



32000 

984*550 

1079*162 

60-66  .. 

884*115 

933*590 

— 

49-475 

827-71* 

945-671 

66—70  .... 

709*768 

772*453 

— 

62-685 

644-954 

769-966 

70—76  .... 

5i3'30^ 

577*409 

— 

64*103 

448*566 

566*926 

76-80  .... 

309*728 

367*752 

~~ 

68-024 

264-475 

356199 

Using  the  fignres  in  Dr.  Fair's  Life  Table  as  a  convenient 
standard  of  comparison,  we  find  the  excess  or  defect  of  survivors 
(per  cent.),  according  to  the  other  tables  to  be — 


Amongit  SnrrivwB  Aged 


0-35 

35-56 

55-80 

All  ages  up  to  80 


Experience  18Stf-(M). 


Males. 


1*4  more 
31     „ 
6*1     „ 
2-6     „ 


Females. 


I  -4  more 

3*3  >i 
8*1  „ 
3*o     „ 


Experience  1871-7&. 


Males. 


3*1  more 
2-4     „ 

2-31688 

2*1  more 


Females. 


3-9  more 
6-8     „ 
8*4     » 
5'4     i» 


The  period  of  years  which  elapses  before  the  persons  who  are 
bom  are  reduced  to  half  their  original  number,  is,  according  to  the 
above  tables,  as  under : — 


By  Dr.  Fanr's 

Table. 

Bt  Experience 
of  1856-60. 

Bt  Experience 
of  lSl-76. 

Males  

44*4 

46*4 

2*0 

46-6 

48-9 

2-4 

45-8 

50*9 

5'i 

Females 

Thus  the  probable  lifetime  of  female  infants  seems  now  to  exceed 


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1880.] 


in  the  English  Bates  of  Mortaiiiy. 


71 


ABulBirtlu 

:  511*745  little  uid  4S8'255  Female. 

r  1871-7S). 

Sorrif on  (by  Dr.  fWr*!  life  Table  Vo.  8). 

Males  ooopved  witli 

Maleo  compared  with 

Age. 

yemairt. 

Femalea. 

Male. 

Female. 

EXCCM. 

Sefldencj. 

'Rxceat. 

Deficiency. 

24-596 

^_ 

2015-886 

1988-830 

27-556 

0-  5 

12-765 

— 

1801*316 

1783-240 

18-076 

— 

6—10 

9-868 

— 

174^*507 

1723-706 

18-801 

— 

10—16 

10-903 

— 

1696-773 

1676-461 

21-312 

— 

15—30 

io*5*3 

— 

1632-979 

1609-814 

23-165 

— 

2a-26 

6-676 

— 

1560-236 

1634-785 

25-451 

_ 

26—30 

1'820 

— 

1483-840 

1456076 

27-764 

— 

30—35 

— 

8-771 

1402-868 

1374-392 

28-476 

__ 

36—40 

— 

26-279 

1315-244 

1289-612 

25-632 



40—46 

— 

43-701 

1218-321 

1201-075 

17-246 

..-. 

46—60 

— 

70-767 

1 108-460 

1107-736 

0-725 

— 

50-65 

— 

94-612 

981-337 

999-667 



18-330 

56—60 

— 

117-959 

834-862 

866-700 

— 

31-838 

60—65 

— 

126-012 

664-601 

706-898 



42-297 

65—70 

— 

118-860 

475*223 

628-015 

— 

47-792 

70-75 

"^ 

91-724 

288-993 

333-526 

"~ 

44-533 

75—80 

the  duration  of  tHat  of  males  bj  perhaps  five   years,  against  a 
difference  of  little  more  than  two  jears  according  to  earlier  data. 

This  great  change  might  seem  to  arise  rather  from  increased 
mortalit7  amongst  males  than  from  diminished  female  death-rates. 
For  example,  those  surviving  to  be  counted  at  ages  60 — 66  were  by 
table  resulting  from 

Experience  of  1856-60        Males  884115        Females  983-590 
'71-75  „    827-712  „        945-671 


Fewer   56403 


More    12-081 


It  should,  however,  be  remarked,  that  1856-60  was  an  excep- 
tionally healthy  quinquennium ;  and  if  we  base  our  comparison 
upon  Dr.  Farr's  Life  Table,  as  representing  the  average  of  a  greater 
number  of  years,  we  find  that  the  figures  for  1871-75  show  but  a 
small  reduction  iu  the  number  of  males  attaining  the  age  60 — 65, 
against  a  very  considerable  augmentation  in  the  number  of  surviving 
females  at  that  period  of  life.  There  has  apparently  been  an  increase 
of  male  mortality  at  the  higher  ages,  sufficient  to  counterbalance  the 
improTement  in  early  life,  fmd  even  after  a  time  to  turn  it  into  a 
loss;  whilst  among  females,  a  more  than  proportionate  improvement 
in  early  life  has  been  followed  by  a  condition  of  things  at  the  higher 
ages  which  leaves  the  gain  practically  undiminished. 


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72 


Welww — On  Certain  Ghangea 


[Mar. 


Males. 

Females. 

A««i. 

Eneliih 
No.  3. 

TiWe 
for  1871-75. 

Difference 
percent. 

EnriiBh 

li/eTeble 

No.  8. 

table 
for  1871-75. 

Difference 
percent. 

80-35 

45—60 
60-65 
75—80 

1483*840 

I2l8'321 

834*862 
288*993 

1543-807 

1241*060 

827-712 

264*475 

+  4-0 
+  1*9 
-  0*9 

-8*5 

1456*076 

1201*075 

866*700 

333*526 

1541*987 

12^4-761 

945-671 

356199 

+  5*9 
-»-  7*0 

+  9*1 

+  6-8 

I  have  endeavoured  to  dear  np  still  further  the  question  as  to 
how  the  average  mortality  of  the  English  people  has  varied  since 
1841,  by  constructing  a  series  of  life  tables  on  the  principles  which 
guided  me  in  preparing  the  tables  already  given  for  1856-60  and 
1871-75.  By  that  means  the  following  results  have  been  reached, 
viz. : — 


Sttrrhrore  Aged  30-86. 

Aged  45—50. 

Aged  60— 65. 

Ezperienee 
of 

Males. 

Pemalea. 

Males 

ia 
Excess. 

Males. 

Females. 

MalM 

More  or 

Less. 

Males. 

females. 

FeoMles 

in 
Excess. 

1841-45  .... 
'4^50  .... 
'51-55  .... 
'56-60  .... 

1861-66  .... 
'66-70  ... 
71-75  .... 

Averages^ 

1841-60  .... 

*61-75  .... 

1525*674 
H55*492 
H75*754 
1515*387 

1493*194 
1512*780 

1543-807 

1493*077 
1516*593 

1491*276 
1126-174 
1451-982 
1484*211 

1474*474 
1501-741 
1541-987 

1468-411 
1606-067 

34*398 
29*318 
23*772 
31*176 

18-720 

11*039 

1*820 

29-666 
10-526 

1264*691 
1179*817 
1211*694 

1259*073 

1224*212 

1227833 
1241-060 

1228*819 
1231*035 

1243-227 
1163*474 
1201*721 
1245-495 

1229*989 
1251-530 
1284-761 

1213-479 
1255-427 

+  21*464 
+  16*343 
+    9*973 
+  13*578 

-  5*777 
-23*697 
-43*701 

+ 15*340 
-M392 

906-245 
809*585 
837*633 
884*115 

835*077 
832*590 
827*712 

859*394 
831793 

938136 
847168 
886-911 
933-590 

910*842 
923*688 
946*671 

901*451 
926-734 

31*891 
37*583 
49*278 
49*475 

75*765 
91*098 

117*959 

42*057 
94*941 

The  average  figures  which  result  from  grouping  the  ratios  for 
1841  to  1860,  and  for  1861  to  1875,  show  an  improvement,  both 
absolute  and  comparative,  in  the  vitality  of  females ;  and  the  series 
of  quinquennial  figures  shows  that  this  alteration  in  the  relative 
mortality  of  the  sexes  not  only  continued  in  progress  from  the 
earliest  to  the  latest  date,  with  hardly  any  interruption,  but  waa 
accelerated  during  the  last  fifteen  years.  Although  in  1841-45  the 
average  rates  of  mortality  were  much  lower,  and  in  1846-50  they 
were  much  higher  than  the  ordinary  level,  the  tables  for  these  two 
periods  were  alike  in  one  respect,  viz.,  in  showing  a  smaller  excess 
of  female  survivors  at  age  60 — 65  than  in  any  later  quinquen- 
nium. 

Begarding  the  matter  from  another  point  of  view,  we  perceivei 


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1880.]  in  (he  English  Bates  of  Mortality/.  73 

that  in  1871-75  the  male  mortality  after  age  30  was  so  high  as  to 
reduce 

iS43'8o7  aged  30—35, 

to  827712  aged  60 — 65,  only  53*6  per  cent,  surviving. 

Even  in  1846-50,  when  the  cholera  epidemic  so  materially 
affected  the  average  result,  such  a  loss  was  not  experienced ;  for 

1 45  5*492  aged  30—  35, 

became  809' 58  5  aged  60 — 65,  fully  55*6  per  ceni.  surviving. 

Consequently  the  male  mortality  dunng  the  latest  quinqueii- 
nium  at  ages  30 — 60  was  higher  than  in  any  of  the  other  six  similar 
periods. 

The  variations  in  the  risk  of  death  at  several  periods  of  life, 
which  are  summed  up  in  the  life  tables  already  given,  may  be 
better  seen  in  the  following  table,  which  shows  the  proportional 
loss  by  deaths  occurring  in  the  five  years  next  succeeding  the  attain- 
ment of  the  age  mentioned  in  the  first  column : — 


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74 


Welton — On  Certain  Ohcmget 


[Mar. 


Deaths 

per  1,000  in  the  Next  Fire  Years. 

Age  at 

1 

1 

Commenco- 

**  EngUih 
life  Tabl^  ^n  >  " 

Experience,  1841^. 

Experience.  184«-60. 

Experience,  1851-66. 

ment 

Males. 

Females. 

Males. 

Females. 

Males. 

Females. 

Males. 

Females. 

Birth*   .... 

212-2 

i85*5 

1961 

16/3 

208-2 

180-6 

213-4 

185*5 

0—  6.... 

106-4 

103-1 

99-9 

95-8 

112-1 

107*3 

103-8 

98-9 

5—10.... 

82-6 

33'4 

81-7 

31-4 

83-5 

33'» 

82-1 

317 

10—16.... 

26-2 

28*0 

26-8 

298 

29-2 

31*7 

27-7 

29*6 

15—20.... 

87-6 

39*a 

40-8 

4^-8 

48-5 

46-1 

41-9 

43*:» 

20-25.... 

44-5 

46-6 

44-2 

47*9 

50-1 

52-0 

46-9 

49*7 

25—80.... 

49-0 

51-3 

46-7 

50-4 

50-9 

56-6 

48-5 

51*5 

30-85.... 

64-6 

56-1 

52-9 

55*3 

581 

59*9 

58-6 

56*1 

85—40.... 

62-5 

6i-7 

60-6 

58-1 

66-9 

66-3 

68-1 

59*9 

40—45.... 

73-7 

68-7 

68-8 

63-1 

77-7 

70*6 

740 

67-3 

46—50.... 

90-2 

77'7 

82-5 

69-3 

91-8 

78-2 

91-0 

73*4 

50—66.... 

114-7 

97*6 

102-6 

85-1 

1160 

95*5 

112-4 

91-9 

66—60.... 

148-8 

133*0 

129-7 

H3*8 

145-8 

126-7 

143-2 

122-9 

60-65... 

208-9 

184-4 

184-7 

165-3 

208-5 

181-5 

200-0 

176-8 

65—70.... 

2850 

260*1 

264-9 

241-2 

2860 

262-2 

2861 

^59*5 

70—75.... 

891-9 

36z-3 

880-8 

344' 1 

406-2 

369-1 

406-7 

374*2 

*  The  ratios  in  this  line  show  that  out  of  1,000  births  occurring  in  five  suocessire  jears  prior 
year  are  exposed  to  five  years*  risk,  those  at  the  very  end  of  the  last  year  are  exposed  to  no  risk. 


The  regularity  of  the  several  sets  of  ratios  shown  in  the  above 
table  cannot  escape  notice;  it  remains  to  be  seen  what  are  the 
changes  which  they  indicate  to  be  in  progress,  and  are  snch  changes 
subject  to  any  nniform  laws  ?  Other  tables  must  be  employed  to 
assist  us  in  placing  the  matter  in  a  sufficiently  clear  light.  Thus : — 


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1880.] 


in  the  EnglUh  Bates  of  Mortality. 


75 


Deaths  per  1,000  in 

the  Next  Ktc  Years. 

Experience,  1856^. 

Experience.  18«1^. 

Experience,  1866.70. 

Experience,  1871-76. 

Age  at 
Commence- 
ment. 

Males. 

Femalet. 

Males. 

Females. 

Males. 

Females. 

Males. 

Females. 

208-1 

i8ro 

2121 

1 84- a 

213-3 

185-8 

206-6 

178-4 

Birth* 

100-3 

98*0 

106-7 

ioi'6 

97-8 

93a 

89-6 

84-8 

0—6 

29-3 

30*0 

29-2 

18-9 

27-0 

26-0 

25-6 

24-2 

5—10 

26-7 

27-4 

25-6 

271 

237 

246 

22-3 

23-0 

10—16 

37-7 

39*4 

38-6 

39*5 

360 

37-0 

34-9 

34*9 

16—20 

440 

45-6 

43-8 

44-8 

44-0 

43*4 

44-5 

42-5 

20—26 

44-6 

48-5 

47-8 

49*3 

48-6 

48-0 

49-3 

46-5 

25—30 

61-6 

51-6 

64-6 

54-1 

57-6 

53-a 

58-6 

51-8 

30-36 

68-6 

57-2 

64-8 

sn 

66-5 

59-a 

70-9 

58-5 

36—40 

69-6 

61-5 

72-7 

64-1 

77-4 

64-4 

80-9 

66*7 

40—45 

84-7 

70-4 

91-1 

71-0 

91-5 

73*5 

98-2 

73-8 

45—50 

109-8 

86-3 

116-7 

9i'7 

119-3 

895 

120-3 

93-1 

60—56 

138-2 

117-5 

151-3 

122-4 

152*6 

125-1 

1693 

123.7 

56—60 

197-2 

172-6 

201-3 

176-2 

211-6 

175*6 

220-8 

185-8 

60—66 

276-8 

25*'5 

287-0 

256-8 

2880 

257-1 

304-6 

263.7 

65—70 

896-6 

3^3-1 

399-2 

362-5 

412-8 

369-7 

410-4 

371-7 

70-76 

to  a  06118118  taken  at  the  end  of  the  period  so  many  die.    Those  bom  at  the  beginning  of  the  first 
because  they  are  immediately  coimted  as  liying  at  the  age  0 — 6. 


Digitized  by 


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76 


Weltok — On  Gertwin  Ohanges 


[Mar. 


Age  at 
Commence- 

The Male  Death-Rate  in  the  lait  Table  being 
Atsumed  Equal  to  i,ooo,  the  Female  Death-Rate  was  Lees*  by 

In  Thirty  Years 

the  Female  Drath-Rate 

badUius 

become  relatively 

ment  of 
Fire  Tears. 

Experi- 
ence, 
1841.45. 

Experi. 

ence, 

1846.»0. 

fixperi- 

ence, 

1861-56. 

Experi. 

ence, 

I806-6O. 

Experi- 

ence, 

1861-66. 

Experi- 
ence, 
1866-70. 

Experi- 
ence, 
1871-76. 

Less. 

More. 

Birth 

0—  5  .... 

6—10  .... 
10—16  .... 

137 

9 
+  11Z 

138 

43 

9 

+  86 

131 

43 

12 

+  69 

130 
23 

+  24 
+  66 

13* 

39 

10 

+  63 

129 
47 
87 

+  38 

136 
54 

55 
+  31 

13 
46 
81 

1 

Aggregate 
r^ios.... 

}  " 

99 

117 

68 

118 

176 

214 

— 

— 

15—20  .... 
20-25  ... 
25-30  .... 
80—35  .... 

+    62 
+    84 
+   79 
+  45 

+  60 
+   38 
+  112 
+   81 

+  31 
+  60 
+  62 
+  47 

+  45 
+  36 
+  87 
+  2 

+  a6 

+  23 

+  31 

9 

+  28 
14 
10 
77 

45 

57 

116 

62 
129 
136 
161 

— 

Aggregate 
ratios.... 

1+270 
J 

+  241 

+  200 

+  170 

+  71 

73 

218 

— 

— 

85—40  .... 
40—45  .... 
45—50  .... 
80—55  .... 

41 

76 

160 

171 

9 

91 

148 

177 

5t 
91 

193 
182 

22 
116 
169 
214 

I  to 
118 
221 

207 

110 
168 
197 
241 

175 
176 
248 
226 

»34 

100 

88 

55 

— 

Aggregate 
ratios.... 

1    448 

426 

617 

621 

666 

716 

826 

— 

— 

65—60  .... 
60—65  .... 
6&-70  .... 
70—76  .... 

'i3 

105 

89 

95 

128 

108 

83 

91 

142 

116 

90 

80 

150 
125 

88 
85 

191 

125 

105 

92 

180 
170 
107 
104 

224 
159 

134 
94 

lOI 

54 
45 

1 

ratios.... 

1    412 

410 

428 

448 

618 

661 

611 

— 

— 

*  Where  the  female  death-rate  was  greater  instead  of  lets^  an  affirmative  sign  (  +  )  is  used. 

These  ratios  possess  a  great  deal  of  regnlarity,  whether  we 
regard  them  in  one  way  or  another,  and  they  show  once  more,  that 
for  some  reason^  operating  over  the  whole  period^  male  mortality,  at 
ages  5  to  70,  has  diminished  by  a  less  amount,  or  has  increased  to 
a  greater  extent,  than  that  of  females.  In  1841-45  the  mortality  of 
females  exceeded  that  of  males  at  the  five  ages  from  10  to  35 ;  in 
1871-75  there  was  no  sncli  excess  save  at  the  age  10  to  15. 

At  the  ages  15 — 35  it  is  specially  to  be  remarked  that,  not- 
withstanding the  dangers  of  maternity,  female  mortality  now  com- 
pares favourably  with  that  amongst  males.  At  ages  25 — 35  the 
male  death-rates  were  hardly  lower  in  1871-75  than  in  1846-50 ;  at 
the  same  ages,  female  death-rates  were  in  1871-75  about  16  per  cent, 
lower  than  in  1846-50. 


Digitized  by 


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.1880.] 


in  the  English  Batiks  of  Mortality, 


77 


Next,  let  US  compare  the  absolute  ratios   contained  in  the 
preceding  table  for  either  sex,  thus : — 


Total  Chances 

Utest  Ratios  a871-76) 

Changes  in 

Changes  in 

.     " . 

compnred  with 

Age  at 
Conunene*- 

Female  Death-Rates. 

in  Thirty  Years  nrom 
1841-46  to  1871-75. 

those  derived  from  the 
English  Life  Table  No.  3. 

■lentttf 

VlfeTcan. 

Between 

Between 

Between 

Between 

1841-45  HDd 

1866.00  and 

1841-46  and 

1856-CO  aud 

Males. 

Vemales. 

Males. 

Females. 

1866-flO. 

1871-75. 

186«.60. 

1871-76. 

Birth 

+  I20 

-   1-6 

+  11-7 

-  2-6 

+  10-4 

+   9*1 

-  5-7 

-    7'i 

0—  5... 

+    04 

-10-7 

+     2*2 

-13-2 

-10-8 

—  11*0 

-16-8 

-18-3 

6—10... 

-   **4 

-  3-7 

-    1*4 

-  6-8 

-  61 

-    7'2 

-  70 

-   9-2 

10-15... 

—   ri 

-  3-4 

-    i*4 

-  4-4 

-  4-5 

-   6-8 

-  3-9 

-   5'o 

15—20... 

-  2-6 

-  2-8 

-   3*4 

-  4-6 

-  6-4 

-   7-9 

-  2-7 

-  4*3 

20—25... 

—    0'2 

+  0-5 

-    2*3 

-  31 

+   0-3 

-   5'4 

— 

-  4*1 

25—30... 

—    2*1 

+  4-7 

-    19 

-  20 

+   2-6 

-  3*9 

+   0-3 

-  4-8 

80-^.. 

-    1*4 

+  71 

-   3*7 

+   0-2 

+  6-7 

-  3*5 

+   40 

-  4*3 

35-40... 

—    21 

+  12-4 

-  0-9 

+   1-8 

+  10-3 

+   0-4 

+   8-4 

-  3*a 

40--45.... 

+    f3 

+  11-8 

-    1-6 

+   6-2 

+  12-6 

+   3-6 

+   7-2 

—   20 

45—50.... 

+     2*2 

+  18-5 

+     VI 

+   3  4 

-H6-7 

+  4*5 

+   8-0 

-  3*9 

60-65..^ 

+     7*2 

+  10-5 

+     1*2 

+   6-8 

+  17-7 

+   8*0 

+   5-6 

-  4*5 

65—60... 

+   8*5 

+  211 

+   37 

+   6-2 

+  296 

+   9*9 

+  100 

-  9*3 

00—65... 

+  12-5 

+  23-6 

+   7'3 

+  13-2 

+  861 

+  20*5 

+  16-9 

+    1-4 

66—70... 

+  11-9 

+  27-7 

+  11*3 

-Hll-2 

+  39-6 

+  22-5 

+  19-6 

+   3-6 

70-76.... 

+  i6*3 

+  18-8 

-I-190 

+   8-6 

+  301 

+  27*6 

+  18-5 

+   9*4 

This  table  again  shows  that  there  has  been  more  regularity  than 
could  have  been  expected  in  the  changes  of  mortality  ratios  which 
have  taken  place.  In  the  fifteen  years  between  1841-45  and  1856-50 
both  sexes  experienced  an  unfavourable  change*  in  the  earliest 
period  of  infancy,  then  an  improvement  extending  to  about  40  or 
45  years  of  age,  and  at  higher  ages,  a  deterioration  in  vitality.  In 
the  second  period  of  equal  duration,  there  was  a  yet  greater  improve- 
ment in  the  period  of  youth,  but  after  25  the  ratios  for  males 
showed  very  unfavourably,  and  after  35  there  was  a  sensible  increase 
in  female  mortality. 

The  sum  of  the  changes  within  the  two  periods  exhibits  a 
striking  improvement  in  the  mortality  of  both  sexes,  after  earliest 
infancy  up  to  age  20 ;  this  continued  fifteen  years  later  in  life  for 
women ;  after  which  both  sexes,  especially  males,  showed  enhanced 
death-rates. 

On  being  compared  with  the  English  Life  Table  No.  3,  the  latest 
set  of  ratios  would  indicate  that  female  vitality  at  every  age  up  to 
60  has  improved,  but  that  male  inhabitants  of  this  country  aged  25 


*  This  unfavourable  feature  is  probably  illusory ;  if  tbe  record  of  infantile 
deaths  had  been  as  complete  in  1841*45  as  in  1856-60,  very  likely  appearances 
would  have  pointed  the  other  way. 


Digitized  by 


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78 


Wblton — On  Certain  Changes 


[Mar. 


and  upwards  are  now  subject  to  rates  of  mortality  exceeding  those 
shown  in  that  table. 

III. — The  Ca/uses  of  the  Increased  Mortality  amongst  Males 
Aged  35—66. 

The  deaths  occurring  amongst  males  aged  35 — 65  appear  to  have 
been  due  to  the  undermentioned  causes  in  the  proportions  indicated 
at  the  periods  mentioned : — 


Annual  Male  Death-Bates  per  1,000  Liring. 

CftlMCS. 

Age86-«. 

AgeiS— 65. 

Age  (l-6(. 

1861-eO. 

1861-70. 

1875. 

1861.60. 

1861-70. 

1876. 

1861-60. 

1861-70. 

1876. 

Zymotic  diseasee    .... 

v6o 
0-I7 

0*12 
4-01 

ri8 

I'OO 

0*89 
o'a9 

0-55 

1-38 
0-20 

010 

417 
1-34 

1-23 

i-72 

0-91 

0-41 
1-31 
069 

1-41 
0-25 

0-08 
4-41 
^•55 
1-59 
2-52 

I*OI 

0-52 
1*39 
0-37 

2-07 

0-42 
0-13 

3-83 
1-99 

1-90 

3-09 

1-66 

0-47 
1*37 
i'03 

1-69 
0-54 

Oil 

3-86 
2-24 

219 

8-50 

1-71 

0*66 
1-65 
1-11 

1*5^ 
0*70 

0-07 

3-85 
*'45 
2-61 

4-78 

1-82 

0-87 
1-63 
0*70 

0-93 
0-14 

3*33 
4*10 

4*13 

6-62 

3'03 

0-94 
V6i 
2*90 

2-54 
1-21 

0^14 

3-80 
4-66 

4-68 

7-69 

3*06 

1*28 
1-89 
2-76 

2*31 

1-62 

Scrofula,        tabes  1 
mesenterica J 

PhthiBiB 

Diaease  of  brain 

Heart  diBease  audi 
dropsy     J 

Disease  of  lungs 

Disease  of  stomach  \ 
and  liver 

o-o8 

3*33 

5'57 

5*40 
10*32 
3'*o 

Disease  of  kidneys.... 

Violent  deaths   

Other  causes  

f77 
2-o8 

2'00 

All  causes   

12-48 

13-46 

15-10 

ir9^ 

19-16 

21*00 

30-85 

38-00 

37-6S 

At  these  ages,  the  zymotic  diseases,  or  those  specially  consequent 
on  bad  sanitary  conditions,  such  as  fevers,  small  pox,  cholera,  and 
diarrhoea,  seem  collectively  less  fatal  than  they  were,  but  local 
diseases,  of  the  lungs,  heart,  brain,  and  kidneys,  and  also  cancer, 
appear  to  be  more  destructive. 

The  causes  of  death  at  several  ages  are  not  shown  in  the 
Registrar-General's  Reports  except  for  the  whole  country  and  for 
London,  save  in  the  supplementary  tables  for  1851-60  and  1861-70. 
These  supplementary  tables  enable  us  to  present  the  following 
comparisons : — 


Digitized  by 


Google 


1880.] 


tn  the  English  Bates  of  MortaMty. 


79 


yeTomu^ — 

london  (diviiion)  »...»..„... 

iTerpod    

fancbester    

timiingham  

ieeds  ^ 

(hdBdd ^.^ 


fottiiigliam 

Jriatel    

luU 


rhePotteriee ^. 

fewcast]6-oii-Tjiie 

[ieicester....^ 

V^dTerbampton    .... 


Dir.  11.  South  Eastern  ... 
»     UL  Sooth  Midland... 

»     IV.  Eastern 

»      V.  South  Wertcra... 

Bertof  Dir.    VL  W.  Mdhid. 

Vn.  N.lidlnd. 

„       VIIL  N.  Wstm. 

n  12L  xonL  

ti           X.  Northern 
Dir.  XL  Wales,  Ac 


England  and  Wales 


Annma  Mortality  per  i,ooo  Males  Aged  S5— M. 


Diaease 

of 
Longa. 


1861.60. 


1861-70. 


1-98 
3-10 

3*14 
1-91 

^7 
0*97 

n$ 

V78 
1*37 
1-41 

*"35 


i-a7 
113 
i*oz 

1-28 
I'OO 

170 

VZ2 
0*92 
VZ2 


VS2 


218 
3-53 
3-66 
211 
2-93 
300 

1-30 
1-89 
1-62 
3-68 
203 
1-66 
1-92 


1-38 
118 
103 
1-39 
1-32 
112 
2-09 
1-53 
lU 
1-41 


1-72 


Heart  Disease 

and 

Dropsy. 


•51-60. 


i'3a 
1*46 

1*21 

1-19 
I -09 

0*87 
114 

I'12 

i*03 
1*09 
I'll 


ro5 
0-85 
0*72 
0-86 

0'92 
0'82 
I*02 
0*84 

0*99 
0*70 


'61-70. 


1-64 
2-06 
1-47 
1-36 
1-62 
1-68 

118 
1-30 
1-61 
1-36 
2-44 
1-93 
116 


1-38 
0-96 
0-86 
108 
105 
0^90 
119 
111 
1-20 
0-92 


1-23 


Disease  of 
Brain. 


'61-60. 


•26 

•43 
0-94 

H 

18 

078 

H 

•06 

0-99 

0*80 


ri8 


'61-70. 


1-56 
1-43 
1-96 
1-44 
115 
1-29 

1*28 
1-73 
1-42 
108 
1-28 
1-74 
0-73 


1-44 
1-67 
1-09 
1-31 
1-34 
0*94 
1-38 
1-25 
105 
101 


1-34 


Diaeaaeof 
Kidneys. 


61-60. 


044 
0*37 

0'42 

0-42 

o*35 
o'27 

018 
044 
0*30 

0*21 
0-44 

o'43 
0*34 


0-3  a 
0*26 
0*26 
0*26 

0'22 
0-23 
0-25 

0-23 

0-25 

o'i8 


0*29 


•61-70. 


0-62 
0-67 
0-50 
0*40 
0-48 
0-31 

0-35 
0-64 
0-37 
0-33 
0-49 
0-53 
0-49 


0*46 
0-36 
0-36 
0-48 
0-34 
0-30 
0-29 
0-31 
0-25 
0*32 


0-41 


Cancer. 


•61-60. 


0-24 

0-23 

0'2I 

0-25 

0-23 

0*14 

0*10 
0*38 

0*20 

0-15 

0*29 
0-I7 

0*I2 


0*19 
0*19 

0-13 

o*i6 

014 

o'i3 
0-13 
0*14 
o-i8 
0-I3 


0*17 


•61-70. 

0-29 
0-23 
0-24 
0-22 
0-29 
010 

0*23 
0-34 
018 
0-06 
0-34 
014 
0-23 


019 
0-23 
017 
0-21 
018 
017 
016 
017 
017 
0-20 


0-20 


•  The  serend  towns  sre  represented  in  this  table  by  groups  of  registration  districts :  for 
unple,  Manchester,  by  the  districts  of  Manchester,  Chorlton,  and  Salford ;  Bristol,  by  those 
Bristol  and  Clifton. 


Digitized  by 


Google 


80 


Wbmon — 0»  Certain  Ohanget 


[Mar. 


Large  Toione — 

London  (diyision) 

Liverpool    

Manohester 

Birmingham  

Leeds  

Sheffield  ., , 

Nottingham    ^ 

Bristol 

Hull 

The  Potteries  

Newcastle-on-Tyne    

Leicester 

Wolrerhampton _ 

Rural  Divisions — 

Dir.   II.  South  Eastern  

„    III.  South  Midland 

„     rV.  Eastern 

„       V.  South  Western 

RestofDiv.     VL  W.Mdlnd 
VII.  N.       „ 
VIII.  N.  Wstm 

„  IX.  York 

„              X.  Northern 
Div.  XL  Wales,  &c 

England  and  Wales  


Annval  MortaUty  per  l.pOO  Males  Aged  4S~6S. 


Disease 

of 
Luugs. 


18514K).  1861-70, 


4*55 
6*37 
7"37 
4*6o 

5-58 

^'59 
4*a6 

7-78 
4*05 
3-50 
4*43 


2*09 
2*or 
1-83 

2-56 
1-44 

187 
3*77 
i'62 
2*10 
1*43 


3*09 


4*84 
8-22 
8-45 
4-93 
6-22 
6-72 

2*44 
8*98 
3-33 
8-51 
4-08 
3*99 
4-48 


2-30 
216 
1-97 
2-42 
2-81 
213 
4-64 
3-28 
2  27 
2-77 


3-50 


Heart  Disease 

sud 

Dropsj. 


'61-«0. 


a'45 
2-62 

»*54 
a'47 

2*22 

rSi 
218 
a-44 
242 

3  44 
220 
2*84 


1-85 
1-62 
1-26 

1-57 
194 

1-65 
1*98 
1-70 

2*lO 
126 


i"90 


•61-70. 


2-73 
307 
2-40 
2-58 
308 
2-82 

207 
2-30 
2-76 
2-64 
392 
312 
2-84 


209 
1-87 
1-60 
1-91 
204 
1-85 
2-31 
214 
2-24 
1-63 


219 


Disease  of 
Brain. 


'51.60. 


2-68 

i'50 
2*89 
2-71 
217 
2*09 

2-03 

»'45 
i'47 
rs6 
2-77 
246 


2*o8 
1*90 
»*54 
1*73 
1-90 

^•50 
1*98 

1-82 

r8o 
I  28 


'61-70. 


199 


2-90 
2-60 
322 
2-60 
2-80 
2-56 

2-32 

2-88 
2-40 
2-63 
292 
2-66 
1-62 


2-21 
2-31 
1-71 
1-99 
2-80 
1-64 
2-28 
2-18 
202 
1-48 


2-24 


Disease  of 
Kidneys. 


&1-60. 


o-8i 
0*6 1 
0*62 
0-86 

045 

0*40 
0*81 
0-41 

0-53 
0-78 
0-45 


o'52 
o'43 
044 

0*40 
0-38 
035 
039 
0*30 
0-28 


*61.70. 


107 
0-91 
0-91 
0-86 
0-92 
0-64 

0-63 
100 
0-70 
0-52 
0-66 
0-53 
0'63 


0-78 
0-58 
0-54 
0-56 
0-59 
0-60 
0-55 
0-50 
0-42 
0-47 


Cancer. 


'61-60.  'ei-TO. 


047    0-66    0*42 


o*6i 
0-44 
0-50 
0*62 
0*46 
0-47 

0-27 
o'6i 
0*46 

o"33 
0-66 
o*6o 
0*30 


0-38 
0-51 
o*34 
0*40 

o*35 
0-31 
o*33 
0*40 

o*39 
o'38 


0-82 
0*70 
0-68 
0-51 
0-65 
0*40 

0*53 
0*56 
0-37 
0-54 
0*89 
0*93 
0*66 


0*53 
0-60 
0*42 
0*56 
0-43 
(0*44 
0-42 
0-42 
0*46 
0*48 


± 


0-54 


The€ie  last  tables  are  cnrions,  as  showing  the  unequal  fatality  of 
certain  diseases  in  different  places.  Lang  disease,  which  was  least 
fatal  in  the  eastern  counties,  was  most  so  in  Liverpool,  Manchester, 
and  the  Staffordshire  Potteries,  where  the  mortality  from  idiis  cause 
was  almost  fourfold. 

The  wide  diffusioii  of  the  increase  m  mortality  from  each  of  the 
five  causes  mentioned  in  these  tables  is  yet  more  noticeable.  Out 
of  II 5  cases  in  the  first  table  (age  35 — 45)  only  1 1  showed  any 
decrease  in  the  rate  of  mortality,  and  4  a  stationary  death-rate, 
the  rest  indicating  increase  more  or  less  considerable.  The  other 
table,  out  of  a  like  number,  showed  1$  instances  of  decreased 
mortality,  and  i  of  a  stationary  rate. 

The  cases  where  the  increase  in  the  rate  of  mortality  exceeded 
10  per  cent,  were  naturally  much  fewer  than  those  where  there  was 
merely  some  amount  of  increase,  small  or  great.     It  is  interesting 


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1880.]  in  the  BngUsh  Bates  of  Mortality.  81 

to  consider  what  were  the  places  where  such  marked  increase  of 
fatality  from  the  undermentioned  classes  of  disease  was  observed  ^-^ 

Disease  of  lungs,  at  age  35 — 45,  in  London,  Liverpool,  Man- 
chester, Birmingham,  Leeds,  Sheffield,  Nottingham,  the 
Potteries,  Newcastle-on-Tyne,  and  Leicester;  also  Bura] 
Divisions  YII  (North  Midland),  VIII   (North  Western), 

IX  (York)  and  X  (Northern). 

At  age  45 — 55,  in  Liverpool,  Manchester,  Leeds,  and 
Leicester ;  also  in  Rural  Divisions  U  (South  Eastern), 
VI  (West  Midland),  VII  (North  Midland),  VIII  (North 
Western),  IX  (York),  and  XI  (Wales). 

Heart  disease  and  dropsy,  at  age  35—45,  in  London,  Liverpool, 
Manchester,  Birmingham,  Leeds,  Sheffield,  Nottingham, 
Bristol,  the  Potteries,  Newcastle-on-Tyne,  and  Leicester; 
also  in  every  one  of  the  rural  divisions. 

At  age  45 — 55,  in  London,  Liverpool,  Leeds,  Sheffield, 
Nottingham,  Hull,  Newcastle-on-Tyne,  and  Leicester;  also 
in  all  the  rural  divisions  except  VI  (West  Midland),  and 

X  (Northern)  ► 

Disease  of  brain,  at  age  35 — 45,  in  Manchester  and  Sheffield, 
and  in  all  the  rural  divisions  except  X  (Northern  Counties). 
At  age  45 — 55,  in  Manchester,  Leeds,  Sheffield,  Notting- 
ham, and  Bristol,  and  in  all  the  rural  divisions  except  II 
(South  Western),  and  VII  (North  Midland). 

We  are  obliged  to  conclude,  that  of  these  three  classes  of 
disease  the  only  one  the  f  ataUty  by  which  was  peculiarly  increased 
in  the  manufoGtwrvng  digtriots  as  distinguished  from  the  rest  of  the 
country,  was  that  of  diseases  of  the  lungs;  the  other  two  classes 
were  much  more  fatal  in  the  later  period,  whether  in  the  agri- 
cultural divisions  or  in  the  more  densely  peopled  divisions  to  the 
north  and  west.  Disease  of  the  kidneys  and  cancer  also  show  a 
seriously  increased  rate  of  fatality,  extending  to  the  non-manu- 
facturing divisions. 

We  find  then  that  the  mortality  amongst  males  at  ages  35 — 65 
Has  been  increasing,  not  only  in  the  large  towns  and  manufacturing 
districts,  but  also  elsewhere ;  and  we  observe  that  this  increase  has 
not  been  largely  due  to  epidemic  disease,  to  consumption,  or  to 
diseases  of  the  stomach  and  liver,  but  to  other  causes  which  have 
been  specified.  It  remains  to  be  seen  whether  the  increased 
mortality  from  the  causes  in  question  has  been  steadily  augmenting, 
or  has  been  subject  to  much  fluctuation. 

The  following  table  of  annual  death-rates  amongst  males,  for 
England  and  Wales,  will  supply  an  answer  to  that  question : — 

VOL.  XLIII.      PART  I.  0 

Digitized  by  VjOOQ IC 


82 


Welton — On  Certain  Oluxngea 


[Mar. 


Yw. 

DiBeaM  of  Longt. 

Heart  Disease  and 
Dropay. 

Disease  of  Brain. 

Disease  of  Kidneys. 

Cancer. 

46—65. 

86—46. 

46-65. 

S6--A6. 

46—56. 

36-46. 

46—66. 

J6— 46. 

46—66. 

1851 .... 

1*50 

8-01 

0*98 

1-80 

114 

1-88 

0*21 

0-36 

0*15 

0*85 

*62 .... 

'35 

2-77 

0-97 

1-87 

1*13 

1-90 

0*15 

0-41 

0-17 

0-44 

'58 . ... 

i-6o 

3*34 

0-98 

1-99 

I'20 

1-97 

0-2a 

0-47 

0-17 

0*42 

'54 .... 

1-42 

2-85 

1*03 

1-93 

ri4 

1-95 

0*29 

0-48 

o-i8 

0*43 

'56 .... 

1-76 

3-68 

0-97 

1-90 

1-15 

208 

0*30 

0^49 

021 

0*88 

1856 .... 

1*37 

2-73 

0-94 

1-74 

i'i5 

1-92 

0*29 

0-50 

o\6 

0*44 

'57.... 

J '47 

2-90 

o'95 

1-82 

ri4 

200 

0^31 

0-50 

o-i8 

0-40 

'58 .... 

1-58 

3-25 

vol 

1-97 

1*^3 

208 

0-32 

0-51 

o-i8 

0-40 

'59 .... 

I'fz 

3-20 

IIO 

1-97 

1-20 

20a 

o'34 

0-53 

o-i8 

0-47 

'60.... 

1*75 

3-45 

rii 

210 

1-38 

2-21 

o'34 

0-50 

0*19 

0*60 

1861 .... 

1-66 

8-27 

I'lO 

1-98 

1-23 

207 

o*35 

0-57 

0*19 

0*52 

'62 .... 

1-58 

8-80 

119 

206 

123 

215 

0*31 

0-58 

0-20 

0-47 

'63 .... 

i'59 

809 

113 

203 

1*33 

218 

0*37 

0-64 

0'20 

0*51 

'64.... 

»'93 

392 

1-27 

2-22 

1-40 

2-28 

0-41 

0-69 

0*19 

056 

'65 ... 

1-71 

8-59 

i'27 

2-46 

1-41 

2-34 

041 

0-65 

0'20 

0*61 

1866 .... 

1*70 

3-64 

1-29 

2-22 

J*33 

2^0 

0*46 

0-68 

0*21 

0*62 

'67 .... 

1-78 

3-59 

vxs 

2-28 

i*3i 

2-29 

0*44 

067 

0-2I 

0*57 

'68 .... 

1*59 

318 

1*21 

216 

1*33 

2-3e 

0*43 

0-70 

0'19 

0-55 

'69... 

182 

8-72 

i'3i 

2-32 

1-42 

2-29 

o'44 

0-70 

023 

0-58 

'70.... 

1-91 

3-88 

1*34 

2-26 

1-46 

281 

0*44 

0-73 

024 

0*62 

1871 .... 

1-78 

8-83 

1-42 

2-36 

1-42 

2-85 

048 

0-74 

0-23 

0*60 

'72 .... 

1*74 

3-39 

144 

2-42 

1-42 

282 

0-50 

0-78 

0*20 

0*67 

'73 .... 

2*03 

894 

1*5- 

2-83 

»*47 

239 

0-48 

0-86 

0-22 

068 

74.... 

2*21 

4-45 

1*53 

2-43 

1-46 

2-50 

o'<;o 

0-81 

0*22 

066 

'75 .... 

2*52 

4-78 

1*59 

2-61 

^'5S 

2-45 

0-52 

0-87 

0-25 

0-70 

To  get  rid  of  exceptional  years,  let  us  compare  the  medium  and 
minimum  ratios  in  each  period  of  five  jrears ;  thns  : — 


Period. 

Disease  of  Longs 

Heart  Disease 
and  Dropsy. 

Disease  of  Brain. 

Disease  of 
Kidoeys. 

Cancer. 

86—46. 

46—66. 

86—46. 

46—66. 

86-46. 

46—66. 

36—46. 

46-66. 

46— M. 

Medium  Batio9^ 
1851-56  

1*50 
»*5» 
1-66 
1-78 
2-03 

301 
3-20 
8-30 
8-64 
8*94 

0-98 
i'o6 
1*19 
1*29 
1*5* 

1-90 
1-97 
206 
2-26 
2-42 

1-14 
1*20 
1*33 
1*33 
1-46 

1*95 
206 
218 
2-30 
2-39 

0*28 
0-32 
0-37 
0-44 
0-50 

0*47 
0-60 
064 
0*70 
0-81 

0-17 
0*18 

0'20 
0*2I 
0*22 

0*42 

'56-60  

0*44 

*61-65  

0-61 

'66-70  

0*57 

'71-75  

0*67 

Increase  per  cent 

85 

81 

56 

27 

28 

23 

79 

72 

29 

60 

Mininmm  Ratios — 
1851-65  

^'3S 

1*37 
1*58 

»'59 
1*74 

2-77 
2*78 
809 
818 
8-39 

o*97 
0*94 

1*10 
1*21 
1*42 

1-80 
1*74 
1-98 
215 
2-33 

1*13 
1-14 

1**3 
1*3* 

1*42 

1-88 
1-92 
2*07 
2*29 
232 

0*21 

0*29 
0-31 
0-43 
0-48 

0-35 
0-50 
0*57 
067 
0-74 

o'lS 
o*i6 
0*19 
0*19 
0*20 

0-35 

'66-60  

0*40 

'61-65  

0*47 

'66-70  

0-52 
0*60 

'71-76  

Increase  per  cent 

29 

22 

46 

29 

26 

28 

129 

111 

88 

71 

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1880.]  in  the  English  Bates  of  Mortality.  83 

This  table  demonstrates,  I  think,  that  the  increased  mortaliiy  \j 
each  of  the  five  specified  causes  was  no  mere  accident,  bnt  arose 
from  some  condition  of  things  which  if  not  altered  may  admit  of 
further  increase  in  the  fainre,  to  an  extent  which  we  cannot 
measure. 

Summary. 

1.  I  find  that  whilst  both  sexes,  especiially  females,^  have  ex- 
perienced a  diminished  mortality  during  many  years  pasi  at,  ages 
under  25 ;  there  has  been  an  increased  death-rate  amongst  males 
at  the  ages  from  35  upwards,  if  not  commencing  earlier,  which  has 
raised  male  mortality  at  those  ages,  not  only  far  above  the  standard 
of  1866-60,  but  even  higher  than  the  unfavourable  rates  which 
prevailed  in  1846-50.  A  similar  tendency  to  increase  is  observable 
in  female  death-rates  at  ages  45  upwards,  but  it  is  much  less  power- 
ful than  that  affecting  male  rates. 

2.  It  appears  that  in  consequence  of  these  changes  the  proba* 
bility  ef  attaining  a  high  age  has  diminished  in  the  case  of  males, 
but  has  increased  in  the  case  of  females,  so  that  the  tendency 
towards  an  excess  of  female  population  arising  is  stronger  than  it 
was.  A  National  Life  Table  based  on  recent  data,  would  conse- 
quently deviate  considerably  from  Dr.  Farr**  English  Life  Table, 
No.  3. 

3.  The  chaises  in  question  seem  to  have  progressed  step  by 
step  without  much  interruption,  at  all  events  siace  1856-60. 

4.  The  particular  diseases  to  which  the  increased  numbeifs  of 
male  deaths  at  ages  35 — 65  were  attributed  in^  the  Registrar 
Oenerars  Tables,  appear  to  have  been  mainfy  lung  disease  (bron- 
chitis^ pneumonia,  &c.),  heart  disease,  dropsy,  brain  disease,  disease 
of  the  kidneySy  and  cancer.  The  ordinary  fatality  resulting  from 
these  diseases  in  medium  or  &vourable  years  is  shown  to  have  risen, 
considerably. 


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81  [Mar. 


Discasiioif  on  Me.  Wblton's  Papbr. 

The  Chiieman  (Sir  Rawson  W.  Rawson),  after  alluding  to  the 
importance  of  the  paper,  said  that  there  conld  be  little  or  no  doubt  as 
to  the  facts  contained  in  it.  With  regard  to  the  calculations  and 
deductions  Mr.  Welton  had  drawn  from  them,  there  were  some 
gentlemen  present  who  would  be  able  to  speak  with  greater  know- 
ledge than  he  (the  Chairman)  was  able  to  do.  Having  had  the 
paper  in  his  hands  the  previous  daj,  it  appeared  to  him  so  important 
that  he  took  the  trouble  to  look  into  it  for  the  purpose  of  bringing 
before  the  meeting  a  fdw  features  which  Mr.  Welton  had  not 
drawn  out,  and  which  he  would  suggest  should  be  drawn  out  before 
the  paper  was  published  in  the  Journal.  He  would  suggest 
that  the  author  should  give  the  proportions  in  several  cases.  In 
the  first  table  he  showed  that  the  death-rates  amongst  males 
and  females  from  the  ages  of  5  to  25  had  been  gradually  increas- 
ing from  the  quinquennium  of  1846-50  to  that  of  1871-75;  but 
the  mere  figures  did  not  show  the  proportions.  The  author 
stated  casually  they  were  about  2{  per  cent.,  and  so  it  was; 
.  but  it  would  be  very  important  to  draw  these  out  exactly, 
and  so  with  regard  to  many  of  the  others.  There  was 
one  point  in  the  paper  which  was  very  tantalising  to  him. 
Mr.  Welton  said,  "  I  have  arrived  at  the  conclusions  (lat)  that 
the  census  returns  as  to  ages  require  to  be  amended ;  (2nd)  that 
the  approximate  proportions  of  births  which  annually  escape 
registration  are  discoverable,  and  (3rd)  that  the  net  results  of 
migrations  into  and  from  the  country  may  also  be  measured,"  It 
would  have  been  a  great  boon  if  the  author  had  given  the  informa- 
tion which  enabled  him  to  state  positively  those  three  conclasions. 
He  would  also  suggest  to  Mr.  Welton  if  he  would,  at  the  end  of 
his  paper,  summarise  the  chief  facts  and  deductions,  which,  being 
spr^kd  between  the  different  tables,  would  have  to  be  sought  out, 
and  require  a  care  which  many  persons  actively  engaged  would  not 
be  able  to  give.  In  the  first  table,  the  chief  facts  with  regard  to 
the  mean  death-rates  per  i,ooo  living  seemed  to  be  these. 
Between  the  two  dates  which  he  took  as  his  extremes,  1846-50  and 
1871-75,  there  had  been  a  uniform  increased  vitality  amongst  males 
and  females,  and  he  observed  that  it  had  only  been  checked  in  one 
quinquennium,  and  that  only  amongst  the  males,  namely,  in 
1861-65.  There  was  a  moderate  check  in  this  period,  curiously 
enough,  occurring  amongst  the  males,  but  not  occurring  amongst 
the  females.  That  was  the  first  fact— that  the  vitality  of  young 
people  seemed,  during  the  thirty  years  from  1846  to  1875,  to  have 
increased  about  one-fourth.  Amongst  males  of  the  age  of  from 
5  to  10  there  were  exactly  25  per  cent. ;  between  10  and  15,  25*9; 
between  15  and  25,  19*  7.  Then  amongst  the  females,  in  the  first 
period  it  was  29  per  cent.,  being  4  per  cent,  more  than  amongst  the 
males ;  in  the  second  period  it  was  29*8,  and  in  the  third  period  - 


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1880.]  Discussion  on  Mr.  Welton'g  Pcvper.  8S» 

247.  No  mention  was  made,  howerrer,  of  children  nnder  the  age 
of  5.  Although  it  might  not  accord  with  the  facts  whicli 
Mr.  Welton  had  brought  out  in  this  taHe,  it  would  be  desiraHe  to 
note  in  connection  with  them  wha*  the  change  was  with  regard  tO' 
the  younger  ones.  As  far  as  he  could  make  out,  there  had  been  an 
increased  mortality ;  but  as  the  information  was  not  shown  in  the 
same  form,  he  had  not  been  arble  exactly  to  draw  that  out.  Theii 
came  the  really  important  fact  in  the  paper,  that  the  vitality  of  the 
men  of  middle  age — the  staple  of  our  population — ^was  on  the 
decrease,  the  cause  of  which  ought  to  be  looked  into.  The  second 
table  showed  this  very  interesting,  but  very  sad  statement,  that 
between  the  age9  of  35  and  75  for  the  first  three  quinquenniums, 
there  was  a  gradual  improvement.  Then  there  came  a  change, 
and  each  succeeding  quinquennium  up  to  the  present  time  showed 
a  falling  off  to  the  prejudice  of  the  population.  Mr.  Welton  had 
brought  forward  four  periods  in  regard  to  age :  from  35  to  45, 
45  to  55,  55  to  65,  and  65  to  75.  Between  the  first  quinquennium 
and  the  third  there  was  a  diminution  of  mortality  for  those  several 
ages  respectively  in  favour  of  our  population  of  7  per  cent.,  12  per 
cent.,  10  per  cent.,  and  4  per  cent.  Then  the  tide  turned,  and 
there  was  a  corresponding  increase  of  mortality  up  to  the  quin- 
quennium ending  in  1875  of  15  per  cent.,  17  per  cent.^  16  per  cent., 
and  5  per  cent.,  all  to  the  bad ;  and  comparing  the  first  with  the 
last  quinquennium,  there  was  a  disadvantage  represented  by  nearly 
7  per  cent.,  nearly  4  per  cent.,  4  per  cent,,  saad  i  per  cent.  Those 
were  the  ratios  of  increased  mortality  between  the*  years  1846-50 
and  the  quinquennium  1871-75,  In  that  way  he  should  like  the 
several  tables  to  be  examined,  because  the  mind  could  then  grasp 
the  changes  that  had  occurred.  (Mr.  Welton  said  it  would  be  very 
easy  to  do  so,  but  he  was  anxious  not  to  overload  the  paper.)  The 
Chairman  said  the  next  point  of  interest  which  occurred  to  him 
was  the  difference  brought  out  between  Dr.  Farr*8  table  and  the 
experiences  of  1856-60  and  1871-75.  He  was  not  competent  to 
judge  of  Mr.  Welton' s  method ;  but  supposing  that  Dr.  Farr*s  table 
was  recognised  as  accurate,  and  that  Mr.  Welton  had  adopted  the 
same  method,  there  would  be  the  following  interesting  results.  It 
was  clear,  from  the  figure  as  they  stood,  that  Dr.  Farr's  table 
corresponded  very  closely  with  the  experiences  of  1856-60,  but 
that,  as  regards  females,  it  differed  materially  from  those  of  the 
later  period.  Taking  the  whole  of  the  males  and  females  at  the 
different  periods  of  life,  which  was  the  only  way  of  obtaining 
an  average,  adding  them  up  and  comparing  them,  he  found  the 
following  results : — that  in  1856-60  the  value  of  male  life  at  all 
ages  by  the  tables,  as  compared  with  Dr.  Farr's  tables,  was  2J 
(2*6)  per  cent,  in  excess  of  Dr.  Farr;  while  among  females  it 
was  just  3  per  cent. ;  but  in  1871-75  it  had  fallen  among  males 
to  2  per  cent,  below  Dr.  Farr's  table,  while  among  females  the 
excess  had  increased  to  5*4  per  cent.  These  changes,  however, 
varied  very  much  at  different  times  of  life.  Up  to  the  age  of  35 
the  variations  amongst  the  males  from  Dr.  Farr's  tables  were 
+ 1 '45  and  -|-  3'  i  per  cent,  at  the  two  periods  selected  by  Mr.  Welton. 
Then  from  35  to  55  the  differences  were  +  3'i3  and  -f  2*37;  but 


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St  DiseuBsum  [Mar. 

from  55  io  80  tk«re  was  an  iRcrease  of  6*i  in  the  first  qnrnqnennimn, 
amd  a  decrease  of  2't  m  the  second,  showing  that  the  advantage 
which  the  males  had  m  that  period  from  55  to  80  over  Dr.  Farr's 
tables  of  6  per  cent»,  had  «tterly  disappeared,  and  had  become  a 
decrease  of  2^5  per  cent.  With  regard  to  the  females,  it  stood 
thus :  np  to  85  they  had  the  advantage  in  the  first  period  (1856-60) 
of  1*34;  in  1871-75,  3-95,  being  an  increase  of  threefold  in  the 
latter.  In  the  second  period  of  life,  35  to  55,  it  was  3*31  in 
1856-60 ;  and  6*83  in  18/1'75,  being  an  increase  of  donble  in  the 
latt^.  Beyond  the  age  of  55  in  the  first  period  it  was  8*1 ;  and  in 
the  second  period  8*31  ;  which  changes,  he  thought,  afforded 
saffieient  evidence  that  it  became  very  necessary  from  time  to 
time  to  examine  life  tables,  and  adapt  them  to  circnmstances. 
Always  pvoviding  that  the  methods  adopted  by  Mr.  Welton  in 
his  paper  were  reliable,  there  was  nothing  to  find  fanlt  with 
in  his  dednctions  from  the  &cts  on  which  his  calculations  are 
founded.  One  other  point  he  desired  to  refer  to,  was  the  very 
remarkable  change  in  the  prospect  in  the  life  of  women  during 
the  period  of  child-bearing.  It  would  be  seen  that  between 
the  ^es  of  15  and  35  during  the  first  quinquennium  of  1841-45, 
there  was  an  excess  in  the  death-rate  of  females  above  that 
of  males  amounting  to  270  in  4,000.  In  the  next  quinquen- 
nium it  had  decreased  to  241  ;  in  the  next  to  200;  in  the 
next  to  170;  in  the  next  to  71.  In  the  sixth  quinqaenninm 
the  mortality  was  73  less  amongst  the  females  than  amongst  the 
males ;  and  in  the  last,  viz.,  between  1871-75,  the  mortality  was 
218  less;  so  that  whereas  forty  years  ago  the  mortality  amongst 
females  at  the  age  of  child-bearing  was  270  more  in  4,000,  or 
nearly  7  per  cent*,  in  1871-75  it  was  218,  or  nearly  cj  per  cenL 
less,  a  change  atnouoting  to  12  per  cent.  Such  a  fact,  if  on  exami- 
nation it  should  prove  to  be  accurate,  led  to  the  inference  that 
there  had  been  •some  very  great  change  for  the  better  in  the  treat- 
ment of  women  <luring  that  critical  period.  True  (as  Mr.  Welton 
here  interposed)  the  difference  may  have  been  caused  in  a  con- 
siderable measure  by  an  increase  in  the  mortality  of  males.  The 
males  were  dying  in  so  much  greater  proportion  than  formerly  that 
it  affected  the  ratio  of  male  and  female ;  bat  he  had  little  doubt 
that  improved  methods  of  treatment  had  beneficially  affected  the 
value  of  female  life  at  this  stage  of  it.  Qe  had  made  a  calculation 
in  reference  to  the  last  table.  Mr.  Welton  considered  that  diseases 
of  the  lungs,  brain,  kidneys,  heart,  and  cancer  were  the  five  that 
had  most  increased  among  males  at  the  ages  from  35  to  55  during 
the  period  named.  He  (the  Chairman)  made  out  that  such 
increased  mortality,  as  shown  by  Mr.  Welton,  caused  by  disease  of 
the  lungs  during  that  period  was  10  per  cent. ;  by  heart  disease 
and  dropsy  7  J  per  cent. ;  by  disease  of  the  brain  nearly  7  per  cent. ; 
by  disease  of  the  kidneys  6|,  and  by  cancer  16^  per  cent.  He 
hoped  some  of  those  present  would  be  able  to  give  reasons  for  the 
peculiar  increase  of  these  diseases,  and  also  for  the  increase  of 
mortality  amongst  males  at  this  period  of  life.  Coming  from 
abroad,  he  might  be  ignorant  of  the  real  state  of  things ;  but  it 
appeared  to  him  that  it  might  be  accounted  for  in  some  measure  in 


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1880.]  an  Mr.  WeUon's  Pa/per.  87 

this  way.  There  had  been  an  improvement  in  the  earlier  stages  of 
life,  from  5  to  26,  but  there  had  been  a  marvellous  increase  of 
mortality  amongst  males  between  the  ages  of  35  and  75.  It 
occurred  to  him  that  the  improved  vitality  which  seemed  to  occur 
at  earlier  stages  might  be  accounted  for,  first,  by  the  introduction 
of  improved  sanitary  measures,  of  schooling,  and  of  legislation 
regulating  the  employment  of  young  people,  all  tending  to  the 
improvement  t>f  their  condition;  and,  secondly,  by  the  improve- 
ment in  the  rates  of  wages,  which  had  benefited  the  families,  the 
wives,  and  the  children,  more  than  the  adult  males  themselves. 
There  had  also,  in  later  years,  been  an  increase  in  the  wages  earned 
by  the  children  themselves,  which  enabled  them  to  live  better  than 
formerly.  But  with  the  increase  of  wages  beginning  at  the  period 
of  1861-65,  there  had  been  an  increased  activity — perhaps  excessive 
exertion — on  the  part  of  the  labouring  population,  also  excessive 
living,  which  had  led  to  dissipation  and  weakened  physical  powers, 
which  was  now  telling  upon  them  at  an  advanced  period  of  life. 
It  struck  him  that  this  might  be  a  partial  explanation  of  otte  cause 
of  this  very  remarkable  change.  Whether  or  not  that  was  a 
possible  cause,  Mr.  Welton'«  facts  oouM  not  be  put  forward  in  too 
powerful  a  light. 

Mr.  A.  H,  Bailey  (President  of  the  Institute  of  Actuaries)  said 
that  while  appreciating  highly  the  pains  and  research  Mr.  Welton 
had  bestowed  on  the  subject,  he  was  quite  unable  to  accept  the 
conclusious  at  which  he  had  arrived,  as  he  did  not  think  the  data 
employed  werotkvailable  for  the  solution  of  the  questionB  the  author 
had  been  investigating.  In  order  to  determine  rate**  of  mortality, 
two  things  were  necessary :  first,  accurate  information  of  the  number 
of  deaths  in  any  country  or  district  in  a  year  or  any  definite  period 
of  time;  and  secondly,  the  number  of  living  population  at  the 
periods  in  which  those  deaths  had  arisen.  He  did  not  think  it 
could  be  doubted  that  in  this  country  the  deafths  were  accurately 
registerod,  and  that  the  censuses  iskea  at  intervals  of  ten  years 
gave  as  Bocurate  enumerations  of  the  living  as  could  be  attained  in 
any  similar  large  operation.  By  observing  the  increase  in  the 
rates  of  population,  there  could  be  determined  within  a  reasonable 
margin  of  error  the  numbers  living  in  intervening  years.  By  these 
data  the  annual  mortality  of  the  country  as  a  whole  could  be  ob- 
tained with  considerable  accuracy.  Some  time  ago,  in  making 
some  investigations  for  another  purpose,  he  wished  to  know, 
amongst  other  things,  what  had  been  the  changes  in  the  English 
rate  of  mortality.  Discarding  the  first  two  or  three  years  of  regis- 
tration, he  thought  it  advisable  to  divide  the  subsequent  period  into 
intervals  of  ten  years:  1840-50,  1850-60,  1860-70,  and  the  result 
was  that  there  had  been  no  change  whatever  in  each  of  those  ten 
years  in  the  general  mortality  of  England.  Since  1870  he  was 
aware  there  had  been  some  improvement,  but  they  had  not  got  to 
the  end  of  another  ten  years.  This  result  was  in  accordance  with  a 
multitude  of  other  observations  that  had  been  made,  and  went  to 
show  that  it  was  a  mistake  to  suppose  that  there  had  been  any 
material  change  in  the  rate  of  mortality  in  this  country,  a  notion 


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88  Discussion  [Mar. 

whicli  arose  from  some  inaccurate  obseryations  made  last  centurj 
in  the  number  of  deaths  alone.  For  Mr.  Welton's  purpose  it  was 
not  only  necessary  to  know  the  whole  number  of  deaths,  but  also 
the  number  of  deaths  at  particular  ages.  Whilst  he  (Mr.  Bailey) 
willingly  admitted  that  the  number  of  deaths  was  accurately  regis- 
tered, he  could  state,  from  the  certificates  passing  through  his 
hands,  that  the  ages  at  death  were  very  far  from  being  accurate. 
It  was  even  more  difficult  to  ascertain  the  ages  of  the  living  popula- 
tion in  the  intervals  between  the  censuses.  Emigration  was  a  dis- 
turbing element ;  there  were  far  more  male  than  female  emigrants, 
and  far  more  amongst  the  younger  than  the  elder  portion  of  the 
population.  Emigration  did  not  follow  any  law,  and  therefore 
taking  any  such  estimates  as  these  to  ascertain  the  rate  of  mortality 
at  particular  ages  would  produce  results  which  would,  he  believed, 
be  altogther  at  variance  with  the  facts.  He  should  say,  therefore, 
that  those  rates  of  mortality  Mr.  Welton  had  brought  out  were  not 
to  be  depended  upon  at  all.  It  would  stagger  those  who  had  expe- 
rience of  insurance  societies  to  be  told  that  in  1846-50  the  death- 
rate  among  females  between  the  ages  of  15  and  25  was  8*9  per  1,000, 
and  that  m  1871-75  it  waa  67.  This  was  at  variance  with  other 
observations,  and  this  sort  of  result  ran  through  the  whole  of 
Mr.  Welton's  calculations.  Therefore,  although  he  had  listened  to 
the  deductions  of  the  chairman,  he  doubted  the  premises.  Of  course 
there  were  variations  in  the  rate  of  mortality  in  particular  years, 
but  he  thought  the  changes  were  small  when  a  long  period  of  time 
was  taken  into  acoount.  As  to  the  very  interesting  part  of  the 
paper  referring  to  diseases,  there  were  others  who  could  more  com- 
petently deal  with  it  than  himself.  There  were,  no  doubt,  particular 
diseases  that  had  altogether  disappeai»ed.  They  never  heard  of  the 
plague  now,  and  the  ravages  of  small  pox  were  less  than  they 
were  two  generations  ago ;  but  other  diseases  seem  to  have  taken 
their  place.  (The  Chairman  having  pointed  out  that  according  to 
Mr.  Welton  the  zymotic  diseases  bad  decreased  23  per  cent.) 
Mr.  Bailey  said  it  would  be  interesting  to  know  whether  other 
diseases,  such  as  diseases  of  particular  organs,  had  increased. 

The  Bev.  I.  Doxsey  said  he  was  sorry  that  he  had  not  known 
the  subject  of  the  paper,  because  he  would  have  brought  with  him 
some  calculations  he  ha4  made  from  the  registrar-generars  reports 
on  this  very  question;  but  the  general  conclusions  at  which  he 
arrived  were  to  some  extent  in  harmony  with  those  at  which 
Mr.  Welton  had  arrived.  There  had  been  an  obvious  improvement 
in  the  death-rate  from  5  years  of  age  to  45  among  females,  but  only 
to  25  among  males,  above  which  it  had  increased  in  every  decen- 
nium.  He  thought  there  were  certain  facts  in  regard  to  our  manu- 
facturing life  that  were  perhaps  unfavourable  to  the  prolonged  life 
of  children.  It  was  well  known  that  when  women  worked  in  fac- 
tories, infant  children  did  not  get  the  attention  they  required,  and 
it  was  a  remarkable  fact,  that  while  an  increase  of  about  5  per  1,000 
had  taken  place  in  children  under  5  years  of  age,  there  was  no 
perceptible  difEerenoe  between  the  male  and  female  children  in 
regard  to  increase.    These  facts  might  tend  to  show  that  the  weaker 


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1880.]  on  Mr.  Wdton's  Paper.  89 

children  were  cut  off  in  the  earlier  periods  of  life;  and  in  harmony 
with  the  law  that  had  been  called  "  the  survival  of  the  fittest,"  the 
children  that  had  escaped  the  discipline  of  early  life  might  be  those 
born  stronger,  and  therefore  that  might  in  some  measure  accoont 
for  the  improvement  of  the  death-rate  at  the  ages  to  which  the 
Chairman  and  Mr.  Welton  had  referred.  From  a  valuable  paper  by 
ja  medical  gentleman,  to  whom  the  Howard  Medal  had  been  awarded, 
he  (Mr.  Doxsey)  had  come  to  the  conclusion  that  there  had  been  a 
similar  increase  in  the  death-rates  in  hospitals  in  the  later  periods, 
as  compared  with  the  earlier  ones,  and  the  death-rate  had  increased 
more  among  the  males  than  among  the  females.  This  was  in 
perfect  harmony  with  the  law  laid  down  in  the  paper.  He  thought 
there  could  be  no  doubt  that  as  there  had  been  only  a  slight  increase 
in  the  death-rate  among  females  between  45  and  65,  but  in  the  male 
death-rate  at  all  ages  above  25,  that  therefore  there  must  be  some 
cause  or  causes  operating  among  males  which  did  not  affect  females. 
The  search  for  these  causes  seemed  to  be  the  object  of  all  statistical 
inquiry  on  the  subject ;  but  what  those  causes  were  he  did  not  pre- 
tend to  say.  He  did  not  think  it  arose  oaly  from  the  increase  of 
drinking,  which  in  later  years  had  taken  place  more  among  females 
than  males,  and  yet  the  death-rate  among  males  had  increased 
faster  than  the  death-rate  among  females.  He  did  not  believe  that 
the  working  classes  worked  harder  now  than  they  did  forty  years 
ago.  Perhaps  they  drank  harder,  and  that  might  partly  account 
for  the  increased  death-rate.  Another  cause  might  be  the  vast 
increase  in  the  use  of  tobacco  among  boys.  He  should  be  thankful 
to  know  the  relative  proportions  of  male  and  female  deaths  from 
those  diseases  that  had  so  much  increased,  and  which  would  account 
for  the  greater  ratio  of  increase  of  the  death-rate  among  males  than 
females.  He  believed  that  in  the  registrar-general's  report,  to  which 
he  had  referred,  they  were  all  put  together.  If  the  registrar- 
general's  report  were  compared  with  the  essay  on  the  increase  of  the 
dea£h-rate  in  hospitals,  there  could  be  no  doubt  of  the  general  prin- 
ciple laid  down  in  the  paper,  that  the  death-rate  was  increasing  to 
some  extent,  and  that  the  increase  was  principally  among  the  male 
population  firom  25  years  of  age  to  the  later  periods  of  life.  The 
only  other  increase  was  amongst  children  under  5  years  of  age,  and 
that  was  equal  in  both  sexes. 

Mr.  Cornelius  Walfoed  said  he  had  hoped  that  the  scope  of 
the  discussion  would  have  taken  the  turn  of  seeing  how  far  the 
results  given  in  the  paper  harmonised  with  any  facts  which  conld 
be  brought  to  bear  by  way  of  solution  of  them.  It  seemed  to  him 
the  broad  fact  stated  in  the  paper  was  that  the  death-rate  up  to  the 
age  of  25  had  lessened  on  the  whole,  and  that  beyond  those  ages  it 
had  much  increased,  more  particularly  amongst  males.  If  so,  there 
must  be  some  reasons  for  it,  but  he  had  heard  none  stated  in  the 
course  of  the  discussion.  He  thought  that  the  increased  mortality 
under  5  years  of  age  was  generally  believed  to  result  from  more 
complete  registration  at  those  young  ages.  His  own  belief,  how- 
ever, was  that  the  actual  deaths  under  5  years  of  age  had  been 
less  rather  than  more  of  late  years,  and  that  this  resulted  from 


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90  Discussion  [ICar. 

improved  medical  scienoe,  which  kept  children  alive  until  they 
arrived  at  the  age  of  puberty,  when  they  died.  "While,  therefore, 
it  changed  the  figures,  it  did  not  do  any  permanent  good  to 
mankind.  Another  circumstance  which  very  much  affected  the 
ages  in  the  direction  indicated  by  Mr.  Welton,  was  the  emigration 
of  young,  active,  strong  men  at  the  ages^of  from  15  to  25.  Thia 
would  seem  to  him  to  leave  a  weakened  population  at  ages  beyond, 
and  that  weakened  population  would  show  a  larger  mortality  than 
if  the  more  vital  portion  of  the  population  had  remained,  but  this 
was  no  new  feature.  The  present  generation  had  not  been  distinct 
from  the  preceding  generation  in  *that  respect,  and  therefore 
although  it  had  some  weight,  it  by  no  means  accounted  for  the  pecu- 
liarity mentioned  in  the  paper.  One  had  also  to  look  how  far  the 
habits  of  the  people  or  the  customs  of  trade  had  affected  the 
vitality.  He  thought  that  the  drinking  customs  of  the  country  had 
a  great  deal  to  do  with  it.  These  ciistoms  had  resulted  from  the 
increase  of  wages  that  had  taken  place  in  the  preseat  generation, 
and  the  death  results  from  drinking  habits  were  coincident  with 
the  period  Mr.  Welton  had  alluded  to.  Assuming  the  drinking 
theory  to  be  true,  he  thought  it  applied  much  more  to  the  males 
than  the  females.  Another  circumstance  to  be  taken  into  account 
WB/a  the  adulteration  of  food  which  had  been  carried  on  to  a  much 
larger  extent  before  the  Adulteration  Acts  were  passed.  That, 
however,  would  apply  as  much  to  the  females  as  the  males,  because 
although  females  did  not  drink  so  much  as  the  males,  tbey  probably 
ate  a  little  more.  That  case  of  adulteration  would  not  meet 
Mr.  Welton's  theory  at  alL  He  confessed  that,  after  a  consider- 
ation of  all  the  points,  there  was  nothing  in  itself,  singly  or  in 
combination,  which  could  account  for  this  state  of  things,  and  he 
had  come  to  the  conclusion  that  there  was  something  or  other 
Mr.  Welton  had  failed  to  discover  which  would  go  to  show  that  his 
facts  were  reliable,  unless  indeed  the  drinking  theory  was  held 
sufficient  to  account  for  it  all. 

Mr.  N.  A.  Humphries,  after  alluding  to  the  value  of  the  paper, 
said  that  during  the  past  thirty-eight  years  there  had  been  a  continual 
increase  in  the  mortality  of  males  at  all  ages.  In  equal  numbers 
living,  the  relative  mortality  of  males  from  1841-50  was  107  to 
each  100  deaths  of  females;  in  the  next  ten  years  it  was  108  ;  in 
the  next  ten  years  it  was  1 1 1 ;  and  in  the  last  seven  years  of  the 
current  decade  it  had  increased  to  113  to  100.  With  regard  to  the 
particular  ages  at  which  the  increase  had  occurred,  he  thought 
Mr.  Welton  had  brought  a  great  many  facts  together  which  might 
probably  be  made  very  great  use  of.  The  second  speaker  had 
expressed  a  decided  opinion  that  there  was  no  change  in  the  general 
death-rate ;  it  was  a  fact  that  the  mortality  remained  nearly 
stationary  during  the  three  decades  1841  to  1850,  1851  to  1860, 
and  from  1861  to  1870  ;  but  taking  into  account  the  vast  increase 
of  aggregation  in  towns,  the  fact  that  mortality  was  stationary  was 
in  itself  evidence  of  good  sanitary  work.  There  must  have  been 
some  counteracting  influence  at  work  which  kept  it  stationary. 
Looking  at  the  present  decade,  of  which  only  nine  years  had 


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1880.]  on  Mr.  WeltorCa  Paper.  91 

passed,  a  vast  improyemeiit  was  observable.  In  1872-75  the 
Public  Health  Acts  were  passed,  and  a  new  era  of  sanitation  was 
thereby  introduced  into  England.  The  registrar- general  in  his 
last  quarterly  report,  pointed  oat  that  1 50,000  persons  had  survived 
during  the  last  nine  years  who  would  have  died  if  the  mortality 
had  been  the  same  as  it  was  during  the  preceding  thirty  years.  The 
excessive  increase  of  mortality  amongst  males  was  very  striking. 
The  diseases  which  caused  this  increase  appear  to  be  the  very 
diseases  which  are  often  induced  by  intemperate  habits.  He 
personally  thanked  Mr.  Welton  for  the  trouble  he  had  taken  with 
his  paper,  which  was  one  of  the  most  useful  of  its  kind  that  the 
Society  had  ever  had  before  it.  (The  Chairman  having  asked 
Mr.  Humphries  whether,  from  his  experience  in  the  regictrar- 
general's  oflSce,  he  saw  any  ground  of  fallacy  in  the  principal 
point  brought  out  in  the  paper,  that  there  was  increased  mortality 
amongst  males  and  not  amongst  females  between  the  ages  of  35 
and  65),  Mr.  Humphries  said  that  the  fact  was  beyond  all  dispute. 

Me.  Philip  Vandesbyl  expressed  his  regret  that  the  author  did 
not  conclude  his  paper  with  a  summary  statement  of  the  results 
proved  by  the  numerous  tables.  In  the  table  enumerating  the 
causes  of  increased  mentality  anoongst  males  from  35 — 65  the  author 
did  not  show  how  the  diseases  named  had  affected  females,  or  the 
different  percentages  of  increased  mortality  from  certain  diseases. 
He  believed  that  the  imcreased  use  of  machinery  and  the  more  dan- 
gerous occupations  of  men  would  partly  account  for  the  increased 
mortality  amongst  males.  With  regard  to  the  improved  death-rate 
among  females,  he  thought  that  was  to  be  acooumted  for,  not  only 
by  the  improved  medical  skill,  but  more  especially  by  the  use  of 
chloroform.  As  to  the  causes  of  death  amongst  females,  it  was  an 
extraordinary  fact,  that  on  account  of  the  male  infant's  head  being 
on  an  average  only  half  -an  inch  larger  in  circumference  than  that 
of  a  female,  if  all  the  births  in  Great  Britain  during  one  year  were 
females,  5,000  lives  of  mothers  would  be  saved  in  that  time.  This 
was  calculated  by  the  late  Sir  James  Simpson,  of  Edinburgh,  who 
first  used  chloroform  as  an  anaesthetic.  It  had  been  often  said  that 
we  could  prove  anything  by  statistics,  but  he  did  not  consider  that 
the  Society  was  established  £or  such  a  purpose,  and  certainly  the 
author  of  the  paper  did  not  exhibit  any  tendency  to  prove  any  pre- 
conceived ideas. 

Mr.  H.  MoNCEEiFP  Paul  said  that  the  author,  in  his  paper,  had 
stated  that  "  On  the  whole,  then,  the  tables  show  that  the  striking 
abatement  in  mortality  at  ages  from  5  to  25  has  been  attended  with 
an  aggravation  of  the  loss  by  death  at  higher  ages,  putting  aside 
epidemic  years,  and  that  such  aggravation  has  been  far  more  con- 
siderable amongst  males  than  amongst  females.  Every  circum- 
stance which  will  help  us  to  measure  the  extent  and  to  understand 
the  causes  of  this  deterioration  in  the  vitality  of  males  demands  our 
attention.*'  Although  the  author  had  said  "  every  circumstance,*' 
he  (Mr.  Paul)  did  not  see  in  the  paper  any  single  instance  given 
except  the  reference  in  the  tables  to  certain  diseases.    On  looking 


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{>2  Discussion  [Mar. 

to  these  tables,  it  wonld  be  seen  at  once  that  tbese  were  brain  and 
heart  diseases,  from  which  deaths  at  the  "  higher  ages  *'  of  males 
had,  in  the  later  periods  nnder  comparison  sensibly  increased.  He 
referred  more  particularly  to  the  last  table.  It  wonld  be  seen  also 
that  these  diseases  were  due  to  certain  causes.  Allusion  had  been 
made  by  a  previous  speaker  to  the  shortening  of  working  hours, 
but  attention  had  not  been  drawn  to  the  compression  of  work. 
There  was  too  much  of  that  in  the  present  day,  and  the  consequent 
strain  really  affected  the  vital  powers,  as  did  also  the  excitement 
arising  out  of  constant  railway  travelling  and  the  Using  the  tele- 
graph system,  with  all  their  concomitant  evils.  If  these  questions 
were  looked  at  more  carefully,  results  would  be  found  quite  in 
keeping  with  the  deductions  drawn  by  the  author. 

Mr.  BouBifE  thought  that  more  importance  ought  to  be  attached 
to  Mr.  Welton's  statistics  with  regard  to  specific  ages,  than  pro- 
bably Mr.  Bailey  wonld  seem  to  accord  them.  There  was  no  doubt 
whatever  that  sanitary  measures  and  medical  skill  had  done  much 
to  preserve  younger  as  well  as  older  life ;  but  as  far  as  middle  age 
was  concerned,  it  was  quite  true  that  the  mode  of  life  in  the  present 
day  had  very  much  to  do  with  increased  mortality  at  the  period 
when  life  ought  to  be  the  strongest  and  most  vigorous,  and  that  it 

r rated  much  more  unfavourably  upon  males  than  upon  females, 
doubt  drinking  was  a  very  important  element  in  the  matter.  As 
a  temperance  reformer,  however,  it  wa»  a  source  of  great  gratifica- 
tion to  him  that  there  was  a  very  great  diminution  in  the  consump- 
tion of  alcohol  among  the  mass  of  the  population,  as  evidenced  by 
the  failure  of  the  revenue.  He  would  ask  Mr.  Welton  if  it  had 
ever  occurred  to  him  to  compare  the  deaths  which  took  place  with 
the  marriage  rates.  The  age  at  which  men  married  had  been  very 
much  extended,  whereas  females  were  now  married  rather  earlier 
than  formerly.  This,  he  thought,  arose  very  much  out  of  habits 
and  practices  which  tended  most  materially  to  affect  the  health  of 
the  males.  In  support  of  this  proposition,  he  cited  the  opinions 
expressed  by  Mr.  Ansell,  the  well-known  actuary,  in  a  book  pub- 
lished by  him  some  years  ago  on  the  sta,tistics  of  families  in  the 
higher  and  professional  classes.  He  (Mr.  Bourne)  had  taken  three 
periods  of  three  years  each.  In  the  first  of  those  periods  the 
number  of  marriages  among  the  population  was  i  in  123  ;  in  the 
second,  i  in  121;  and  in  the  third  i  in  117;  showing  that  the 
number  of  marriages  in  proportion  to  the  population  was  increasing. 
Mr.  Bourne  then  adduced  some  figures  to  show  that  while  the  age 
of  matrimony  was  deferred  in  the  males,  it  was  not  in  the  females, 
and  that  seemed  to  point  to  habits  of  life  which  would  deteriorate 
the  vital  power  of  young  men,  and  to  account  for  the  increased 
number  of  deaths  amongst  them  more  than  amongst  females.  The 
increase  of  wages  was  also  another  cause ;  but  he  took  it  that  it  was 
more  favourable  to  females  than  to  males.  It  was  true  that  the 
males  were  subjected  to  a  strain  of  increased  hurry  and  increased 
strain  upon  their  health,  arising  partly  from  labour,  but  he  believed 
in  a  far  greater  degree  to  the  pursuit  of  pleasure  and  a  deteriora- 
tion in  their  habits  and  practices.     With  regard  to  females,  the 


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1880.]  on  Mr.  Welton'a  Paper.  93 

effect  of  easier  circumstances  had  been  to  lessen  the  amount  of 
labour  they  had  to  perform,  and  to  put  them  in  more  comfortable 
homes,  surrounded  by  more  comfortable  circumstances ;  therefore 
it  might  be  expected  that  female  life  would  be  prolonged,  and  the 
death-rate  improved  with  regard  to  them  to  a  greater  extent  than 
males.  So  far  the  inference  to  be  drawn  from  that  woold  bear 
but  the  conclusions  demonstrated  by  Mr.  Welton's  figures.  He 
(Mr.  Bourne)  believed  in  the  fitness  of  our  organisation  and  the 
exercise  of  our  powers  in  obedience  to  natural  laws ;  therefore  that 
the  true  happiness  and  welfare  of  any  community  very  much 
depended  upon  the  fulfilling  of  the  divine  command:  ''Increase 
and  multiply  and  replenish  the  earth." 

Dr.  C.  E.  Sauvdbss  said  he  concurred  entirely  with  the  remarks 
of  Mr.  Bourne.  He  pointed  out  that  it  was  acKnowledged  in  our 
lunatic  asylums  that  many  cases  of  general  paralysis  of  the  insane, 
and  of  degenerative  diseoises  of  the  nervous  centres,  were  due  to 
sexual  excesses. 

The  Chaibman  then  laid  before  the  meeting,  in  connection  with 
the  remarks  of  the  last  speaker,  a  statement  as  to  the  rate  of 
increase  in  the  diiferent  kinos  of  diseases,  for  the  purpose  of  guiding 
any  farther  discussion  that  might  take  pkce  on  the  paper.  He 
stated  that,  according  to  the  table  at  the  commencement  of  the 
third  section  of  Mr.  Wei  ton's  paper,  the  increase  in  the  annual 
death-rates  among  males  between  the  ages  of  85  and  65  in  the  year 
1875,  as  compared  with  the  average  of  1851-60  (the  value  of  the 
comparison  bBing  diminished  by  the  contrast  of  a  single  year  with 
an  average  of  five  years)  was  as  follows:  from  diseases  of  the 
kidneys,  86  per  cent. ;  cancer,  69  per  cent. ;  lung  diseases,  37 ;  heart 
disease  and  dropsy,  36*5  ;  brain  diseases,  3 1 ;  diseases  of  the  stomach 
and  liver,  8 ;  phthisis,  only  3*5  per  cent. ;  while  from  scrofulous 
diseases  there  was  a  decrease  of  41  per  cent.,  and  from  zymotic 
diseases  a  decrease  of  23  per  cent.  The  average  increase  from  all 
causes  was  22  per  cent. 

Mr.  Lawsok  thought  that  the  remarks  as  to  the  increase  of 
diseases  ought  to  be  received  with  a  certain  amount  of  caution, 
because  in  the  periods  to  which  the  paper  referred  there  had  been  a 
considerable  alteration  in  the  nomenclature  of  diseases,  and  also  a 
great  improvement  in  the  means  of  distinguishing  them.  Several 
speakers  had  remarked  that  the  diseases  amongst  men  had  increased 
as  compared  with  women,  but  the  reports  of  the  registrar-general 
show  that  among  male  children  under  1  year  of  age,  there  was  a 
decidedly  greater  mortality  from  all  the  ordinary  children's  diseases, 
except  whooping  cough,  than  amongst  females.  In  the  service  to 
whicn  he  belongs  there  was  a  benefit  society.  In  connection  with 
it  an  inquiry  was  made  some  years  ago,  and  it  was  found  that  the 
mortality  amongst  the  single  men  was  about  twice  as  great  as  it 
was  amongst  those  who  were  married.  This  fact  was  borne  out  by 
an  examination  made  by  the  registrar-general  for  Scotland  about 
twelve  years  ago.     As  to  the  causes  of  the  higher  mortality  among 


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94  Discussion  tm  i£r,  WeltorCs  Taper,  [Mar. 

nnmarTied  men,  no  doubt  they  lived  more  freely  in  every  way,  and 
that  told  upon  their  health.  Greater  indulgence,  consequent  on  the 
increased  wages  of  late  years,  produced  a  gouty  disposition,  to 
which  much  of  the  increased  mortality  from  bronchitis  seems 
attributable. 

Mr.  Rowland  Hamilton  pointed  out  that  a  large  proportion  of 
the  males  of  mairrying  age  who  were  in  feeble  health,  remained 
unmarried,  while-  the  whole  death-rate,  so  to  speak,  of  these  was 
added  to  the  class  of  bachelors,  which  would  very  materially  alter 
the  conclusion  come  to  by  a  previous  speaker. 

Mr.  Welton,  in  reply,  thanked  the  Chairman  for  the  analysis 
he  had  made  of  the  paper.  In  regard  to  Mr..  Kailey's  oteer- 
vations,  he  said  that  no  one  could  impeach  the  accuracy  of  his 
(Mr.  Welton's)  figures  without  impeaching  the  registrar-general's 
reports,  from  which  they  had  been  taken.  Speaking  of  the  causes 
of  disease,  he  thought  that  drink  was  one  of  the  most  patent  in 
bringing  about  a  state  of  things  conducive  to  bronchitis.  Hard 
work  ami  excitement  at  the  present  time  no  doubt  told'  upen  many 
men,  more  particularly  the  middle  class.  The  tabfe-  showed  that 
the  increane  in  the  number  of  deaths  by  accident  was  a  mere 
fraction  to  that  occasioned  by  disease.  He  believed  that  in  sub- 
stance the  registrar-generaFs  tables  were  correct.  In  answer  to 
the  supposition  of  the  Chairman,  that  the  methods  adopted  by  him 
(Mr.  Welton)  were  similar  to*  those  of  Dr.  Farr,  he  might  say  that 
he  had  followed  a  process  which  was  perhaps  more  simple  than 
that  adopted  by  Dr;  Farr,  in  framing  his  life  table,  but  whatever 
method  was  employed,  he  believed  the  results  arrived  at  could  not> 
vary  much  &om  those  shown  in  the  paper.. 


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1880.] 


95 


MISCELLANEA. 


CONTENTS : 


PAGB 

I.. — Financial  and   Commercial 

History  of  1879    96 

ir. — Fires    in    the    Metropolis 

dnring  the  Year  1879    ....  109* 

III. — Biiglish    Literatwe   in   the 

Year  1879 ^ _...   114 

IV.— German  Literatore  of  1878 

and  1879 ^  11« 

V. — Emigrntion    and    Immigra- 
tion in  the  Year  1879   ..«   117 


PAGB 

VI. — Rates  of  Life  Insurance 

Preminms  « 123 

VII. — Report  of  a  Committee  on 

the  Census  of  1881 134 

VIII. — Notes  on  Economical  and 

Stattistical  Works    189 

IX.— Kotes    on    some    of    the 

Additions  to  the  Library  148 
X.— A  list  of  the  Additions  to 

the  Library     ^ 147 


I. — Financicd  and  Oommercial  History  of  1879. 

The  following  introduction  by  Mr.  R.  GifFen  is  taken  from  the 
Supplement  to  the  Statist  of  ^Ist  ef  January,  1880  r — 

The  Trade  Revival — The  Harvest  Failure  and  other  Events — The  Rise 
in  Silver — The  Drain  of  Gold  to  America — Scientific  Improve* 
menk — The  Prospect  of  1880. 

*' Financially  and  commercially,  1879  has  been  a  most  remarkable 
year.  Commencing  amid  the  shadows  cast  by  the  great  City  of 
Glasgow  Bank  disaster  in  the  autumn  of  1878,  with  credit  at  the 
lowest  ebb,  with  all  kinds  of  quack  remedies  for  depressed  trade 
gainm^  attention  from  a  suffering  community,  it  promised  during  the 
earlier  months  to  be  one  of  the  most  memorable  years  of  depres- 
sion on  lecord.  Credit  was  so  slow  in  recovering  that,  even  after 
the  turn  ©f  the  half-year,  there  were  fears  of  new  commercial  failures 
on  a  great  scale,  while  the  harvest  prospects  became  gloomier  and 
gloomier  as  the  season  advanced.  There  were  signs,  even  in  the 
early  summer,  that  the  current  apprehensions  expressed  were  exag- 
gerated, and  this  journal  was  honourably  distinguished  among  its 
contemporaries  by  dwelling  on  the  facts  and  their  extreme  srgnifi- 
cance ;  but  they  were  quite  insufficient  to  alter  the  general  feeling 
of  gloom.  Late  in  autumn  Mr.  Chamberlain,  at  Glasgow,  and 
other  authorities,  were  still  looking  forward  to  a  winter  of  continued 
depression  and  suffering,  and  ridiculing  the  very  notion  of  a  turn  in 
business  affairs  being  in  prospect,  much  less  actually  in  progress. 
But  with  the  autumn,  in  spite  of  the  harvest  proving  one  of  the 
worst  on  record,  the  wheat  crop  being  almost  a  total  failure, 
the  long  delayed  reaction  came.  One  of  the  earliest  promises  of 
improvement  had  been  the  demand  from  the  United  States  for 
various  articles  of  manufacture,  particularly  for  iron  manufac- 
tures, and  in  September  the  orders  were  on  such  a  scale  as  to 
precipitate  a  great  rise  in  pig  iron  and  other  products  of  the  iron 
and  coal  trades.  Attention  once  excited,  the  movement  was 
extremely  rapid,   orders   pouring  in  for  shipbuilding  and  other 


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96  Mtscellamsa.  [Mar. 

requirements,  and  speculators,  as  usual,  joining  in  the  game.  In 
another  month  the  movement  was  found  to  have  extended  itself 
to  the  other  metal  trades ;  to  the  various  raw  materials  of  our 
textile  and  other  industries,  including  *  chemicals ; '  to  numerous 
articles  of  general  consumption,  such  as  tea,  sugar,  butter,  and 
cheese,  as  well  as  grain,  all  determined  more  or  less  hj  harvest 
failures,  but  assisted  somewhat  by  the  general  reaction  which  had 
set  in.  The  commercial  improvement  was  also  accompanied  by  a 
great  rise  on  the  Stock  Exchange,  especially  in  English  railway 
shares,  where  improvement  was  stimulated  by  the  actual  increase 
in  railway  traffic  incidental  to  the  trade  revival.  In  the  end^ 
before  the  year  was  out,  it  was  found  that  the  reaction  in  business 
had  been  one  of  the  most  wonderful  on  record,  the  recovery 
from  the  lowest  summer  price  in  iron  and  many  other  articles  being 
extreme,  and  the  animation  in  almost  all  the  heavy  trades  being  in 
singular  contrast  to  the  stagnation  at  the  beginning  of  the  year.  In 
the  result,  then,  1879  is  distinguished  by  its  having  witnessed  the 
commencement  of  a  trade  revival  unusual  for  its  suddenness  and 
distinctness,  although  for  a  long  period  during  its  progress  the 
anticipation  was  that  it  would  be  a  year  of  stagnation  and  disaster, 
and  there  was  much,  not  only  in  the  extreme  discredit  and  dis- 
organisation of  business  which  existed,  but  in  the  actual  out-turn  of 
the  harvest  itself,  to  justify  the  anticipation. 

"  A  great  economic  movement  like  this  would  have  been  enough 
to  distinguish  any  year,  but  1879  has  also  witnessed  other  economic 
changes  and  events  of  importance.  The  miseries  caused  by  the 
unlimited  liability  of  shareholders  in  the  disastrous  case  of  the  City 
of  Glasgow  Bank  led  to  the  passage  of  an  Act  for  enabling 
unlimited  banks  to  become  limited ;  under  which  Act  many  of  our 
most  important  banking  institutions,  including  the  London  and 
"Westminster,  London  and  County,  and  National  Provincial  Banks, 
have  already  limited  the  liability  of  their  shareholders,  have  begun 
to  record  the  word  'limited*  after  their  names,  and  to  admit  the 
audit  of  their  accounts  as  prescribed  by  the  Act.  When  one  thinks 
of  the  objections  to  the  word  *  limited  *  which  formerly  prevailed,  so 
considerable  a  change  in  the  banking  world  in  a  single  year  becomes 
every  way  remarkable.  The  harvest  failure,  to  which  reference  has 
already  been  made,  was  also  of  singular  importance,  both  from  its 
magnitude  and  the  new  conditions  of  business  it  illustrated,  in- 
cluding the  receipt  in  Europe  of  unprecedented  quantities  of 
American  wheat  at  comparatively  moderate  prices.  That  in  a 
year  when  the  English  wheat  harvest,  upon  the  lowest  acreage  on 
record,  yielded  a  result  less  than  the  average,  variously  estimated  at 
from  30  to  50  per  cent.,  the  average  price  of  wheat  should  still 
be  far  indeed  from  famine  prices,  is  extremely  noteworthy,  while 
attention  has  been  forcibly  drawn  to  it  by  the  coincidence  of  a 
trade  revival  with  the  depression  in  agi-iculture  itself  Another 
noteworthy  circumstance  of  the  year  has  been  a  recovery  in  the 
Indian  trade,  due  evidently  in  part  to  the  material  progress  of  the 
Indian  people,  which  becomes  manifest  in  a  non-famine  year,  and 
in  part,  as  we  believe,  to  the  final  destruction  in  1878  of  the  bad 
financing  which  has  been  the  bane  of  this  trade  for  years.     Partly, 


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1880.]  Financial  and  Qommercial  History  of  1879.  97 

too,  as  a  consequence  of  this  Indian  trade  reyiyal,  there  has  been  a 
recovery  in  the  price  of  silver  in  1879,  which  occurred  very  oppor- 
tunely to  confirm  the  refusal  by  the  Government  of  Colonel  Smith's 
strange  proposal  for  meeting  the  evils  inflicted  on  India  through  the 
fall  in  silver  by  a  restriction  of  the  rupee  coinage,  and  to  put  an  end 
to  fresh  propositions  for  a  bi-metallic  conference  and  other  bi- 
metallic projects,  which  made  a  noise  when  trade  was  dull.  Among 
other  economic  events  of  interest,  there  have  also  been  the  improve- 
ment in  Egyptian  affairs  through  the  deposition  of  the  late  Khedive, 
and  the  appointment  of  English  and  French  controllers,  whereby 
the  extension  of  the  evils  of  the  defaults  on  foreign  loans  has  been 
prevented ;  the  success  of  the  Chilians  in  their  war  against  Peru, 
which  has  improved  Peruvian  as  well  as  Chilian  finance,  because 
the  guano  and  nitrate  deposits  of  Peru  have  passed  into  the  hands 
of  a  comparatively  honest  Government ;  the  improvements  in  the 
manufacture  of  steel  and  increased  use  of  steel  as  a  substitute  for 
iron ;  and  other  changes.  Last  of  all,  as  affecting  directly  the 
money  market,  and  with  it  the  general  economic  movement,  we 
have  to  record  as  one  of  the  leading  events  of  1879  the  occurrence  of 
a  great  drain  of  gold  to  the  United  States,  the  obvious  result  of  the 
conjunction  of  great  prosperity  there  with  the  resumption  of  specie 
payments;  the  demand  for  more  currency,  due  to  prosperity, 
necessarily  taking  the  shape  of  a  demand  for  gold.  All  these  events 
combine  to  make  the  year  1879  of  singular  interest,  not  only  to  the 
business  man,  who  wishes  to  find  in  the  records  of  the  past  and  the 
present  a  guide  to  the  conditions  of  business  in  the  immediate 
I oture,  but  to  the  student  of  economics,  who  finds  in  the  events  of 
the  year  new  illustrations  of  old  problems,  as  well  as  suggestions  of 
new  ones. 

"We  may  be  expected  to  add,  perhaps,  that  events  in  the 
political  world  have  also  had  an  important  economic  bearing ;  that 
the  finance  of  the  Zulu  and  Afghan  wars  is  a  serious  matter ;  that 
the  deficits  of  the  Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer  are  alarming,  and  so 
forth.  But  we  perceive  no  necessity  for  mixing  up  politics  with 
business.  Without  depreciating  the  importance  of  such  financial 
questions  in  their  own  place,  we  can  easily  recognise  that  any  out- 
lay on  Zulu  or  Afghan  wars  which  has  occurred  is  immaterial  in  a 
business  view — that  business  will  ebb  and  flow  pretty  much  the 
same  whether  we  have  little  wars  or  not ;  one  of  the  worst  dangers 
of  these  wars  in  a  political  view  arising  perhaps  from  the  circum- 
stance  that  they  are  wars  'with  limited  liability'  and  of  little 
economic  importance.  There  is  one  set  of  political  events,  however, 
which  may  become  economically  of  great  importance,  perhaps  not 
so  much  to  this  country  as  to  the  other  nations  of  Europe  generally. 
We  refer  to  the  alliances  and  negociationa  in  progress,  or  alleged  to 
be  in  progress,  between  Austria  and  Germany  on  the  one  side,  and 
Russia,  France,  and  Italy  on  the  other.  Gtx>d  city  authorities 
hold  that  in  all  probability  another  war  is  brewing  in  Eastern 
Europe,  which  may  become  a  general  European  war.  Such  an 
event  would  have  effects  of  first-rate  consequence  in  the  economic 
order,  and  the  share  of  1879  in  preparing  them  cannot  be  over- 
looked. 


VOL.  XLIU.      PABT  I.  ] 

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98 


Miscellanea. 


[Mar. 


"  The  Trade  Revival. 

"  Dealinpf  in  their  order  with  the  events  thus  ennmerated,  we 
begin  with  the  *  Trade  Revival.'     As  regards  the  description  of  the 
event  we  have  very  little  to  add  to  the  brief  sketch  already  given. 
There  were  signs  of  it,  as  we  have  said,  as  long  ago  as  the  begin- 
ning of  last  summer,  the  Statist  of  24th  May  last  having  an  article 
openly  headed   *  Trade  Revival.*     Chief  of  these  signs  was   the 
increased  purchasing  on  American  account ;  bnt  there  were  also  signs 
of  betterness  in  the  Indian  trade,  and  the  general  tone  was  a  little 
more  cheerful,  although  there  was  still  much  talk  of  discredit.     All 
this,  however,  did  not  prevent  the  reaction,  which  became  marked 
in  September,  having  a  sudden  and  even  startling  character ;  so  much 
so  that  the  share  of  speculators  in  it  was  denounced  with  no  litfcle 
indignation.     But  denunciation  had  no  effect  in  stopping  the  move- 
ment.    First  in  the  iron  trade,  as  the  American  demand  was  felt, 
there  was  a  great  outburst  of  speculation,  Scotch  pig  iron  jumping 
up  from  about  45s.  to  67*.  in  a  few  weeks,  and  remaining  not  far 
under  605.,  although  it  was  only  towards  the  end  of  the  year  that 
the  extreme  price  touched  in  the  first  burst  of  speculation  was 
again  reached  and  exceeded.     Then  came  a  burst  in  tin,  copper,  and 
the  metal  trades  generally,  followed  in  October  and  November  by 
great  excitement  in  Mincing  Lane,  both   in  raw  materials  and 
articles  of  general   consumption.      All   the  while  there  was  an 
equally  striking  and  rapid  advance  on  the  Stock  Exchange,  the 
revival  of  trade  coming  at  a  time  when  hope  had  been  almost 
extinct,  and  when  no  possibility  of  improvement  had  been  discounted. 
When  the  speculators  began  to  operate,  therefore,  there  was  no 
stock,  as  the  phrase  is,  and  prices  were  accordingly  bid  up  by  *  leaps 
and  bounds.'     Whatever  the  cause,  there  can  be  no  doubt  of  the 
suddenness  and  magnitude  of  the  rise  of  prices — ^which  is  fully 
indicated,  we  may  add,  by  the  tables  in  the  appendix  to  this  history, 
showing  the  monthly  prices  of  the  leading  wholesale  commodities, 
as  well  as  the  prices  at  different  dates  throughout  the  year  of  the 
leading  Stock  Exchange  securities. 

"Without  repeating  the  figures  in  detail,  we  may  refer  the 
reader  to  these  tables,  noting  only  one  or  two  conspicuous  changes. 
Thus,  the  prices  of  metals  per  ton  at  the  end  of  each  month  in  the 
second  half  of  the  year  were  as  follows : — 


Scotch 

SUiTs. 

Sheets, 

Copper, 

Le«d, 

Tin, 

Tin  Plates, 

I.e. 

CharcoaL 

Pig  Iron. 

Bar  Iron. 

Single. 

ChiUBars. 

Sheet. 

Straits. 

#.     d. 

£   8.  d. 

£    ».d. 

£  s.d. 

£    s.d. 

£    s.d. 

£    *.  d. 

July  

40     8 

6  12  6 

8     5  - 

53  -- 

14    -  - 

64    7  6 

23   10  - 

August  .... 

43     li 

6  12  6 

8    -  - 

54  7  6 

'4  15  - 

68  15  - 

24  10  - 

September 

55    - 

6  15  - 

8     -  - 

57  7  6 

>5  15  - 

73    6  - 

25  JO  - 

October.... 

5^    6 

7     6- 

95- 

65  5  - 

17  15  - 

93    6  0 

28    - - 

November 

58    7i     7    7  6 

9     5- 

66  2  6 

17  17  6 

92    5  0 

28    -  - 

December 

67    3     '  8    6  - 

9  15  - 

66  -- 

19  10  - 

90  17  6 

30    -  - 

"  Thns,  in  almost  every  case,  after  all  the  intermediate  flnctua- 
tions  of  speculation,  the  price  at  the  end  of  the  year  is  higher  than 

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1880.] 


Financial  and  Oammereial  History  of  1879. 


99 


in  any  previons  month,  and  the  rise  is  generally  from  25  to  50  per 
cent.  Since  the  beginning  of  the  present  year  there  has  been 
another  move  npwards,  which  renders  all  the  stronger  the  evidence 
of  the  prices  alone  as  to  the  steady  demand  in  the  trade.  Specu- 
lation is  quite  incapable  of  bringing  about  so  steady  and  proloneed 
a  change.  Similar  tables  could  be  made  up  for  other  commodities, 
though  the  change  in  iron  and  metals  happens  to  be  most  striking. 
*'  As  regards  the  Stock  Exchange,  the  conspicuous  rise  has  been 
in  English  railways,  of  which  the  following  will  give  an  idea : — 


97th  Jine, 
187». 

PriM, 

30th  December, 

187». 

Riie. 

Caledoniaa « 

Oreat  Western  

^1 
95t 

117 

132* 

105i 
112i 

186i 

149 

1281 

148 

H 

i6| 

London,    Brighton,    and     South  1 

Coast  ord J 

London  and  North  Western  Kailway 

8i 
6i 

North  Eastern  

«5l 

**  Here,  again,  it  may  be  remarked  that  the  advance  has  been 
snstaiued,  and  far  more  than  sustained,  during  the  present  year. 
Speculation  alone,  without  any  solid  support  by  real  holders  and 
investors,  is  incapable  of  any  such  feats. 

*'  There  being  no  question,  then,  of  a  reaction  in  trade  of  great 
magnitude  having  occurred,  we  may  confine  ourselves  to  inquiring 
what  has  been  its  real  extent  and  causes;  Snrpnsii^  as  the  state- 
ment may  seem  after  some  of  the  discussion  wkich  took  place  when 
the  speculation  was  going  on,  we  are  inclined  to  say  that  the 
improvement  is  very  nearly  universal  among  the  industries  of  the 
United  Kingdom.  The  agricultural  industry  is  a  conspicuous 
exception,  though  perhaps,  as  we  shall  see,  the  agricultural  depres- 
sion has  been  itself  exaggerated  ;  but  with  that  exception  there  is 
improvement  almost  everywhere.  In  proof  the  reader  can  only  be 
referred  to  the  tables  of  prices  already  cited,  and  the  trade  circulars 
quoted  in  the  appendix.  When  we  find  leading  firms  in  a  wide 
variety  of  trades  and  manufactures  all  reporting  improvement,  and 
all  speaking  hopefully  of  the  future,  it  is  impossible  to  suppose  that 
they  are  all  writing  under  a  delusion.  Look  only  at  the  list  of 
trades  as  to  which  this  cheerful  report  of  rising  prices  and  increas- 
ing employment  for  capital  and  labour  ss  made  . — 


Iron  and  ooal  trades. 

Shipbniildmg. 

Shipping. 

Cotton. 

Woollen. 

Linen. 


Leather. 

Colonial  produce  (tea,  sngar, 

dyestnfis,  Ac). 
Chemicals. 
Metals  generaUj. 


''Admitting  the  magnitude  of  the  agricultural  industry,  and 
that  the  great  building  trades  are  also  rather  dull,  it  is  plain  that 
in  the  above  large  groups  an  immense  mass  of  the  capital  and 
labour  of  the  country  is  employed.     The  iron  and  coal  trades  alone 

h2 

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100  MUceUanea,  [Mar. 

come  next  in  importance  to  the  agricnltaral  industry;  and  with 
the  textile  industries  all  improving,  as  well  as  the  yarions  metal 
mannfactnres  and  '  chemicals,*  what  the  statement  implies  is,  that 
the  metropolis,  Yorkshire,  Lancashire,  Durham,  Northumberland,  a 
large  part  of  South  Wales,  Cornwall,  the  manufactaring  districts 
of  Scotland,  and  Ulster,  have  their  chief  industries  in  a  prosperous 
and  improving  condition.  In  other  words,  the  bulk  of  the  country 
has  become  more  active  than  it  was,  so  that,  allowing  for  the  agri* 
caltural  depression  and  the  dulness  in  the  building  trades,  the 
gains  exceed  the  losses.  As  in  such  matters  it  is  the  strongest  that 
wins,  the  fact  that  so  much  trade  is  better  makes  it  likely  that  the 
prosperous  industries  to  some  extent  are  drawing  the  unprosperous 
after  them — that  depression  in  agriculture,  for  instance,  is  less 
than  it  would  otherwise  have  been,  because  of  the  reaction  around 
it,  and  will  probably  be  less  enduring. 

**  This  last  remark  brings  us  to  the  question  of  the  cause  of  the 
great  movement.  Unless  an  intelligible  explanation  can  be  given 
of  it,  accounting  for  the  facts,  it  will  be  impossible  to  give  any 
reason  for  anticipating  its  continuance  or  stoppage.  It  will  be  all 
a  mystery,  even  to  the  business  men  whose  sound  instincts  enable 
them  to  make  a  profit  of  tiie  events.  But  we  believe  it  is  possible 
to  give  an  explanation,  especially  as  some  reasons  for  anticipating 
a  revival  were  given  in  the  Statist  before  the  event  took  place.  It 
is  easy  to  prophesy  after  the  event  and  invent  ex  post  facto  expla- 
nations, but  not  so  easy  to  give  the  explanations  first.  This  is, 
however,  what  the  Statist  has  done  in  the  present  case.  In  the 
issue  for  21  st  June  last  we  read : — 

"*It  remains  to  be  seen  whether  the  complete  trade  revival 
which  we  are  all  expecting  will  come  in  time  to  prevent  another 
semi-crisis.  It  seems  to  be  an  even  chance,  it  may  be  admitted, 
that  the  revival  will  come  in  time.  There  are  many  fitvoutable 
symptoms,  of  which  the  prosperity  of  the  labouring  classes,  includ- 
ing the  agricultural  labourers,  notwithstanding  the  bad  times  for 
&rmers  and  landowners,  is  one  of  the  most  important.' 

"  Under  the  date  of  28th  June,  we  read  : — 

***  As  the  summer  passes,  the  question  of  the  harvest  prospects 
becomes  more  and  more  alarming.  It  is  all  but  certain  that  a  good 
harvest,  or  even  a  harvest  slightly  under  the  average,  would  revive 
trade,  and,  as  a  natural  consequence,  send  up  the  prices  of  stocks 
and  shares  and  investment  property  of  almost  every  description. 
Things  have  been  so  bad,  and  prices  have  got  so  adjusted  to  the 
badness,  that  even  something  not  so  good  as  the  average  might  have 
this  effect.  But  the  chances  seem  all  against  us,  and  we  may  have 
to  m&^e  up  our  minds  to  another  disappointing  year. 

'**  Still  it  is  possible  that  the  general  causes  tending  to  improve 
trade  in  England  may  be  so  strong  that  even  an  untoward  harvest 
event  will  not  wholly  neutralise  them.  The  conjunction  of  low 
prices  of  agricultural  produce  with  bad  seasons  is  so  unusual  that 
it  is  diffiotdt  to  predict  what  the  general  effect  on  trade  wUl  even- 
tually  be.  At  first,  while  there  have  been  other  causes  of  general 
depression  at  work,  the  conjunction  seems  wholly  unfavourable.  It 
specially  depresses  the  ogiicaltaral  intercut,  and  adds  to  the  general 


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1880.]  Financial  a/nd  Oommerdal  Eidmj  of  1879.  101 

gloom.  Bni  cheap  food  is  the  main  qnestion  after  all,  and  probably 
it  will  be  found,  after  a  time,  that  while  good  or  bad  harvests  at 
home  are.  make- weights  in  the  general  account  of  prosperity,  or  the 
reverse,  tiiey  are  not  all  important.  This  appeared  to  be  the  case 
in  years  of  activity  like  1871,  1872,  and  1873,  when  the  harvests 
were  under  the  average,  and  the  same  result  may  again  be 
witnessed.  It  is  certainly  a  most  interesting  economic  problem 
whether  trade  can  revive  without  a  good  harvest,  and  the  autumn 
of  1879  may  perhaps  be  destined  to  famish  a  solution.' 

"  Under  the  dates  12th  and  19th  July  and  2nd  August  we  have 
remarks  to  the  same  effect,  coupled  with  the  notice  of  an  opposite 
opinion  its  then  prevalent  on  the  Stock  Exchange.  Finally,  on 
9th  August,  we  read  : — 

***The  question  of  revival,  though  connected  with,  is  not  exclu- 
sively dependent  on  what  the  harvest  at  home  may  be.  Just  in 
proportion  to  our  increasing  dependence  on  foreign  food  supplies 
will  be  our  independence  of  home  harvests  for  the  adversity  or 
prosperity  of  our  aggregate  trade.  Good  harvests  abroad,  increas- 
ing the  surplus  which  foreigners  setid  us,  will  increase  pro  tanto  the 
purchasing  power  of  our  foreign  customers.  The  purchases 
foreigners  make  will  accordingly  affect  our  home  trade,  as  the 
purchases  of  our  agricultural  classes  at  home  will  affect  it.' 

"There  is  much  more  to  the  same  effect,  but  the  above  will 
give  an  idea  that  trade  revival  was  anticipated  on  account  of  the 
general  cheapness  that  prevailed,  and  the  fact  that  some  of  our 
important  foreign  customers  were  profiting  by  a  good  harvest.  In 
other  words,  all  the  conditions  of  revival  were  present,  except  a 
good  home  harvest,  and  as  that  element  was  believed  to  be  less 
important  than  it  had  been,  the  conclusion  was  reached  that  a  bad 
harvest  would  not  prevent  revival.  This  conclusion  may  now  be 
considered  a  settled  one.  There  could  hardly  have  been  a  worse 
season  than  last  year's,  yet  trade  revives.  Coupled  with  the 
similar  independence  of  trade  on  good  harvests,  shown  in  former 
years,  this  last  event  has  the  effect  of  a  crucial  test.  We  mu^  not, 
of  course,  rush  to  the  conclusion  that  the  old  economists  and  statis- 
ticians were  wrong  in  dwelling  on  the  connection  between  harvests 
and  trade,  or  that  good  and  bad  harvests  are  now  of  no  consequence. 
On  the  contrary,  the  old  authorities,  men  like  Quetelet,  Tooke,  and 
others  were  demonstrably  right.  In  the  circumstances  of  most 
countries,  even  including  England,  a  good  or  bad  home  harvest 
used  to  be  all-important  for  trade.  The  agricultural  interest  was 
relatively  far  more  important  than  it  is  now,  while  the  price  of 
food  depended  on  the  home  harvest  because  only  a  relatively  small 
supply  was  obtained  from  abroad.  All  that  has  happened  is  that 
English  circumstances  are  changed.  England  has  become  a  country 
where  the  agricultural  population  is  only  about  a  tenth  of  the 
whole,  while  the  price  of  food  is  not  regulated  by  the  home 
harvest  but  by  the  foreign.  It  is  the  circumstances  which  have 
changed  and  not  the  teaching  of  economists.  And  good  harvests 
at  home  still  remain  important  on  account  of  the  great  importance 
of  the  agricultural  interests.  A  tenth  part  is  undoubtedly  a  large 
section  of  the  people,  while  probably,  in  ordinary  years,  their  net 


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102  MisceUamea,  [Mar. 

wages  and  profits,  inclnding  rent,  exceed  a  tenth  part  of  the 
national  income.  The  prosperity  or  adversity  of  such  a  class  must 
always  be  a  material  factor  in  a  question  of  general  trade  prosperity 
or  the  reverse. 

**  But  what,  it  may  be  asked,  are  the  usual  causes  of  a  revival 
in  trade  which  the  occurrence  of  a  bad  harvest  at  home  has  not 
been  powerful  enough  to  neutralise  ?  It  is  easy  to  say  that  cheap 
food,  and  cheapness  generally,  tend  to  produce  revival,  but  in  what 
way  ?  To  this,  also,  an  answer  can  easily  be  given.  The  general 
efEect  of  years  of  depression  is  to  check  production.  In  the  course 
of  time,  most  articles  come  to  be  sold  for  a  season  at  prices  which 
are  below  the  average  necessary  to  maintain  the  production.  The 
actual  falling  off  of  consumption  in  many  directions  may  really  be 
very  little,  but  a  slight  excess  of  supply  is  enough  to  produce  a 
great  fall  in  the  market.  Production  is  consequently  checked  at 
the  very  time  cheapness  enables  annuitants  and  capitalists  to  save 
more  than  in  busier  times,  and  when  the  reduced  wages  of  the 
labouring  classes  may  even  go  &rther  than  the  higher  wages  of  the 
busy  seasons.  At  a  point  which  it  would  be  impossible  to  deter- 
mine beforehand,  since  no  one  can  tell  what  the  minimiun  consump- 
tion will  be  even  in  the  worst  depression,  and  it  is  probable  that 
the  minimum  changes  with  the  circumstances  of  each  case  ;  still  at 
some  point  the  production  is  suddenly  found  to  be  below  what  current 
consumption  requires,  and  then  the  turn  in  the  opposite  direction 
comes.  The  movement  is  usually  determined  by  some  special  or 
accidental  event,  as  by  a  very  good  harvest  or  by  such  a  demand  as 
has  lately  come  to  us  from  the  United  States ;  but,  once  started,  it 
acquires  a  momentum  wholly  out  of  proportion  to  the  apparent 
occasion.  The  truth  is,  the  occasion  is  not  the  cause.  The  real 
causes  lie  deep  in  the  whole  circumstances  of  the  depression  itself, 
with  its  low  prices  tempting  consumption  on  the  one  side,  and  the 
generally  diminished  or  stationary  production  on  the  other.  The 
production  falling  short  of  the  minimum  consumption,  the  moment 
this  fact  appears  there  must  be  a  rise  all  round,  and  an  immediate 
impetus  in  all  directions  to  new  production,  which,  of  course, 
immediately  increases  the  general  consuming  power.  The  impetus 
apparently  gains  energy  and  volume  from  the  general  desire  of 
retailers  and  other  intermediaries  to  increase  their  stocks,  which 
had  fallen  below  the  average,  while  the  mere  feeling  that  things 
are  going  to  be  better  helps  to  make  them  better. 

'*  In  some  such  way  we  should  explain  the  usual  causes  of  a 
trade  revival,  and  while  there  can  be  no  doubt  in  the  present  case 
of  the  extreme  lowness  of  prices  which  had  been  brought  about, 
the  subject  indeed  of  general  lamentation  a  year  ago,  there  seems 
equally  little  doubt  of  the  general  check  to  production  we  have 
referred  to.  As  this  last  point  is  comparatively  new,  we  may  give 
a  few  illustrations.  Thus  in  the  iron  trade  we  find  that  the  pro- 
duction in  the  United  Kingdom,  which  had  been  stationary  for 
several  years,  must  have  tended  to  be  much  lower  in  the  early  part 
of  1879,  since  the  total  for  that  year,  notwithstanding  all  the 
activity  of  the  last  three  months  of  the  year,  is  still  below  the 
average.     The  figures  are : — 


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1880.]  Finandal  and  ConmercM  History  of  1879.  103 


1871  « 6,627,000 

*72  6,742,000 

'73 6,566,000 

'74  5»99i»ooo 

'75  6,365,000 

'76  6,555,000 

'77  6,608,000 

'78  6,381,000 

'79  (estimntec^) 6,200,000 

'*  The  total  for  1879  is  onlj  estunated,  bnt  the  estimate  is  that 
of  Messrs.  Fallows  and  Co.,  of  Liverpool,  who  are  usually  not  wide 
of  the  mark,  the  margin  for  error  being  also  rery  small.  The  figures 
tell  their  own  tale.  Production,  it  is  clear,  most  hare  sank  to  a 
very  low  ebb  at  the  beginning  of  last  year,  as  for  the  whole  year  it 
is  still  more  than  10  per  cent,  less  than  the  average  of  1872-73, 
and  considerably  less  than  the  average  of  years  like  1876-77,  which 
were  undoubtedly  years  of  depression.  With  population  steadily 
increasing  all  the  while,  it  is  easv  to  see  that  production  must  have 
fallen  under  actual  wants.  It  is  on  a  production  thus  arranged 
that  an  extra  demand  suddenly  falls. 

"  In  cotton  we  have  very  similar  figures.  The  deliveries  of  raw 
cotton  to  all  Europe,  according  to  Messrs.  Ellison's  circular, 
amounted  to  2,136,866,000  pounds  in  1878-79;  but  the  total  as 
long  ago  as  1870-71  was  2,161,724,000  pounds,  and  this  has  been 
exceeded  in  several  years  in  the  interval.  In  Great  Britain  alone 
the  deliveries  were  1,110,212,000  pounds  in  1878-79,  which  is 
absolutely  a  lower  figure  than  in  any  of  the  previous  eight  seasons. 
With  all  the  inflation  that  may  have  characterised  the  ti*ade 
formerly,  these  figures  still  show  a  pause  in  production  which  is 
most  serious,  allowing  for  the  increase  of  population  in  the 
interval. 

"As  regards  wool,  we  have  also  similar  fibres.  Messrs. 
Helmuth  Schwartze  and  Co.  give  the  following  in  one  of  their 
tables : — 

ToUl  Wool  left 
for  Home  Consumption. 

>  of  1870-74    339,ooo,coo  Iba. 

'75 351,000,000  „ 

'76....„ 369,000,000   „ 

*77 373,000,000  „ 

*78 352,000,000   „ 

*79 319,000,000  „ 

'*  These  figures  seem  even  more  striking  to  us  than  those  of 
iron  and  cotton.  The  pause  in  production  must  have  been  serious 
at  the  last. 

''  Shipping,  the  produce  trades,  hides,  and  other  trades  supply 
other  illustrations.  It  would  be  needless  to  multiply  instances, 
while  we  do  not  sav  the  experience  is  uniform ;  there  being  cases, 
like  tea,  where  an  increasing  supply,  until  the  very  last  year,  seems 
hardly  to  have  overtaken  consumption,  and  a  very  slight  reduction 


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104  MisceUanea,  [Mar. 

in  the  supply  has  led  to  a  great  rise  in  price.  Still  it  is  remarkable 
to  notice  in  so  many  of  the  trade  circnlars  the  references  to  a 
diminished  production  of  the  raw  material  as  having  come  to  a 
climax  in  1879.  The  conclusion  seems  inevitable.  The  long  period 
of  low  prices  seems  at  last  to  have  been  as  effectual  in  checking 
production  on  the  one  side,  as  in  sustaining  and  stimulating  demand 
on  the  other.  Now  the  situation  becomes  more  normal.  The 
demand  becomes  the  more  active  as  it  cannot  be  readily  supplied, 
and  the  power  of  consumption  increases  with  the  increase  of  pro- 
duction itself. 

**  Such  is  the  rationale  of  the  trade  revival  as  it  appears  to  our 
mind ;  and  from  which  we  draw  the  conclusion  that  the  bad  harvest 
of  last  season  ought  not  to  have  prevented  it,  as  it  has  not,  in  fact, 
prevented  it.  Why  should  it  have  had  any  such  effect?  It 
weakens,  no  doubt,  the  purchasing  power  of  the  agricultural  classes, 
but  most  other  classes  of  the  community  have  been  enriched,  and 
the  extra  demand  is  principally,  after  all,  for  the  requirements  of 
a  minimum  consumption.  To  some  extent,  also,  the  feeling  of 
improvement  is  unconnected  with  any  great  improvement  in  reality ; 
it  is  small  changes  in  production  and  consumption,  which  produce 
all  these  effects;  people  are  thankful  for  small  mercies.  In  the 
foreign  export  trade,  for  instance,  an  increase  of  5  per  cent., 
which  seems  very  probable  in  1880,  and  which  will  delight  all 
exporters,  will  still  only  raise  the  total  value  to  the  level  of  1876, 
which  shows  a  great  decline  as  compared  with  1873.  But  because 
the  figures  increase,  everybody  rejoices,  although  the  country  may 
be  no  better  off,  or  not  much  better  off,  than  in  1876.  As  econo- 
mists view  it,  there  was  little  cause  to  be  dissatisfied  with  the  latter 
year,  but  the  point  of  view  of  business  men  and  of  economists  is 
not  precisely  the  same. 

"  The  Harvest  Failure  and  Other  Events. 

"There  remain  to  be  noticed  the  other  important  economic 
events  of  the  year  which  we  have  already  mentioned.  Some  of 
them,  however,  we  propose  to  pass  over  without  farther  notice,  as 
not  relatively  important  to  the  immediate  development  of  business, 
always  the  main  topic  in  such  a  review  as  this,  however  important 
they  may  be  in  themselves.  The  change  of  unlimited  banks  into 
limited  is  an  event  of  this  sort.  Eventually  the  transformation 
may  have  far-reaching  consequences,  changing  the  curreirts  of 
investment,  through  banking  shares  becoming  more  attractive  than 
they  were,  and  stimulating  the  growth  of  banking  and  joint  stock 
enterprise ;  but  as  regards  the  next  few  years,  there  will  not  be 
much  difference.  The  development  of  business  will  be  much  what 
it  would  have  been  in  any  case.  For  a  similar  reason  we  pass  6ver, 
also,  the  changes  in  Egypt  and  South  America.  It  is  an  important 
matter  within  a  certain  sphere  that  something  has  been  done  which 
will  improve  the  finances  of  Egypt  and  of  the  South  American 
Republics,  and  the  moral  effect,  by  giving  confidence  to  investors, 
may  even  be  greater  than  the  material  effect ;  but  relatively  to  the 
main  influences  which  affect  the  movements  of  English  trade,  it  can 
hardly  be  said  that  continued  disorganisation  in  Egypt  and,  Peru 


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1880.]  Financial  and  Commercial  History  of  1879.  105 

would  have  mattered  much.  The  p^reat  current  wonld  have  swept 
on  its  course,  and  these  eddies  would  have  been  hardly  noticeable, 
just  as  their  contributions  to  the  main  current  will  now  be  relatively 
inconsiderable.  It  is  impossible,  however,  to  class  such  an  event 
as  the  harvest  failure,  as  altogether  secondary  in  its  influence,  and 
it  appears  to  demand  a  few  more  words  of  notice. 

**  There  can  be  no  doubt  as  regards  the  com  crops  that  last 
season  was  one  of  the  worst  on  record.  After  the  harvest  each 
succeeding  estimate  of  the  yield  of  the  wheat  crop,  appeared  to  be 
worse  than  its  predecessor,  and  these  low  estimates  have  been  fully 
confirmed  by  the  remarkable  falling  off  in  the  quantities  brought 
to  market.  The  reduction  of  yield  must  have  been  at  least  30  per 
cent,  below  the  average,  as  estimated  in  an  elaborate  article  in  the 
Times^  quoted  in  the  Statist  of  8th  November  last,  and  even  the 
estimate  of  50  per  cent,  below  the  average  hardly  seems  too  high. 
The  barley  harvest  has  also  been  most  deficient,  the  result  being 
peculiarly  disastrous  to  the  excise  revenue.  In  minor  crops,  such 
as  hops,  there  has  been  quite  as  serious  failure.  The  season  has 
also  been  far  from  favourable  to  green  crops  and  live  stock,  the  last 
agricultural  returns  showing  only  a  slight  increase  in  cattle,  and  a 
decrease  in  sheep  and  pigs,  while  the  prices  of  meat  have  been  most 
unfavourable  to  producers  as  compared  with  recent  years.  Coming 
after  previous  bad  seasons,  such  an  account  is  disastrous,  and  there 
is  little  cause  for  wonder  at  agricultural  complaints  or  the  ap- 
pointment  of  a  royal  commission  to  inquire  into  the  depression  of 
agriculture.  A  little  consideration  would  seem  to  show,  however, 
that  there  are  not  a  few  qualifications  to  the  opinion  that  agriculture 
is  altogether  ruined,  and  to  the  farther  opinion  as  to  this  depression 
making  a  recovery  in  the  home  trade  impossible.  The  figures  of 
the  live  stock  are  still  very  large,  and  at  least  show  little  decline 
compared  with  what  they  were  several  years  ago,  although  good 
agricultural  authorities  hold  that  the  tendency  of  the  conversion 
of  arable  into  pasture  land,  is  to  reduce  the  stock,  while  making 
the  business  more  profitable  to  those  engaged.  At  the  same  time 
though  the  price  of  meat  has  fallen  as  compared  with  a  few  years 
back,  there  nas  been  since  last  summer  a  great  recovery  in  the 
prices  of  butter  and  cheese,  so  that  all  the  events  of  the  agricultural 
year  have  not  been  unfavourable  to  the  agricultural  interest.  We 
may  feel  quite  certain  that  while  we  hear  complaints  on  all  sides, 
farmers  and  landlords  throughout  the  country  are  not  suffering 
equally,  and  that  the  results  of  the  year  have  been  more  tolerable 
to  many  than  at  first  sight  appears^  Taking  this  into  account,  and 
dealing  with  the  effects  of  the  harvest  on  industry  generally,  we 
see  at  once  why  the  bad  result  of  the  Jiarvest  should  not  affect  the 
general  trade  revival.  The  agricultural  industry,  after  all,  is  onlv 
about  a  tenth  of  the  whole  industry  of  the  country ;  and  although 
the  net  income  from  it,  received  as  rent,  wages,  and  profits,  may 
usually  be  more  than  a  tenth,  we  doubt  if  it  very  much  exceeds 
that  proportion.  But  say  it  is  a  sixth  parfc,  we  should  still  only 
have  a  net  income  from  agriculture  of  about  200  million  pounds  a 
year  (taking  the  whole  income  of  the  country  as  nearly  1,200 
million  pounds).     This  200  million  pounds  again  may  be  assumed 


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106  MisceUanea,  [Mar. 

to  be  equally  divided  between  labourers,  farmers,  and  landlords ; 
but  the  labourers  we  know  have  hardly  suffered ;  and  assuming 
that  the  farmers  all  round  have  only  made  half  their  profits,  and 
that  landlords  have  bad  to  give  up  20  per  cent,  of  their  rents,  we 
should  arrive  at  a  net  reduction  of  about  50  million  pounds  in  the 
usual  return  to  agricultural  industry.  Wo  should  doubt  if  the  net 
reduction  is  as  great  as  this,  while  those  concerned  have  gained  like 
the  rest  of  the  community  in  the  general  cheapness ;  but  even  a 
reduction  of  50  million  pounds  is  not  a  large  amount  if  the  rest  of 
the  country  is  prosperous  as  it  is  beginning  to  be.  It  is  not  5  per 
cent,  of  the  aggregate  income  of  the  country.  This  is  why  the 
bad  harvest  has  so  little  general  effect.  The  agricultural  industry, 
though  large,  is  far  from  all-important.  The  other  influences  are 
stronger,  and  the  country,  as  a  whole,  gains  more  by  cheap  food 
than  it  loses  by  a  bad  harvest. 

"  The  Rise  in  Silver. 

"  Another  of  the  secondary  events  to  which  we  must  give  a  few 
additional  words  of  notice  is  the  rise  in  silver.  The  advance  has 
been  from  about  496?.  at  the  beginning  of  the  year,  to  between  52^!. 
and  53(/.,  the  main  cause  undoubtedly  being  the  improvement  of 
the  Indian  trade,  although  the  temporary  suspension  of  the  sales 
of  German  silver,  the  diminution  of  American  production,  and 
other  causes  have  contributed.  There  seems  little  doubt  also  that 
a  farther  improvement  will  take  place,  the  Indian  trade  keeping 
good,  and  private  capital  again  seeking  an  outlet  in  India.  We  are 
a  long  way  from  the  alarms  which  were  very  prevalent  a  year  ago, 
and  which  made  it  very  difficult  to  preach  patience.  The  event  is 
a  most  important  one  economicallv.  A  rising  exchange  helps  to 
make  Indian  trade  better,  and  tne  fact  of  recovery  proves  once 
more  that  the  despairing  and  pessimist  view  as  to  the  fature  price 
of  silver  is  not  at  any  rate  to  bo  realised  at  once — that  there  will  be 
many  ups-and-downs  in  the  process,  and  ample  time  for  the  neces- 
sary adjustments  to  be  made  by  the  countries  whose  currencies  are 
affected.  The  rejection  in  the  early  part  of  the  year  of  Colonel 
Smith's  proposal  to  restrict  the  rupee  coinage,  as  well  as  the  failure 
of  the  officious  proposals  of  the  German  and  American  Govern- 
ments for  a  new  bi -metallic  conference,  were  happily  confirmed,  or 
rendered  more  easy,  by  the  course  of  the  silver  market.  The  world 
has  thus  been  spared  the  loss  and  misery  of  great  currency  changes, 
which  could  have  had  no  other  than  a  disturbing  effect  on  trade 
and  commerce  generally. 

**  In  connection  with  this  silver  question  we  think  it  deserving 
of  note  here  that  the  directors  of  the  Bank  of  England  have  been 
induced  by  the  course  of  the  discussion  to  reprint  Lord  Liverpool's 
famous  book  on  *  The  Coins  of  the  Realm.'  The  publication,  it 
may  be  hoped,  will  settle  the  bi-metallic  controversy  for  many  a 
day  to  come. 

"  Another  special  event  to  notice  is 

"  The  Drain  of  Gold  to  ^America, 
"  This  haa  been  very  fully  described  in  the  Statist,  from  time  to 


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1880.]  Fincmdal  a/nd  Oommercial  History  of  1879.  107 

time,  and  its  bearings  discnssed.  The  broad  fact  is,  that  between 
1st  Angnst  and  the  end  of  the  year,  about  i6  millions  of  gold  were 
shipped  from  England  and  France  to  the  United  States ;  and  that 
this  was  mainly  dne  to  the  increasing  currency  requirements  of  the 
United  States  consequent  on  their  good  trade.  The  like  require- 
ments in  former  years  had  no  such  effect,  because  the  American 
currency,  until  1st  January,  1879,  was  inconvertible  paper.  But 
since  the  resumption  of  specie  payments  on  the  latter  date,  the 
currency  has  become  gold  or  based  upon  gold,  and  hence  when 
trade  expands  and  wages  rise  there,  America,  though  a  gold- 
producing  country,  is  also  able  to  take  gold  from  her  neighbours. 
The  amount  abstracted  is  a  large  one,  and  would  probably  not  have 
been  parted  with  so  easily  but  for  the  great  ease  of  money  on  this 
side ;  still  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  in  ordinary  years  America 
will  absorb  gold  largely,  especiaUy  as  it  appears  that  the  paper 
currency  is  wholly  inelastic,  the  greenbacks  bemg  strictly  limited  in 
quantity,  and  the  conditions  of  the  note  circulation  being  such  as  to 
make  the  business  unprofitable  to  the  national  banks.  These  points 
have  been  very  fully  explained  in  the  Statist^  the  most  recent 
article  having  appeu^  in  the  issue  of  3rd  January,  to  which 
reference  may  here  be  made. 

^^  Scientific  Improvements, 

"  Another  point  to  which  attention  may  be  drawn  is  the  great 
economy  effected  in  production  during  the  years  of  depression. 
One  of  the  beneficial  results  of  such  a  period  is  the  stimulus  it 
gives  to  invention  and  labour-saving  appliances,  and  such  a  stimulus 
has  been  given  of  late  years.  Gfreat  improvements,  in  particular, 
have  been  made  in  the  processes  for  making  steel,  and  in  the  use  of 
steel  as  a  substitute  for  iron,  a  source  of  large  economies,  for 
instance,  in  the  permanent  way  expenses  of  railways.  Gfreat 
improvements  have  also  been  made  in  blast  furnaces,  the  capacity 
of  a  single  furnace  being  increased  and  the  cost  of  production 
diminished.  There  is  a  similar  economy  in  shipping,  the  tendency 
to  increase  being  in  large  steamers,  which  cost  little  more  in  fuel 
and  wages  than  smaller  vessels,  although  their  capacity  is  much 
greater.  It  would  be  out  of  place  to  go  minutely  into  such  ques- 
tions here.  It  is  important,  however,  to  remember  that  the  machine 
of  production  at  the  present  moment  is  far  more  efficient  than  it  was 
several  years  ago.  The  same  labour  will  produce  greater  results, 
and  a  great  increase  of  prodaction,  or  saving  in  the  hours  of  labour, 
will  be  possible. 

"TAePro«pec<  0/1880. 

**  We  come,  then,  to  the  prospect  for  the  current  year,  on  which, 
however,  we  need  say  little.  A  review  like  what  has  been  written, 
in  conjunction,  at  l^ist,  with  the  numerous  trade  circulars  quoted, 
tells  its  own  tale.  If  we  have  brought  out  clearly  the  nature  of  the 
past  year's  events  and  of  the  present  situation,  the  inferences 
should  follow  of  themselves.  All  the  facts  and  deductions  point  to 
a  continuance  of  the  improvement  which  has  begun.  The  facts — 
that  so  many  trades  are  better,  that  a  stimulus  is  given  to  pro- 


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108  MiscelUmea^  [Mar, 

dxLction  in  all  directions,  that  the  harvest  failnre  is  really  not  of  a 
kind  to  affect  prejudicially  the  general  movement,  as  it  has  not,  in 
fact,  prevented  a  start  upwards,  and  that  specially  the  improvement 
in  India  and  America  continues  to  affect  us  most  favourably — all 
point  to  the  one  conclusion  that  the  revival  of  trade  is  strong  and 
genuine,  and  must  be  upheld  by  the  causes  which  have  set  it  in 
motion :  for  how  long  a  period  it  is  impossible  to  say  beforehand, 
but  probably  for  no  inconsiderable  time.  The  orders  booked  in 
almost  every  trade,  it  is  believed,  will  carry  us  a  great  way  through 
the  present  year.  We  may  also  believe,  according  to  past  experience, 
that  such  a  movement  once  started  will  go  on  augmenting,  will 
extend  from  one  trade  to  another,  and  will  be  strengthened  by 
incessant  action  and  reaction.  No  one  in  sach  a  matter  should  be 
over  confident,  knowing  what  a  part  is  played  by  the  unforeseen  in 
haman  affairs ;  but  the  present  is  a  time  for  hope,  and  a  cheerful 
feeling  is  no  unimportant  factor  in  producing  the  good  trade  that 
is  hoped  for.  The  revival  has  given  confidence,  and  enriched  the 
leading  capitalists  and  speculators — the  people  who  direct  pro- 
duction.    Such  a  stimulus  once  given  will  last  a  long  time. 

"  It  is  objected  that  the  rise  of  prices  is  an  adverse  influence  to 
prosperity ;  that  the  working  classes  have  their  purchasing  power 
diminished  by  the  rise  in  tea,  sugar,  and  other  articles  of  general 
consumption.  Bat  to  this  the  answer  is,  that  a  rise  of  prices  is  the 
essential  part  of  a  trade  revival,  and  in  its  earlier  stages  does  not 
prevent  the  continuance  of  improvement.  The  fuller  employment 
appears  to  compensate,  and  more  than  compensate,  the  consumer 
for  the  rise  in  prices  by  which  production  is  stimulated.  After- 
wards, when  prices  rise  still  higher,  the  effect  is  different,  consump- 
tion being  checked,  and  production  being  rendered  unprofitable, 
but  we  are  yet  a  long  way  from  such  a  period.  Prices  have  risen, 
but  not  as  yet  to  a  very  high  level. 

"  Apprehensions  are  also  expressed  respecting  the  state  of  the 
money  market,  and  the  political  complications  in  the  east  of 
Europe,  But  while  fully  believing  that  money  is  likely  to  be 
dearer,  especially  if  trade  goes  on  improving,  we  do  not  think  the 
improvement  in  trade  will  itself  be  arrested.  Experience  has  often 
shown  that  moderately  high  rates  for  money  and  good  trade  are 
quite  compatible.  We  should  doubt  also  whether  the  actual  out- 
break of  war  in  the  east  of  Europe,  though  it  might  check  some 
speculation,  would  have  very  much  influence  in  the  commercial 
world.  Even  during  the  Franco- German  war  of  1870-71,  our  trade 
kept  steadily  improving,  the  chief  economic  effect  of  that  war  in  its 
early  stage  being  a  brief  disturbance  of  th^  money  market.  We 
see  no  reason  why  new  continental  wars,  if  their  duration  is 
equally  brief,  should  have  any  greater  effect.  Of  course,  if  they  are 
protracted,  the  result  would  be  different.  Two  or  three  years  hence 
they  might  be  found  to  assist  in  the  descent  from  a  period  of 
prosperity  and  inflation  to  one  of  adversity  and  contraction.  But 
for  the  present  year  there  would  be  little  perceptible  evil,  as  regards 
our  economic  development,  even  in  the  outbreak  of  a  great  conti- 
nental war.  We  come  back  to  the  conclusion,  then,  that  the  trade 
prospect  of  the  year  is  a  cheerful  one,  and  that  there  is  little  to 


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1880.]  The  Fires  of  Lothdon  and  the  Fire  Brigade.  109 

obscure  the  prospect — that  the  hopes  generally  indulged  in  have  a 
very  solid  foundation.  Barring  accidents,  the  year  1880  should  be 
quite  as  prosperous  as  1870,  when  trade  started  into  life  after 
another  great  depression." 


The  Financial  and  Commercial  History,  1879,  with  Appendix — 
to  which  the  foregoing  introduction  belongs — is  arranged  under 
the  following  heads,  viz. : — 

Trade  in  1879—Foreign  Trade  in  1879— TAe  Harvest  of  1879. 

Appendix. 

Bxtraota  from.  Trade  Oiroulars. 

A. — Iron,  Coal,  Chemicals,  Ac. — 

Iron — Goal — Engineering — Ohemicdls. 

B. — Raw  Materials — 

Cotton— WooI^-Flax—SUk. 

C. — Produce — 

Mindng  Lane  Markets — Coffee — Sugar — Tea — Canned  Ooods 
and  Freserved  Provision  Trade — Wine  and  Spirits — Oil  and 
Seed  Trade — Tallow — Wood  and  Tirnber — Hides^  Tanning 
Materials,  ^c. — Drugs^  8fc» 

D. — ^Miscellaneous — 

Qold  and  Silver — The  Oerma/n  Bourses — Freights — FaH/u^es. 

Index  to  Tables. 
Bank  Returns — 

Bank  of  Fnglamd — Bank  of  France — Bank  of  Oermamy — BoAhk 
of  Austria — Bank  of  the  Netherlands — Associated  New  York 
Banks — San)ings  Banks. 

Clearikg  House  Returns — 

London  Bankers'  Clearing  Returns — Settlings  on  the  4ith  of  the 
Month. 

Stock  Exchange  Settling  Days — Foreign  Market  Rates  of  Discount 
'-Exchanges  and  Bullion — Public  Revenues — Stock  Exchange 
Securities — Traffic  Returns — Pauperism — Prices  of  Wholesale 
Commodities — ^Allotments  of  Indian  Council  Bills  in  1879 — 
Supply,  Stock,  and  Prices  of  Wholesale  Commodities — Statistics 
of  Failures. 


II. — The  Fires  of  London  during  the  Tear  1879,  and  the  Metropolitan 

Fire  Brigade. 

The  following  particulars  are  taken  from  Captain  Shaw's 
Annual  Report  for  1879,  to  the  Metropolitan  Board  of  Works,  in 
continuation  of  similar  notices  for  previous  years : — 

"  The  number  of  caUs  for  fires,  or  supposed  fires,  received  during 
the  year  has  been  1,949.    Of  these  116  were  false  alarms,  1 1 5  proved 


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110 


MuceUcmea. 


[Mar. 


to  be  only  chimney  alarms,  and  1,718  were  calls  for  fires,  of  wluch 
159  resnlted  in  serious  damage,  and  1,559  in  slight  damage. 

"  These  figures  refer  only  to  the  regular  cidls  for  fires,  or  sup- 
posed fires,  involving  the  turning  out  of  firemen,  fire  engines,  fire 
escapes,  horses,  and  coachmen;  they  do  not  include  trifling  damages 
by  fires  which  were  not  sufficiently  important  to  require  the 
attendance  of  firemen ;  neither  do  they  include  the  ordinary  calls 
for  chimneys  on  fire,  which  are  separately  accounted  for  further  on. 

"The  fires  of  1879,  compared  with  those  of  1878,  show  an 
increase  of  59;  and  compa^d  with  the  average  of  the  last  ten 
years,  there  is  an  increase  of  85. 

"The  proportion  of  serious  to  slight  losses — 159  to  1,559 — ^is 
most  favourable,  and  notwithstanding  several  exceptional  periods, 
as,  for  instance,  the  year  1872, 1  think  1  am  justified  in  saying  that 
the  value  of  property  destroyed  by  fire  in  London  has  been  less  in 
1879,  than  in  anv  other  year  since  the  formation  of  the  brigade. 

"  The  following  table  gives  it  both  in  actual  numbers  and  per- 
centages : — 


Tear. 

Number  of  Firci. 

Percentage. 

Seriooi. 

Slight. 

TotaL 

Seriooi. 

9Ug1it. 

Total. 

1866 

'67 

'68 

'69 

70 

'71 

'72 

'73 

74 

'76 

76 

77 

78 

'79....„.. 

3^6 
H5 
-35 
199 
276 
207 
120 
166 
I  £4 
>63 
166 

170 
159 

1,012 
1,152 
1,488 
1,373 
1,670 
1,636 
1,374 
1,382 
1,419 
1,866 
1,466 
1,874 
1,489 
1,559 

I1338 
i»397 
1,668 

1,842 
M94 
1,548 
«,573 
1,5*9 
1,632 

',533 
1,659 
1,718 

25 
18 

H 
13 
H 
II 

8 
11 
10 
II 
II 
10 
10 

9 

75 
82 
86 
87 
86 
89 
92 
89 
90 
89 
89 
90 
90 
91 

100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
too 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 

"  The  number  of  fires  in  the  metropolis  in  which  life  hafi  been 
seriously  endangered  during  the  year  1879  has  been  96 ;  and  the 
number  of  these  in  which  life  has  been  lost  has  been  27. 

"  The  number  of  persons  seriously  endangered  by  fire  has  been 
I  6a,  of  whom  132  were  saved,  and  32  lost  their  lives.  Of  the  32 
lost,  15  were  taken  out  alive,  but  died  afterwards  in  hospitals  or 
elsewhere,  and  17  were  suffocated  or  burned  to  death. 

*'The  number  of  calls  for  chinmeys  has  been  4,169.  Of  these 
1,375  proved  to  be  false  alarms,  and  2,794  were  for  chimneys  on 
fire.  In  these  cases  there  was  no  attendance  of  engines,  but  only 
of  firemen  with  handpumps. 

*'  The  nximber  of  journeys  made  by  the  fire  engines  of  the  52  land 
stations  has  been  22,184,  and  the  total  distance  run  has  been  50,491 
miles. 

"  The  quantity  of  water  nsed  for  extinguishing  fires  in  the 
metropolis  during  the  year  has  been  16,122,128  gallons — ^in  round 


Digitized  by 


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1880.]  The  Fires  of  London.and  the  Fire  Brigade.  Ill 

numbeTS  a  Kttle  more  than  i6  million  gallons,  or  about  72,000  tons. 
Of  this  quantity,  about  32,000  tons,  or  a  little  more  than  two-fifths 
of  the  whole,  were  taken  from  the  river,  canals,  and  docks,  and  the 
remainder  from  the  street  pipes. 

**  During  the  year  there  have  been  9  cases  of  short  supply  of 
water,  33  of  late  attendance  of  turncocks,  and  18  of  no  attendance, 
making  altogether  60  cases  in  which  the  water  arrangements  were 
unsatisfactory. 

*'  The  strength  of  the  brigade  at  present  is  as  follows : — 

52  Umd  fire  engine  station 
1  moyable  land  station. 
113  fire  escape  stations. 
4  fioating  „ 

3  large  land  steam  fire  engines. 
34  small  „ 

12  seven-inch  manual  fire  engines. 
64  siz-ioch  „ 

37  nnder  six-inch  „ 

130  fire  escapes  and  long  tcallng  ladders. 
3  fioating  steam  fire  engines. 
I  steam  tng. 
17  hose  carts. 
15  Tans. 

3  barges. 
57  telegraph  lines. 
106  miles  of  telegraph  lines. 

452  firemen,  including  chief  officer,  superintendents,  and  all 
ranks. 

"  The  number  of  firemen  employed  on  the  several  watches  kept 
up  throughout  the  metropolis  is  at  present  104  by  day  and  188  by 
night,  making  a  total  of  292  in  every  twenty-four  hours ;  the 
remaining  men  are  available  for  general  work  at  fires. 

"  Our  list  of  wounds  and  other  injuries  for  1879  is,  unfortunately, 
very  large,  but  this  will  always  be  the  case  as  long  as  the  men  work 
with  zeal  and  energy. 

"  There  have  been  during  the  year  297  cases  of  ordinary  illness, 
and  69  injuries,  making  a  total  of  366  cases,  of  which  many  were 
very  serious." 

From  the  tables  appended  to  the  report  the  following  particulars 
are  obtained : — 

(a)  The  fires  classified  according  to  occupations,  arranged  in  the 
order  of  frequency  of  occurrence ;  to  which  are  added,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  comparison,  the  corresponding  figures  for  the  three  previous 
years: — 


Digitized  by 


Google 


112 


Miscellanea. 


[Mar. 


Number. 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

26 

26 

27 

28 


80 
81 
32 
83 
84 
86 
86 
37 
38 
39 


Occupations. 


Private  houses    

Lodginj^s 

Victuallers 

Coffee  houses 

Cabinet  makers  

Drapers   

Oil  and  colourmen 

Tobacconists   

Greengrocers  and  fruiterers 

Tailors,  clothiers,  and  outfitters- 

Boot  and  shoe  makers  

Builders  

Stables 

Under  repairs  and  building 

Ghrooers    

Booksellers,  binders  and  stationers 

Carpenters,  Ac.  (not  cabinet  makers)  

Offices 

Bakers 

Railways 

Butchers 

Chandlers    

Marine  store  dealers 

Upholsterers  

Coal  and  coke  merchants 

Confectioners 

Engineers  and  machinists 

Furniture  makers  and  dealers 

Chemists  (including  all  chemical  labo-1 

ratories)  j 

Farming  stock    

Hotels  and  club  houses 

Looking  glass  and  picture  frame  makers... 

Printers  

Beershop  keepers   

Furriers  and  skinners    

Refreshment  rooms  

Saw  mills    

Schools    

Unoccupied 


Number  of  Fires. 


1879.    1878.    1877.    1876. 


Remainder,  yarjing  from  9  to  i 


399 

172 

58 
32 
30 
30 
29 
27 
25 
25 

24 
23 
23 
20 
18 
17 
17 
15 
>5 
H 
>3 
13 
13 
12 
12 
12 
12 


II 
II 
II 
II 

10 
10 
10 

10 

ID 

10 


i»»39 
479 


1,718 


368 
203 
60 
26 
27 
29 
28 
22 
16 
30 
21 
14 
19 
36 
28 
16 

7 

9 
11 

7 

14 
10 

4 
11 

6 
16 

9 
11 


9 
14 

7 
17 
13 
10 
16 

4 

4 
10 


321 
195 
56 
21 
30 
*5 
25 
15 
13 
23 
17 
13 
21 

23 
29 
II 

6 

16 
20 

6 

10 
10 

7 
6 

9 
7 
4 

5 


22 
13 

5 

16 

8 

5 

H 

6 

2 

H 


327 

193 

68 

17 

30 

22 

31 

8 

17 

30 

22 

21 

26 

20 

26 

22 

16 

8 

16 

17 

9 

14 

8 

6 

9 

12 

13 

12 


41 
10 

7 
13 
11 

6 
11 

3 

14 
10 


(h)  A.  list  of  the  fires  classified  under  the  causes  to  which  they 
haye  been  assigned,  and  arranged  in  the  order  of  frequency  of 
occurrence : — 


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1880.]  The  Fires  of  London  and  the  Fire  Brigade.  113 


Cavset. 


Nnmber 
of  Fires. 


1.  Unknown   402 

2.  Lamps  (not  gas)  and  lights  (thrown  down)  256 

8.  DefectiTe,  or  improperly  set — flues,  OTens,  furnaces,  boilers,  stores,  &c.  183 

4.  Sparks  from  fires,  &c 17a 

5.  Qua  (in  various  ways)  146 

6.  Candles  108 

7.  Overheating  of— flues,  ovens,  furnaces,  boilers,  stoves,  &c 90 

8.  Children  plajing  with  fire,  matches,  &o 64 

9.  Hot  ashes   48 

10.  Airing  and  drying  stoves 40 

11.  Foul  flues    39 

12.  Boiling  over,  or  upsetting  of  fat,  pitch,  &o 30 

18.  Smoking  tobacco    24 

14.  Spirits,  or  vapour  of  spirits,  in  contact  with  flame 24 

15.  Spontaneous  ignition 20 

16.  Lime  slaking  by  rain  and  otherwise    14 

17.  Lucifer  matches 14 

18.  Doubtful     II 

19.  Burning  rubbish    5 

20.  Incendiarism 5 

Miscellaneous,  varying  from  3  to  i 23 

Total 1,718 

(c)  The  usual  sninmaries  attached  to  the  report  for  1879 
further  show :  that  of  the  months,  the  greatest  number  of  fires 
occurred  in  December  (211),  and  the  smallest  number  in  July 
(113) ;  that  of  the  days  of  the  week,  the  largest  number  of  fires 
(268)  occurred  on  Saturday,  and  the  smallest  number  (212)  on 
Monday ;  and  that  of  the  hours  of  the  day,  the  greatest  number  of 
fires  occurred  between  the  7th  and  12th  hours  p.m.,  and  those  most 
exempt  from  such  disaster  were  the  5th  to  the  11th  hours  a.m. 

With  reference  to  the  daily  summary,  the  following  table,  which 
gives  the  totals  of  the  fires  for  each  day  of  the  week  for  the  last 
ten  years,  shows  on  the  average  that  the  largest  number  of  fires 
occur  on  Saturday,  and  the  smallest  number  on  Monday.  The 
annual  ayerage  number  of  fires  for  the  last  ten  years  is  1,647. 


YOU  XUii-     PART  I. 

Digitized  by 


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114 


Miscellanea, 


[Mar. 


Tears. 

Sunday. 

Monday. 

Tuesday. 

Wednesday. 

Thursday. 

Friday. 

SatonlHy. 

Total. 

1870.... 

290 

252 

2«;8 

266 

300 

258 

322 

1,94^ 

71.... 

286 

202 

H7 

802 

271 

258 

276 

1,842 

72.... 

199 

206 

ii3 

207 

220 

220 

229 

1,494 

73.... 

202 

209 

137 

199 

230 

243 

228 

1,548 

74.... 

222 

228 

228 

195 

240 

231 

229 

1,573 

75.... 

200 

208 

231 

227 

236 

209 

223 

1,529 

76.... 

260 

218 

226 

236 

242 

221 

230 

1,682 

77.... 

192 

218 

212 

224 

243 

216 

228 

1,533 

78.... 

260 

191 

271 

234 

2H 

236 

253 

1,659 

79.... 

235 

212 

231 

267 

264 

251 

268 

1,718 

Total- 

2.346 

2,139 

2,354 

2,346 

24^0 

2,343 

2,486 

16,474 

The  condition  of  the  brigade  is  reported  to  be  in  all  respects 
satisfactory,  and  Captain  Shaw  in  his  report  recommends  two  fire- 
men for  special  merit  in  saving  life  from  fire,  who  collectively  saved 
six  lives  dnring  the  year. 


m. — EngliJsh  Literature  in  1879. 

The  following  particnlars  are  taken  from  the  Publishers' 
Circular  of  31st  December,  1879,  in  continuation  of  a  series  of 
similar  extracts  for  previous  years  : — 

"  Comparing  the  yield  with  that  of  1878,  we  find  that  the  total 
of  books  issued  during  the  year  is  5t834  against  5,314  in  1878. 
Of  these  4,294  are  new  books,  3,730  being  the  number  of  new  books 
chronicled  for  1878 ;  of  new  editions  there  are  1,540  as  against 
1,584  new  editions  in  1878.  The  various  classes  show  compara- 
tively as  follows,  new  books  and  new  editions  together : — Divinity 
is  40  per  cent,  in  advance  of  last  year  in  point  of  numbers; 
education  has  the  same  increase ;  fiction  and  juvenile  works  are 
about  on  a  par  with  those  of  1878 ;  law,  jurisprudence,  &c.,  have 
afforded  about  20  per  cent,  more  books  in  1879  than  in  1878 ; 
political  and  practical  matters,  art  and  illustrated  books,  about 
half  as  many  again  as  the  preceding  year ;  geographical  research, 
travels,  history,  &c.,  show  a  large  increase;  as  against  practical 
treatises,  poetry,  and  the  drama  are  not  so  well  represented,  being 
fewer  by  some  sixty  or  seventy  books ;  of  the  rest  we  may  say, 
that  about  the  average  increase  is  kept  up. 

"  It  is  worthy  of  remark,  that  the  relative  activity  of  the  year 
just  ended,  is  greater  than  the  gross  numbers  lead  one  to  think. 
The  proportion  of  new  books  as  compared  with  new  editions  is  in 
1879  much  greater  than  in  1878.  In  1879  the  new  books  are 
not  far  from  three  times  the  number  of  the  new  editions ;  in  1878 
the  new  books  wore  about  two  and  a  half  times  as  many  as  the 
new  editions. 


Digitized  by 


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1830.]  English  LUercUure  in  1879. 

Analytical  Table  of  Books  Published  in  1879. 


115 


Subject*. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Not. 


Dec. 


Total  of 
Books  on  each 

Subjecfc 
for  the  Y-ear. 


Theology,  sennons,! 
biblical,  &c J 

Edacational,  classi-l 
cal,  and  philo-  > 
logical   J 

Jurenile  works  and  1 
tales  J 

Norels,  tales,  and  1 
other  fiction j 

Law,  jurisprudtooe,  "1 
Slc J 

Political  and  social  l 
economy,  trade  > 
and  commerce  ....  J 

Arts,  science,  and! 
illustrated  works  J 

Voyages,  travels,  "| 
and  geographical  V 
research J 

History,  biography,  T 
&c J 

Poetry  and  the  \ 
drama    j 

Year  books  and  1 
serials  in  volumes  j 

Medicine,  surgery,  \ 
&c J 

Belles  lettres,  essays,  1 
monographs,  &c.  J 

Miscellaneous,  in- 1 
eluding  pamphlets,  > 
not  sermons J 


•73 
t36 

•94 
t32 

•13 
t  8 

•51 

t28 

•15 

t7 

•  4 
t3 

•34 
14 

•19 

tio 

•32 

te 

•16 

t4 

•57 

t 

•  9 
t3 

•15 
t3 

•68 

tio 


36 
27 

59 
27 

7 
4 

3& 
17 

11 
6 

5 

1 

17 
2 

13 
3 

21 
6 

9 
5 

16 


14 


64 
20 

51 
20 

10. 
9 

44 


14 

12 

8 

49 
44 

15 
6. 

13 

4 

30 
8 

35 

10 

86 
6 

13 

4 

20 


51 
20 

37 
11 

8 
4 

40 
33 

7 
4 

8 
1 

30 

8 

25 

10 

17 
3 

17 
5 

20 


47 
21 


15 


58 
12 

34 
17 

9 
4 


12 

34 
6 

4 
2 

28 
20 

4 
5 

3 
1 

5 
6 

7 
2 

12 
4 


97 


103 
45 

64 

20 

25 
5 

72 
41 

11 
5 

12 
3 

31 
14 

27 
3 

3& 
11 

12 
5 

3a 


10 


643 


384 


430 


416 


624 


446 


400 


340 


206 


697 


653 


595 


775 
811 

i,c86 

613 
215 

8a8 

153 
61 

214 

607 

406 

1,013 

102 
55 

157 


lai 

268 
85 

353 

228 

70 

298 

319 

84 

403 

150 

41 

286 


136 
53 

136 
43 

422 
94 


191 
286 
189 
179 

5.834 


•  New  books. 


t  NeweditionSk 


The  analytical  table  is  divided  into  fouarteen  classes ;  also  new 
books  and  new  editions : — 

l2 

Digitized  by  VjOOQ IC 


116 


MuceUanea. 


[Mar. 


IMnricnu. 


1878. 


New 
Booki. 


New 
Edition!. 


1879. 


New 
Books. 


New 
£cUtiuni. 


Theology,  termons,  biblical,  &o 

Educational,  classioal,  and  philological.... 

Juvenile  works  and  tales 

NoTels,  tales,  and  other  fiction  

Law,  jorisprudence,  &o 

Political  and  Bodal  economy,  trade  and  1 

commerce J 

Arts,  sciences,  and  illustrated  works 

Voyages,  travels,  geographical  research ., 

Histoiy,  biography,  Ac 

Poetry  and  the  drama 

Year  books  and  serials  in  Tolumee    

Uedicine,  surgery,  &o 

Belles  lettres,  essays,  monographs,  &c 

Miscellaneous,    including    pamphlets,  1 

not  sermons J 


531 
424 
819 
447 
93 

138 

119 
147 
812 
200 
225 
176 
409 

195 


8,780 


208 

162 

129 

432 

36 

48 

28 

68 

118 

156 

'5 

57 

122 


1*584 


5,814 


775 
613 
153 
607 
102 

99 

268 
228 
819 
150 
286 
136 
186 

422 


4,294 

V 


311 
i>5 

61 
406 

55 


85 
70 

84 
11 

53 
43 

94 


1.540 


5,884 


IV.— German  Literaiwre  of  1878  amd  1879. 

The  following  is  taken  firom  the  Fublishers^  Gircular  of  2nd 
February,  1880  :— 

"  Systematic  view  of  the  literary  productions  of  the  German 
bookselling  trade  in  1878  and  1879,  extracted  from  the  BorsenblaM:  — 


1.  Collections  or  sets  of  works— literary  histoiy,  1 

bibliography j 

2.  Divinity 

8.    Law,  politics,  statistics,  trade 

4.  Therapeutics,  yeterinary 

5.  Natural  histoiy,  chemistry,  pharmacy  

6.  PhUoeophy    

7a.  Education,  German  school-books,  physical  1 

education  j 

7ft.  Juvenile  books  

8.  The  classics  and  oriental  languages,  anti-1 

quities,  mythology  j 

9.  Modem  languages,  old  German 

10.  Histoiy,  biography,  memoirs,  letters 

11.  Gheoeraphy  and  travel  

12.  Mathematics  and  astronomy  

18.    War,  hippology 


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1880.]        Emigration  and  InumgroMo*  in  the  Tear  1879. 


117 


14.  Mercantile  science,  teclinology   

15.  Machinerj,  railways,  mining,  nautical  

16.  Hunting  and  forestry  

17.  Domestic  economy,  agriculture,  gardening 

18.  Belles  lettres,  novels,  poems,  drama,  &c 

19.  Fine  arts — painting,  music,  Ac. ;  shorthand 

20.  Popular  literature,  almanacks 

21.  Freemasonry 

22.  Miscellaneous    

28.  MaigB 

Total    


187a 


18,912 


1879. 


577 

577 

882 

384 

118 

103 

886 

42  f 

1,181 

1,170 

571 

584 

715 

642 

20 

21 

840 

378 

293 

300 

14.179 


V. — Emigration  cmd  Im/inigrcUum  in  the  Yea/r  1879. 

The  following  is  a  copy  of  Mr.  Giffen's  Report  to  the  Secretary 
of  the  Board  of  Trade,  relating  to  Emigration  from,  and  Immigra- 
tion into,  the  United  Kingdom  in  the  year  1879 : — 

"  Sir, — In  submitting  a  year  ago  the  tables  of  emigration 
and  immigration  for  the  year  1878, 1  had  to  call  attention  to  certain 
changes  in  the  figures,  as  compiured  with  the  years  immediately 
previous;  the  number  of  emigrants  having  increased,  while 
immigration  continued  to  decline,  so  that  the  balance  of  emigra- 
tion, i.e.,  the  excess  of  emigrants  over  immigrants,  had  increased 
in  still  greater  proportion  than  the  increase  of  emigration  itself. 
The  figures  of  increase  and  decrease  were,  however,  so  small,  as 
only  to  raise  a  presumption  that  emigration  had  once  more  begun 
to  augment  after  declining  for  several  years ;  it  remained  to  be  seen 
whether  the  current  would  continue  to  flow,  and  would  flow  more 
strongly,  in  the  direction  in  which  it  had  set.  The  tables  of  1879, 
which  I  have  now  to  submit,  appear  to  answer  the  question  in  the 
affirmative.  There  is  a  farther  increase  of  emigration  in  1879  over 
1878,  that  increase  being  also  more  considerable  than  the  similar 
increase  in  1878  over  1877;  there  is  also  a  farther  decline  in 
immigration,  and  consequently  a  farther  considerable  increase  in  the 
excess  of  emigrants.  It  is  also  noticeable,  as  we  shall  see,  that 
some  of  the  concomitants  of  the  increase  of  emigration  in  1878  are 
again  observable  as  regards  the  much  larger  increase  of  1879.  It 
is  again  to  the  United  States  and  British  North  America  that  the 
additional  emigrants  have  departed ;  the  increase  in  the  emigration 
to  Australia,  which  had  not  ^llen  off  as  that  to  the  United  States 
and  North  America  had  done,  being  inconsiderable. 

''  The  exact  figures  as  to  the  increase  of  emigration,  decline  of 
immigrationy  and  increase  of  the  excess  of  emigrants,  are  as 
follows : — 


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118 


IfiseeUoMea. 
(a)  Increase  of  Emigration. 


[Mar. 


Total,  hidoding 
Foreigner!. 

Emisranti 

ofBriUihaitdlrUh 

Origin  only. 

Number  of  emiflrants  in  1879 

it7»i63 
147,663 

164,274 
U2,d02 

78 

locroMc  .....1... 

69,500 

51,372 

*'  Thus  the  increase  of  emigrants  of  all  nationalities  is  69,500  as 
compared  with  am  increase  in  1878  over  1877  of  27,692  only;  and 
the  increase  of  emigrants  of  British  and  Irish  origin  only,  the 
main  fact  to  deal  with  as  far  as  this  conntrj  is  concerned,  is  51,372 
as  compared  with  an  increase  in  1878  -over  1877  of  17,707  only. 
These  increases,  it  will  also  be  remembered,  compare  with  a  decline 
which  had  been  going  on  for  several  years  down  to  1877. 

(i)  Decrease  of  Immiffratum, 


Total,  including 
Foreigners. 

Immigrants 

of  Britisb  and  Irish 

Origin  only. 

Nwmber  t^f  imwiicrTAnfia  In  1S78  

77,951 
53,973 

54,944 
87,936 

°  '      '            »ijn 

Decrwu*  in  1879   

23*978 

17,008 

**  Thus  the  number  of  total  immigrants  has  fallen  from  77,951  to 
5 3, 97  J,  and  the  number  of  immigrants  of  Britisk-and  Irish  origin 
only  has  fallen  from  54,944  to  37,93'6.  The  decrease  in  1879  as 
compared  with  1878,  is  also  greater  than  in  1878  as  compared  with 
1877. 

"It  clearly  follows  from  these  figures,  that  the  excess  of 
emigrants  in  1879  must  have  been  much  greater  than  in  the  two 
previous  years,  aa  will  be  more  clearly  perceived  from  the  following 
additional  summary: — 

(e)  Increase  of  Excess  of  EmigramU, 


Total  Emigration 

and 

Immigration. 

Emigration 

and  ImniigratioB 

of  Pen>ons  of 

British  and 

Irisb  Origin  only. 

Number  of  emigrant  in  1879 «... 

ixpmiffTaTitff      .. 

217,163 
53r973 

164,274 
37,936 

Exoess  of  emigrants  » 

CoiresDonciinff  excesa  in  1878 

163,1^ 

69,712 

3«Wi3 
44,665 

126,388 
57,958 

vrrepo  mg        77; :::., 

81,305 

'76 

88,066 

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1880.]         Emigration  cmd  Immigration  in  the  Year  1879.  119 

**Thn8  the  excess  of  emigrants — the  loss  of  populaHon  to  the 
United  Kingdom  through  more  people  going  to  places  oat  of 
Europe  than  come  back  from  those  places — is  very  much  greater 
in  1879  than  in  any  of  the  three  previous  years.  As  regards 
persons  of  British  and  Irish  origin  only,  the  excess  of  emigrants 
in  1879,  amounting  to  126,338,  is  more  than  double  the  excess  in 
1878,  which  amounted  to  57,958  ;  more  than  four  times  the  excess 
in  1877,  when  the  figure  was  31,305  only;  and  between  three  and 
four  times  the  excess  in  1876.  From  being  only  nominal  in  the 
previous  two  or  three  years,  the  emigration  in  1879  has,  in  fact, 
risen  to  an  appreciable  total. 

"  Into  the  causes  of  this  increase  of  emigration  this  would 
hardly  be  the  place  to  enter,  as  there  are  no  data  obtained  in  the 
collection  of  the  statistics  themselves  which  throw  light  on  the 
matter.  I  may  be  permitted,  however,  to  suggest  a  reference  to 
the  statement  in  my  report  for  1875,  in  which  I  drew  attention  to 
the  decline  of  emigration,  which  always  appeared  to  occur  in  years 
of  depression  in  this  country  and  the  United  States.*  The  coin- 
cidence of  the  present  increase  of  emigration  with  a  revival  of 
trade  which  has  been  making  progress  in  the  United  States  for  the 
last  two  years,  and  in  this  country  during  the  latter  part  of  1879, 
appears  so  far  to  confirm  the  view  that  a  great  falling  ofE  in 
emigration  is  among  the  signs  of  a  depressed  period  in  this  country. 

"  It  remains  to  be  seen,  however,  whether  the  amount  and  rate 
of  emigration  will,  with  the  revival  of  trade,  return  to  their 
former  level,  or  whether  the  tendency  is  not  to  a  gradual  but  still 
appreciable  decline  from  period  to  period.  The  degree  of  falling 
o£E  in  1877  and  1878  was  certainly  very  remarkable,  but  it  is 
difficult  to  compare  it  properly  with  earlier  years  on  account  of  the 
imperfect  record,  or  rather  absence  of  record,  of  immigration 
which  previously 'existed.  In  the  absence  of  a  better  test,  then, 
the  actual  decline  •of  immigration  at  a  time  when  emigration 
increases  appears  important.  It  would  seem  to  be  a  natural 
inference  from  ithis  cireumstance  that  there  is  always  a  certain 
amount  of  "  tentative  "  emigration,  and  that  of  those  who  go  away 
a  larger  numbeo*  stay  in  the  countries  to  which  they  depart  in  good 
times  than  in  times  when  trade  is  depressed.  Thus  the  diminution 
of  immigration  in  a  year  like  1879  is  a  sign  of  the  operation  of 
causes  which  are  likely  to  promote  emigration  for  some  time  after- 
wards. By-and-bye,  as  emigration  increases,  immigration  will 
increase  ioo,  till  at  last,  when  the  tide  is  again  turning,  immigra- 
tion will  be  large  in  the  face  of  declining  emigration,  and  there 
will  be  a  small  excess  of  emigrants  ;  but  for  the  present,  judging 
by  past  statistics,  we  seem  to  be  at  the  comparatively  early  stage  of 
a  new  tide  of  emigration.  In  confirmation  of  this  opinion,  it  seems 
sufficient  to  glance  at  No.  15a  of  the  tables  annexed  to  the  Report. 
It  will  there  be  seen  that  between  1870  and  1873,  emigration  and 
immigration  both  increased,  but  there  was  very  little  increase  in  the 
excess  of  emigrants ;  that  in  1874  there  was  a  large  decrease  of 
emigration  coupled  with  a  large  increase  of  immigration,  so  that 

*  This  report  was  a  departniMital  paper  only,  and  was  not  presented  to 
parliament. 


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120 


MisceUwnea. 


[Mar. 


the  excess  of  emigrants  showed  a  large  diminutioii,  the  exact 
contrary  of  what  is  now  occurring  ;  and  that  from  1874  to  1877 
there  was  a  steady  decline  of  both  emigration  and  immigration, 
but  more  in  the  former  than  the  latter,  so  that  the  excess  of 
emigrants  declined.  It  seems  reasonable  to  infer  that  the  present 
movement  is  Ukely  to  follow  the  same  course,  and  will  be  followed 
by  an  increase  of  both  emigration  and  immigration,  accompanying 
a  considerable  net  emigration,  and  then  by  a  decrease  of  both, 
accompanied  by  a  very  small  net  emigration.  Of  course  I  do  not 
put  forward  any  such  opinion  authoritetively,  the  sole  object  being 
to  call  attention  to  what  seems  the  bearing  of  the  figures  when 
compared  with  those  of  former  periods. 

'^  It  has  already  been  stated  incidentally  that  the  principal  part 
of  the  increase  of  emigration,  as  was  the  case  last  year,  is  to  the 
United  States  and  British  North  America,  in  which,  as  I  had  often 
occasion  to  point  out  in  former  reports,  the  chief  falling  off  in 
previous  years  occurred.  The  point  seems  deserving  of  fuller 
statement.  The  inference  from  the  former  falling  o£E  was  that  the 
natural  stream  of  emigration  was  to  North  America,  and  the 
emigration  to  Australia  was  only  steadier  because  it  was  not  so 
completely  self-supporting;  and  this  inference  is  apparently  sup- 
ported by  the  direction  of  the  stream  of  emigration  when  trade 
becomes  good.  Almost  all  the  increase  goes  to  North  America  and 
very  little  to  Australia.  Thus,  taking  all  emigrants,  including 
foreigners,  we  find  that  out  of  a  total  increase  of  70,000  in  1879, 
compared  with  1878,  no  less  than  53,000  is  an  increase  of  emigra- 
tion to  the  United  States  and  9,000  to  British  North  America, 
leaving  only  8,000  as  the  increase  to  all  other  places,  including 
Australia.  The  increase  to  America,  moreover,  is  about  65  per 
cent.,  whereas  to  Australia  it  is  very  little  over  13  per  cent. 
Dealing  with  the  emigration  of  persons  of  British  and  Irish  origin 
only,  we  find  that  while  the  total  increase  as  above  stated  is  51,372 
persons,  the  increase  to  the  United  States  only  is  37,112  persons, 
and  to  British  North  America,  7,300  persons,  leaving  only  7,000  as 
the  increase  to  all  other  places,  including  Australia.  Here,  again, 
the  increase  to  North  America  is  69  per  cent.,  and  to  Australia  only 
about  12  per  cent.  And  we  get  a  still  more  striking  comparison, 
when  we  look  at  the  figures  of  the  excess  of  emigrants  for  a  series 
of  years,  as  exhibited  in  the  following  table  : — 


Destinations  of  Excess  of  Emigrants  over  Immigrants  amona 
British  and  Irish  Origin  only  in  the  Undermentioned  Y 

Persons  of 
ears. 

Coantry  of  Emigntion 

Excess  of  Emignnts  in 

and  Immigntion. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

United  States   

(-)  '43» 
2,706 
29,617 

603 

2,033 

26,501 

8,168 

20,654 
4448 

584 

71,758 

14,456 

85,992 

4,183 

Sritish.  North.  America  

All  other  parte 

38,065 

81,305 

57,958 

126,388 

*  Excess  of  immigrants. 


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1880.]         EmxgraUon  and  Immigration  in  the  Year  1879. 


121 


"  Thus,  of  the  whole  addition  of  69,000  to  the  net  emigration 
last  year,  51,000  is  to  the  United  States,  10,000  to  British  North 
America,  and  only  the  remainder,  or  8,000,  to  all  other  places.  The 
iocrease  in  the  case  of  the  United  States,  again,  is  from  20,654  to 
71,758,  or  more  than  240  per  cent.;  and,  if  the  years  1876  and  1877 
are  compared,  is  practically  an  increase  from  zero  to  this  large 
figure.  The  increase  in  the  case  of  North  America  is  from  4,448  to 
14,455,  ^^  about  230  per  cent. ;  and  in  the  years  1876  and  1877  is 
from  about  2,000  to  14,000,  or  a  multiplication  of  the  minimum 
number  by  seven  times.  But  the  increase  in  the  case  of  Australasia 
is  from  32,272  in  1878,  and  25,501  in  1877,  to  35,992  in  1879,  or  at 
the  rate  of  rather  more  than  10  per  cent,  in  the  former  case,  and 
rather  less  than  30  per  cent,  in  the  latter.  In  other  words,  the 
natural  stream  of  emigration  to  North  America,  which  was  almost 
wholly  suspended  in  1876  and  1877,  and  which  began  to  flow  a 
little  in  1878,  haa  once  more  swollen  to  dimensions  greatly  in  excess 
of  the  comparatively  steady  emigration  to  Australasia. 

'*  Another  sign  of  what  appears  to  me  the  increase  of  natural 
emigration  in  1879,  is  the  circumstance  of  its  corresponding  very 
closelv  to  the  increase  of  steerage  passengers  outwards,  the  number 
of  caoin  passengers  remaining  stationary.  We  get  the  following 
comparison : — 

Numbers  of  Cabin  and  Steerage  Passengers  Leamng  the  United  Kingdom 
for  Places  out  of  Europe,  in  each  of  the  Years  1876-79. 


Yean. 

Cabin  Pasaeiigeri. 

Steerage  Passengers. 

Total. 

1876    

41,900 

37,147 
43,168 

43,9*8 

96,322 

82,824 

104,495 

178,235 

138,222 
119,971 
147,663 
217,163 

77    

»78    

•79    

*'  There  can  be  no  doubt  that,  as  a  class,  emigrants  go  as  steerage 
and  not  as  cabin  passengers,  and  the  increase  of  steerage  passengers 
is  practically  an  increase  of  emigrants. 

"  Another  subject  which  has  been  specially  dealt  with  in  former 
reports  is  the  composition  of  the  emigration  from  the  United 
Eangdom.  It  has  been  shown  that  the  proportion  of  Irish  persons 
in  the  total  emigration  from  the  United  Kingdom,  which  used  to 
be  50  and  60  per  cent.,  and  as  late  as  the  five  years  ending  1875 
amounted  to  34  per  cent.,  had,  since  the  latter  date,  fallen  to  24  per 
cent.  Now  it  would  seem  that,  while  the  numbers  are  again 
increasing,  still  it  is  only  pari  passu  with  the  increase  of  the 
numbers  of  English  and  Scotch  emigrating,  the  proportion  being 
still  25  per  cent,  only,  as  compared  with  26  per  cent,  in  1878  and 
24  per  cent,  in  1876  and  1877. 

**  The  following  table  showing  this  is  in  continuation  of  a  similar 
table  in  former  reports : — 


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122 


Miscellanea. 


[Mar. 


StatemeiU  of  the  N^tmber  and  Proportion  of  Persona  of  English^  Scotch, 
and  Irish  Birth  respectivdy,  in  the  Total  Emigration  of  Persons 
of  British  Origin,  at  Diffei'ent  Periods, 


Engluh. 

9«*d.. 

Iridi. 

Period. 

Nomber. 

Per- 
centage 

of 
ToUl. 

t 

Kumber. 

PeP- 

oenUge 

of 
Tout 

NMber. 

Per- 
centMge 

of 
ToUl. 

ToUl. 

Three  jean,  1858-55 
Five  years....    '56-60 

„  ....  '61-65 
....   '66-70 

„  ....  '71-75 
Year  1876  

211,013 

243,409 

236,888 

368,327 

545,015 

73,396 

63,711 

72,323 

104,275 

30 
39 
33 

«7 
«♦ 
64 

62,514 
69,016 
62,461 
85,621 
95,055 
10,097 
8,663 
11,087 
18,708 

9 
10 

9 

10 
ao 
9 
9 
10 
If 

421,672 

915,059 

418,497 

400,085 

829,467 

25,976 

22,831 

29,492 

41,296 

1 

61 
5« 

58 
47 
34 
24 
24 
26 

i5 

695,199 
617,484 
717,796 
854,033 
969,537 
109,469 

77  

95,196 

»78  

112,902 

„       '79  

1^274 

'*  How  small  the  t«tal  of  Irish  emigration  still  is,  as  compared 
with  that  of  former  years,  is  shown  by  the  following  table,  which  is 
likewise  continued  from  former  reports : — 

Annual  aTorage,  1861-70   81,858  persons 

Year  1871 711067  „ 

„       *72  ^ „ 72,763  «, 

„       73  83,69a  „ 

»       '74  , ^ 60,496  „ 

>}       '75  4»»449  »» 

i»       '76 25,976  „ 

„       '77  - ~ 22,831  n 

»      '78 29^.91  ». 

„       '^9  ^ ^ 4>»»96  ,1 

"  In  proportion  to  the  popnlstion,  however,  the  Irish  emigration 
is  still  larger  than  that  of  Great  Britain. 

^'  The  nsaal  tables  have  been  added,  showing,  in  detail,  the 
nnmber,  sex,  and  destination  of  the  emigrants,  distinguishing 
between  adnlts  and  children,  and  between  married  and  single 
among  the  adnlts,  and  showing  also  the  occupations  of  the  adults. 
With  regard  to  these,  the  only  point  to  which  I  would  call  atten- 
tion, on  comparing  the  tables  with  those  of  former  years,  is  the 
great  increase  of  certaim  classes  of  emigrants  of  British  and  Irish 
origin  during  the  past  year.  The  '  general  labourers '  number 
28,504,  compared  with  13,701  in  1878,  and  9,816  in  1877;  the 
*  farmers '  number  5,382,  compared  with  3,296  in  1878,  and  2,477 
in  1877;  the  *  miners  and  quarrymen '  number  3,933,  compared 
with  1,176  in  1878,  and  1,428  in  1877;  the  'males,  occupation  not 
stated,*  number  13,353,  compared  with  10,995  in  1878,  and  9,767 
in  1877 ;  the  *  females,  occupation  not  stated,*  number  37,594, 
compared  with  27,363  in  1878,  and  23,531  in  1877.  In  such  classes 
as  '  gentlemen,  professional  men,  merchants,  <fec.,'  there  is  hardly 


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1880.]  Rates  of  Life  Insurance  Premiums.  123 

any  change  in  1879,  compared  with  the  two  previons  years,  a  fact 
which  seems  to  lead  to  the  same  inference  as  the  increase  of  steerage 
passengers  during  the  last  two  or  three  years,  while  the  number  of 
cabin  passengers  has  remained  stationary. 

^'  Tables  are  also  given,  as  usual,  containing  a  statement  of  the 
number  of  emigrants  embarking  from  different  ports  of  the  United 
Kingdom,  particulars  of  detention  money  recovered  by  emigration 
officers,  and  statement  of  remittances  by  settlers  in  the  United 
States  or  British  North  America  to  their  Mends  in  the  United 
Kingdom,  besides  comparative  tables.  I  may  again  repeat,  how- 
ever, the  observation  in  my  last  report,  that  the  data  as  to  the 
remittances  by  settlers  to  friends  at  home  are  necessarily  most 
incomplete,  and  the  figures  are  only  givem  quantum,  valeant,  and  to 
continue  those  formarly  published. 

(Signed)        "  R.  OnrBN." 


VI. — Bates  of  Life  Insuramee  Premivms. 

The  following  is  taken  from  the  Statist  of  the  17th  of  January, 
1880,  being  No.  7  of  a  series  of  special  articles  on  "  Insurance 
Companies'  Accounts,^  that  have  appeared  in  that  paper : — 

*'  In  the  course  of  ihe  various  special  articles  which  we  have 
published,  and  which  we  have  in  preparation,  on  the  accounts  of 
the  different  insurance  companies,  it  has  been  necessary  to  refer  in 
each  case  to  the  rates  of  premium  charged.  The  ideal  company  is 
of  course  one  which  charges  the  lowest  possible  rate  of  premium 
consistent  with  safety,  at  the  same  time  using  ap  the  smallest 
possible  portion  of  that  premium  in  expenses  and  proprietors' 
profits,  and  investing  the  funds  to  the  best  advantage  in  suitable 
securities.  Hence  the  primary  necessify  for  referring  to  the  rates 
of  premium,  while  there  are  other  secondary  reasons,  such  as  the 
comparison  of  the  proportion  of  expenses  actually  incurred,  and  the 
proportion  allowed  for  in  the  loading,  among  companies  charging 
the  same,  or  nearly  the  same  rates  of  premium,  and  the  comparison 
of  the  amounts  returned  as  bonuses,  the  companies  which  charge 
the  highest  premiums  being  of  course  bound  to  give  the  largest 
bonuses,  if  their  policy  holders  are  to  be  treated  equally.  But  it  is 
not  easy  to  compare  the  rates  of  different  companies.  They  have 
mostly  different  scales,  according  as  the  policy  holders  are  entitled 
to  participate  in  profits  or  not,  and  according  to  other  conditions 
of  insurance.  In  comparing  particular  scales,  it  is  found,  as  it 
ought  to  be,  that  there  are  differeant  premiums  for  each  age,  from 
20  or  even  a  lower  age  to  50  and  upwards,  and  that  the  companies 
are  not  uniformly  dearer  or  chea^r  at  all  ages,  but  that  some  which 
are  cheaper  than  others  at  ages  under  30  are  dearer  at  the  ages 
above  that,  and  vice  versA,  How,  then,  find  a  common  term  of 
comparison  ?  Hitherto,  following  a  usual  practice,  we  have  com- 
pared what  are  called  the  *  with  profit '  premiums  to  insure  lOo/. 


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124  MUcdUmea^  [Mar. 

at  death  at  three  ages,  viz. :  21,  31,  and  41 ;  but  this  is  not  wholly 
satisfactory.  It  is  right,  we  believe,  to  select  the  *with  profits' 
premiams  for  comparison;  most  of  the  business  of  insurance 
companies  being  insurances  for  the  whole  term  of  life,  with  a  right 
to  participate  in  profits — ^in  mutual  companies  the  whole  of  the 
profits,  and  in  proprietary  companies  three-fourths  or  four-fifths, 
and  sometimes  nine-tenths  of  the  whole.  But  the  method  assigns 
no  relative  value  to  each  of  the  three  ages,  and  a  more  extended 
comparison  would  clearly  be  useful.  We  propose  to  give  such  a 
comparison  in  the  present  article.  For  this  purpose  we  have  com- 
pared the  *with  profit'  premiums  for  the  whole  of  life  of  the 
oifEerent  companies  at  the  ag^  between  26  and  41  inclusive,  these 
being  obviously  the  ages  at  which  the  bulk  of  insurance  business 
must  be  done;  and  to  obtain  a  single  figure  for  comparison,  wo 
have  added  together  the  premiums  at  each  age,  sixteen  in  all,  and 
divided  them  by  this  number  of  sixteen,  so  as  to  give  the  average 
or  mean  of  the  whole.  To  be  scientifically  correct,  we  should  have 
compared  all  ages  and  allowed  each  to  enter  into  the  avei*age  only 
in  the  proportion  of  the  amount  of  business  done  at  that  age  to  the 
whole  business,  but  this  would  be  obviously  impossible,  there  being 
no  general  statistics  embracing  all  companies  of  the  ages  at  which 
insurances  are  effected ;  while  even  if  it  were  possible,  there  would 
be  the  farther  difficulty  that  the  proportion  of  business  at  each  age 
done  by  a  particular  company  would  vary  from  the  general  average. 
It  seems  to  us,  therefore,  practically  useful,  though  not  scientifically 
perfect,  to  compare  the  premiums  between  26  and  41  in  the  way  we 
nave  done,  that  is,  assigning  an  equal  value  to  each  age.  Our 
readers  will,  of  course,  understand  that  the  companies  might  be 
ranged  somewhat  differently  than  they  are  on  our  list  if  the  com- 
parison embraced  all  ages,  and  if  each  age  affected  the  comparison 
only  in  proportion  to  the  actual  amount  of  business  done.  All  we 
have  proposed  to  do  is  to  make  a  list  which  may  be  useful  in  the 
absence  of  anything  better.* 

"  The  general  results  of  the  table  are  obvious  enough.  Out  of 
ninety- two  companies  which  we  have  been  able  to  include  in  our  com- 
parison, having  an  aggregate  premium  income  of  I2,i63,75i/,,t  it 
appears  that  there  are  fourteen  companies,  with  an  aggregate  pre- 
mium income  of  2,424,8 12/.,  where  the  mean  annual  premium  at  the 
ages  26  to  41,  to  insure  100/.  at  death  with  profits,  exceeds  2/.  i6«.  3(f. ; 
that  there  are  twenty-six  companies,  with  an  aggregate  premium 

*  As  ojxt  table  shows,  oar  anthority  for  the  preminms  charged  is  the  statistical 
returns  to  the  Board  of  Trade,  under  the  Life  Insurance  Companies  Act  of  1870, 
sixth  schedule.  In  all  cases  we  have  taken  the  last  returns  in  the  blue  books,  and 
it  is  possible,  of  course,  that  there  are  one  or  two  instances  where  the  companies 
have  since  altered  the  scale  of  premiums.  In  one  instance,  the  Equitable,  where 
there  are  no  recent  statistical  returns  in  the  blue  book,  we  have  taken  the  figures 
from  the  published  tables  of  the  company. 

t  As  the  number  of  companies  and  amount  of  premium  income  dealt  with  are 
different  from  those  in  our  article  of  9th  August  last,  showing  the  proportion  of 
expenses  to  premium  income,  it  may  be  useful  to  explain  that  it  has  not  been 
possible  in  all  cases  to  compare  the  companies  in  our  former  list,  some  of  them 
taking  weekly  payments,  and  there  being  other  difficulties. 


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1880.]  Bates  of  Life  Insurance  Premmms,  125 

income  of  4,563, 109Z.,  where  the  mean  annual  premium  exceeds 
2L  I5«.,  and  does  not  exceed  2/.  i6s.  ^d. ;  that  there  are  thirty-three 
companies,  with  an  aggregate  premium  income  of  3,1 14,910/.,  where 
the  mean  annual  premium  exceeds  2L  139.  gd,,  and  does  not  exceed 
2 1.  IC9. ;  that  there  are  eleven  companies,  with  an  aggregate 
premmm  income  of  1,036,124?.,  where  the  mean  annual  premium 
exceeds  2/.  i28. 6d,y  and  does  not  exceed  2L  135.  9^  ;  and  that  there 
are  eight  companies,  with  an  aggregate  premium  income  of 
1,024,796/.,  where  the  mean  annual  premium  does  not  exceed 
2 1.  128.  6d.  The  bulk  of  the  companies,  numbering  seventy,  are  in 
the  second,  third,  and  fourth  lists,  their  aggregate  premium  income 
being  8,714,000/.,  or  72  per  cent,  of  the  total ;  and  this  means  that 
most  of  the  companies  have  average  premiums  at  the  ages  referred 
to  not  differing  in  the  most  extreme  case  by  more  than  about  6^  per 
cent.,  that  being  the  difference  between  a  mean  annual  premium  of 
2/.  i6s.  ^d.  and  another  of  2/.  i2«.  6d,  A  considerable  addition 
might  be  made  to  this  from  the  lower  part  of  the  first  table,  where 
the  mean  annual  premium  exceeds  2/.  165.  3  c?.  by  a  very  small 
amount ;  but  the  facts  as  they  stand  are  very  striking.  Whatever 
differences  there  may  be  at  particular  ages,  still  between  26  and  41 
on  the  average,  there  is  great  likeness  in  the  premiums  which  our 
insurance  companies  charge.  The  difference  between  2/.  i6«.  ^d. 
and  2/.  126.  6d.,  considering  the  objects  for  which  insurances  are 
effected,  and  the  proportion  of  the  payment,  as  a  rule,  to  the  whole 
income  of  the  insurers,  is  practically  inappreciable.  It  amounts  to 
a  difference  of  i/.  17*.  6d.  on  the  sum  required  to  insure  1,000/.,  the 
difference,  namely,  between  28/.  28.  6d.,  the  sum  required  at  a  rate 
of  2/.  168.  3c/.,  and  of  26/.  5^.,  the  sum  required  at  a  rate  of  2/.  12s.  6d. 
To  a  man  whose  income  would  suggest  the  expediency  of  an  insurance 
for  1,000/.,  the  difference  between  28/.  2s.  6d.  and  26/.  $8.  would 
hardly  be  appreciable.  On  an  income  of  500/.  it  would  not  be  more 
than  0'4  per  cent.  Security  being  the  main  element  sought  in 
insurance,  the  least  shade  of  doubt  about  the  cheaper  company 
would  justify  and  induce  an  insurer  to  seek  the  dearer  one,  when 
the  difference  between  cheaper  and  dearer  is  really  so  little.  The 
limits  of  difference  as  reg^ards  many  particular  companies  are  of 
course  still  less. 

"Nor  can  it  be  said  that  at  certain  ages  the  differences  are 
greater.  Looking  down  the  different  columns  it  will  be  seen  fchat 
at  the  extreme  ages,  where  the  differences  are  apt  to  be  greatest, 
these  differences  are  still  very  limited.  The  highest  at  the  age  26, 
in  Tables  11,  III,  and  lY,  is  2/.  6s.  8c/.,  and  the  lowest  2/.  2s.  4c/., 
which  is  at  most  a  difference  of  10  per  cent. ;  while  the  highest 
at  the  age  of  41  is  3/.  gs.  gd.,  and  the  lowest  3/.  49.  gd.^  or  a 
difference  of  7  per  cent.  only.  At  the  intermediate  age,  which 
appears  to  be  34,  the  rates  correspond  with  singular  closeness  to  the 
mean  of  the  sixteen  ages,  the  highest  being  2/.  16s.  le/.,  and  the 
lowest  2/.  128.  ^d.  An  examination  of  the  tables  will  show  that 
the  rates  do  approximate  about  age  34,  those  having  the  same  mean 
which  start  with  a  relatively  high  rate  at  26  having  a  relatively  low 
rate  at  41,  and  vice  versdj  and  the  ages  from  30  to  34  being  the 
point  where  the  two  different  scales  approximate.  Why  this  should 


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126  Miscellanea.  [Mar. 

be  so — why  the  companies  should  not  be  nniformly  higher  or  lower 
all  through,  as  ought  to  be  the  case  if  they  have  the  same  scientific 
basis,  is  an  actuarial  question  on  which  we  need  not  enter.  But  it 
is  obviously  of  practical  interest  to  an  insurer  to  know  that  while 
the  mean  annual  premiums  of  the  bulk  of  insurance  companies  at 
the  insuring  ages  vary  little,  the  extremes  of  variation  at  particular 
ages  within  the  same  limits  cannot  be  very  much  greater,  and  are 
insignificant  in  a  question  of  security,  which  is  his  main  object  in 
insuring.  This  conclusion  is  absolutely  demonstrated  by  the  tables 
which  we  have  arranged. 

"  There  remain  two  tables — Table  I  and  Table  V — about  which 
a  remark  or  two  may  be  added.  A  portion  of  the  former,  and 
perhaps  the  whole  of  it,  with  the  exception  of  the  single  company 
that  heads  the  list,  which  occupies  a  peculiar  position,  might  even 
be  included  with  the  second  table,  and  still  much  the  same  remarks 
we  have  made  would  apply.  The  difference  between  zl.  iSs,  5^., 
which  would  then  become  the  maximum,  and  the  minimum  of 
zL  1Z8.  6c2.,  would  still  be  comparatively  immaterial  in  respect  of 
the  main  question  for  an  insurer,  while  the  difference  would  be  still 
less^  of  'course,  between  the  maximum,  and  all  but  the  few  com- 
panies near  the  minimum  of  zL  izs.  6d.  The  extremes  on  either 
side  would  also  be  extended  in  no  greater  proportion,  the  maximum 
at  age  26  becoming  2/.  98.  id,  and  at  age  41  becoming  3/.  115.  9^^., 
instead  of  2I,  7*.  %d,  and  3/.  98.  ^d.  respectively.      Adding  the 

Premium  income  of  Table  I  to>  the  premium  income  of  Tables  II, 
II,  and  IV,  the-  result  would  be  that  out  of  companies  with  a 
total  premium  income  of  12, 163,7  ciZ.,  the  companies  with  a 
premium  income  of  1 1,139,000^.,  or  91^  percent,  of  the  total,  charge 
rates  of  premium  which  differ  so  little  from  each  other  that  the 
slightest  shade  of  doubt  about  the  security  of  a  cheaper  company 
ought  to  incline  the  insurer  ta  the  dearer.  Of  course  the  premiums 
being  '  with  profit  *  premiums,  a  great  difference  will  be  made  by 
the  various  management  of  companies  in  respect  of  the  risks  they 
take,  the  rate  of  interest  earned,  and  the  proportion  of  expenses  to 
the  premium  income,  but  the  latter  are  the  vital  points  and  not  the 
differences  in  the  rate  of  premium.  A  company  with  premiums 
5  per  cent,  lower  than  a  neighbouring  company,  a  difference  which 
will  include  a  wide  range  of  companies,  may  manage  so  very  much 
better  as  not  only  to  give  more  ample  security  than  the  dearer 
company  gives,  but  to  insure  a  larger  return  to  the  policy  holder  in 
the  shape  of  bonus.  As  rega^rds  most  of  the  companies,  therefore, 
as  between  themselves,  the  comparison  of  their  premiums  only 
serves  to  increase  the  importance  of  the  other  vital  points  to  be 
examined  in  insurance  accounts. 

"A  more  interesting  point  arises  upon  Table  V,  that  which 
includes  the  cheaper  companies.  These  are  only  eight  in  number, 
with  a  premium  income  of  1,02:4,796/.  only,  or  8^  per  cent,  of  the 
total,  so  that  they  are  obviously  a  class  apart  from  the  others,  and 
it  is  obvious  that  if  we  were  to  include  them  we  could  no  longer 
say  that  the  differences  in  the  rates  of  premium  charged  are  alto- 
gether immaterial.  No  less  than  three  companies  are  included,  with 
mean  premiums  of  509.,  or  5  per  cent,  lower  than  the  minimum  of 


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1880.]  Bates  of  Life  Insurance  Premiums,  127 

Table  IV,  and  there  is  one  company — the  Scottish  Provident — with 
a  mean  of  46*.,  or  12  per  cent,  lower  than  that  minimnm.  Between 
these  companies,  and  especially  between  the  last  of  all,  and  the 
companies  in  Table  I,  as  well  as  the  highest  in  Table  II,  there  is 
manifestly  a  great  divergence,  amonnting  in  the  extreme  case  to 
ai^  per  cent.,  which  is  a  very  different  matter  from  differences  of 
premium  amonnting  to  5  per  cent,  only,  or  perhaps  amounting  in 
extreme  cases  to  7^  or  10  per  cent.  It  may  be  true  that  an  insurer, 
if  there  is  a  shade  of  doubt,,  should  still  prefer  the  dearer  company, 
even  a  difference  of  21^  per  cent,  being  only  the  difference  between 
29/.  ^s.  and  it^l.  in  an  insurance  for  1,000^,  or  a  percentage  of  less 
than  1 1  per  cent,  on  an  income  of  500Z. ;  but  the  divergence  is  so 
great  as  to  suggest  that  there  is  a  difference  of  principle  in  the 
methods  followed — that  the  higher  rates  are  deliberately  adopted, 
or  at  least  continued  in  practice,  not  because  they  are  necessary  for 
safety,  but  for  extrinsic  and  incidental  advantages.  What  these 
advantages  may  be  will  be  a  point  for  consideration;  but  if  the 
cheaper  companies  are  right  in  their  practice,  as  far  as  safety  is 
concerned,  the  choice  as  between  them  and  the  dearer  companies 
cannot  necessarily  be  given  to  the  latter,  on  the  score  of  safety,  on 
a  mere  consideration  of  the  premiums  alone. 

"  Stich  is  an  account  of  the  tables  themselves,  and  we  may  now 
proceed  to  discuss  some  of  the  points  they  suggest.  To  some 
extent  the  remarks  already  made  have  raised  some  of  these  points, 
but  explicit  discussion  may  be  ueefdl. 

'*  1.  The  great  divergence  between  the  cheaper  and  the  dearer 
companfes  raines  an  important  point.  If  the  che»p  companies  are 
perfectly  safe;  as  they  seem  to  Be,  what  is  the  advantage  or  dis- 
advantage of  insuring  in  them  compared  with  the  dearer  com- 
panies ?  The- extra  charge  for  the  latter  above  what  is  required  for 
safety  seems  very  large.  One  of  the  very  cheapest  companies,  the 
Economic,  has  a  proportion  of  8|  per  cent,  of  expenses  to  its 
premium  income;  and  the  still  cheaper  company,  the  Scottish 
Provident,  has  a  proportion  of  icr9  per  cent.  Adding  to  this  latter 
figure  the  percentage  by  which  the  premiums  of  the  companies  at 
the  top  of  the  list  exceed  the  lowest,  or  say  20  per  cent.,  we  make 
out  the  loading  in  the  highest  premiums  to  be  at  least  30  per  cent. 
As  some  of  the  companies  with  these  high  premiums  woric  with  a 
proportion  of  expenses  of  only  5  per  cent,  or  less,  which  is  obviously 
sufficient,  it  would  thus  seem,  on  a  mere  comparison  of  premiums 
alone,  that  the  excess  of  premiums  in  the  ca^e  of  the  dearer  com- 
panies above  what  is  required  for  safety  amounts  to  25  per  cent. 
The  same  conclusion  would  be  enforced  by  a  consideration  of  the 
position  of  other  companies  in  Table  V,  or  at  the  bottom  of 
Table  IV,  where  the  proportion  of  expenses  to  premium  income 
amounts  to  from  12  to  15  per  cent.,  companies  whose  position  and 
general  reputation  entitle  them  to  be  regarded  as  safe.  It  would 
also  be  enforced  by  an  examination  of  the  non.participating 
premiums  of  some  of  the  dearer  companies,  these  being  about  as 
low  as  the  participating  premiums  of  the  Scottish  Provident,  and 
yet,  it  may  be  assumed,  leaving  some  margin  over.  The  excess 
above  what  is  required  for  safety  in  the  cafle  of  the  dearer  corn- 


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128  Miscellanea.  [Mar. 

panies  may  even  be  more  than  25  per  cent.,  bnt  we  state  a  figure 
"whicli  appeal's  to  be  justified  by  a  comparison  of  the  practice  of  the 
companies  themselves,  quite  apart  from  actuarial  discussions,  into 
which  we  do  not  enter.  The  question,  then,  is,  what  advantage  an 
insurer  gets  by  paying  this  2  5  per  cent.  ?  The  advantage  would 
seem  to  be  this — that  the  whole  excess  is  an  investment  An 
insurance  of  a  certain  sum  being  required  for  contingencies,  the 
insurer  voluntarily  adds  to  his  premium  in  order  to  save  indirectly 
what  he  might  not  save  directly.  He  assumes  that  he  provides 
sufficiently  for  the  contingency  of  death  if  it  should  happen  soon, 
and  if  he  lives  to  pay  many  high  premiums  the  excess  will  be  prac- 
tically saved,  and  his  familv  will  receive  it.  Along  with  this  goes 
a  belief  that  probably  the  dear  companies  are  the  best  and  safest, 
as  they  have  a  larger  margin,  and  some  such  idea,  it  may  be  sup- 
posed, helps  at  least  to  reconcile  the  insurer  to  paying  a  high 
premium.  And  this  belief  and  practice  are  not  without  excuse. 
Certainly  the  general  practice  of  English  companies  and  of 
insurers  with  them  is  not  to  be  condenmed  off-hand  as  unreason- 
able. All  that  need  be  pointed  out  is  that  an  insurer  paying  a  high 
premium  necessarily  counts  on  greatly  adding  to  his  policy  by 
bonuses;  that  these  bonuses  enter  into  his  calculation;  and  that 
an  insurer  paying  a  low  premium  is  content  with  a  more  exact 
arrangement.  The  latter  acts  with  more  theoretical  correctness, 
but  the  usage  of  the  former  is  practical  and  English-like,  and 
eminently  safe. 

*'  2.  As  between  most  of  the  companies,  there  is  no  necessity 
for  regarding  the  rates  of  premium  in  judging  of  their  manage- 
ment in  respect  of  the  proportion  of  expenses  to  premium  income. 
A  well  informed  correspondent  in  our  columns  suggested  that  it 
was  not  quite  fair  to  compare  companies  having  low  premiums  with 
companies  having  high  premiums,  for  the  same  expenses,  calculated 
on  an  income  from  premiums  at  a  low  rate,  woald  bear  a  larger 
proportion  than  when  calculated  on  an  income  from  the  same 
number  of  premiums  at  a  high  rate.  But  where  the  difference 
between  the  rates  of  premium  is  5  per  cent.,  or  less,  this  would 
obviously  be  immaterial.  A  proportion  of  expenses  amounting  to 
10  per  cent.,  in  the  case  of  a  company  having  5  per  cent,  higher 
premiums  than  its  neighbour,  would  still  amount  to  no  more  than 
10^  per  cent,  in  the  case  of  the  latter  company.  Where  the  differ- 
ence was  10  per  cent.,  an  ampunt  of  expenses  giving  a  proportion 
of  10  per  cent,  in  the  one  case  would  still  only  give  1 1  per  cent,  in 
the  other.  Even  where  the  difference  of  premium  is  as  great  as  20 
per  cent. — an  extreme  instance — an  amount  of  expenses  giving 
a  proportion  of  10  per  cent,  in  the  one  case  would  still  only  give 
12  per  cent,  in  the  other.  Where  the  differences  in  the  amount  and 
proportion  of  expenses  to  income  are  at  all  serious,  the  consideration 
of  the  difference  in  the  rates  of  premium  would  not,  as  a  rule,  affect 
very  much  one's  judgment  of  the  management  of  a  company.  The 
lower  the  rate  of  premium,  besides,  the  more  necessity  for  care 
about  the  expenses,  the  margin  being  so  much  smaller. 

**  3.  As  already  suggested,  the  important  thing,  as  between  most 
of  the  companies,  is  obviously  not  their  rates  of  premium  but  their 


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1880.]  Bates  of  Life  Insurance  Premiums.  129 

management.  The  rates  varying  within  limits  of  5,  7,  and  even  10 
per  cent.,  it  is  qnite  plain  that  dilEerences  in  the  care  with  which 
risks  are  taken,  in  the  rate  of  interest  earned,  and  in  the  proportion 
of  expenses  to  premium  income,  are  more  vital  to  insurers  than 
differences  in  the  rates  of  premium.  The  insurer  must  judge  as 
best  he  can  of  these  points,  especially  taking  care,  as  regards  the 
rate  of  interest  earned,  to  steer  between  the  Scylla  of  companies 
which  are  timid  and  lazy,  and  invest  in  solid  securities  enough  but 
without  getting  the  rates  they  might  obtain  with  greater  vigilance, 
and  the  Charybdis  of  other  companies  which  venture  too  much 
among  securities  not  of  the  first  class  for  the  sake  of  a  higher  rate. 
But  as  regards  one  of  these  points — ^he  proportion  of  expenses  to 
premium  income — the  table  we  formerly  published,  and  the  essential 
part  of  which  we  now  repeat  along  with  the  statement  of  the  pre- 
mium, becomes  an  invaluable  help.  It  is  obvious  that  the  point  is 
of  cardinal  importance.  It  may  well  be  that  a  company  charges  5  per 
cent,  more  than  a  neighbour,  but  if  the  neighbour  spends  1 5  per 
cent,  or  more  in  expenses  and  profits,  and  the  first  company  only 
5  per  cent.,  it  is  the  first  company  clearly  which  it  is  most  advan- 
tageous to  insure  with.  UnhappUy,  as  our  table  shows,  there  are 
even  greater  differences  between  companies  in  the  proportion  of 
their  expenses  to  premium  income.  Insurers  cannot  be  urged  too 
strongly  to  look  to  this  point.  The  explanations  of  companies 
where  the  proportion  is  highest,  as  to  their  getting  new  business 
and  the  like,  ought,  of  course,  to  be  weighed,  and  our  readers  must 
understand  that  we  are  not  discussing  at  present  all  the  bearings  of 
this  question.  We  are  only  urging,  in  view  of  the  great  similarity 
of  premiums  at  the  insuring  ages,  its  very  great  importance. 

**With  these  remarks  we  lay  the  tables  of  comparative  pre- 
miums before  our  readers.  Apart  from  all  other  uses  they  have,  we 
cannot  but  believe  that  they  will  be  useful  for  reference,  and  they 
will  be  useful  to  ourselves  at  least  in  our  future  articles  in  '  placing  * 
the  respective  companies  we  discuss." 


TOL,  XLin.      PIKT  I.  K 

Digitized  by  VjOOQ IC 


18D 


MisoeUcmeck, 


[Mbt. 


Tables  sktnpwff  the. ''  With  Profit"*  Premiumefop  the  Whok  qf  Life  ta  Inmre  lool.  at  Death 
the  Mean  Qf  the  PrenUume  at  theee  Agee  ;  also  the  Amount  of  the  Premiwm  Income  of  each 
in  Order  from  the  Highest  to  the  Lowest  Mean  Annvfll  Premium  Charged  *    [Frim  the 

I.  Compamiss  with  a  Mean  Annual 


London  Lifef 

Hook 

Law  Life 

Equitably.    

Positive   

Hand'in-Hand   

Colonial  

Norwich  Ihuon  (N.S.) 

ScotdBh  Sqaitable 

„       Widows' Fund 
„       Amicable  .. 

Bojal  Exchange 

United  Kingdom    .... 

West  of  England  .... 


36. 


«.  d, 

54  6 
49  I 

^9 
49 
46 
45 
4<5 
47 
47 
47 
47 
47 
45 
46 


27, 


9. 

II5I 

1151 

^    8,47  .. 

47  10  48  II 

48  7  49  7 
48  «  49  7 
48  6  49  7 
48  5  49  6 
48    149  3 

46  10  48  4 

47  9  48  10 


29. 


«.  d. 
67  9 
62  8 
62  8 
62  8 
50  7 
49  4 
60  1 
60  8 
60  8 
60  8 
60  7 
60  6 
49  6 
60  - 


80. 


#.  d. 

59  3 
53  5 
53  5 
53  5 
5»  - 

50  8 

51  4 
51 
51 
5» 
51 
51 

50  8 

51  3 


81. 


62  11 
62  11 
62  11 
62  11 
52  10 
62  - 
62  6 


82. 


6z    - 

55  9 

55  9 

55  9 

54  i» 

53  9 

54 

54 

54 

54 

54 

54 

53 

53 


#.  d. 
68  6 
67  1 
67  1 
57  1 
66  8 


65 

55 

55 

66 

66 

55 

65 

55  6 

55  1 


34, 


#.  d. 


65  3 

58  5 

58  5 

58  5 

58  6 

57  - 

56  10 

56  9 

56  9 

56  9 

5«  9 

5^  9 

56  6 

56  6 


86. 


«.    a. 

67  - 
69  10 
69  10 
69  10 
69  11 

68  9 


68 
58 
68 
68 


58  2 
68  2 
58  - 
57  11 


II.  Companies  with  a  Mean  Annual  Premium 


Mntual    

Legal  and  G-eneral 

PeUcan    

Briton  Med.  and  C^n. 

National  of  Ireland   .... 

,,        Provident   .... 

Provident   

Atlas   

Marine  and  G-eneral .... 

Eagle:    

National 

Metropolitan  Life 

Provincial  

University  

Union 

Eng.  and  Scottish  Law 
N.  British  &  Mercantile 

Imperial  Life 

Life  Assoc.,  Scotland 

G-uardian 

Scottish  Union§ 

Qresham 

General  

Prudential  II    

Alliance  

Sun  Life 


«.  d. 


45 
46 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
46 

46 

45  I 

46  4 
46  8 


46- 

45  3 

46  3 
45  4 
45  - 
45  I 
44  5 
43  9 
43  9 


s.  d, 

46  9 

47  8 
46  7 
46  4 
46  6 
46  6 
46  6 
46  6 

46  6 

47  6 
47  - 

46  1 

47  4 
47  7 
47  7 
46  6 

46  - 

47  - 

46  6 

47  2 
46  5 
46  - 
46  2 
45  8 
45  2 
45  2 


«.  d, 

47  10 

48  ^ 
47  9 
47  8 
47  8 
47  8 
47  8 
47  8 

47  8 

48  6 
48  I 

3 
4 
7 
7 
7 
4 


47 
48 
48 
48 
47 
47 
48 
47 
48 
47 
47 
47 
47 
46 
46 


s,   d. 

48  11 

49  6 
49  - 
48  10 
48  11 
48  11 
48  11 
48  11 

48  11 

49  7 


49 
48 
49 


2 
5 

6 
8 
8 
8 
7 
1 
8 
8 
9 
5 
7 
4 

47  11 
47  11 


<.  d. 


50 

50 

50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 


50  8 
50  4 


49 
50 
50 


50  8 

49  9 

49  10 

50  3 
50  - 
50  4 
49  " 
49  7 
49  10 
49  6 
49  2 
49  i 


s.  d. 
61  4 
52  - 
51  8 
51  4 
51  6 
51  6 
51  6 
51  6 
61  6 
51  10 
51  6 
51  1 
51  10 
51  11 
51  10 
50  11 


51  1 

51  5 

51  - 

51  5 

51  2 

50  9 

51  1 
50  9 
50  6 
50  6 


s.  d. 
5*  7 
53  4 
53  1 
5*  9 
52  " 
5a  II 
5a  II 

5*  " 
52  II 


53 
5i 
5* 
53 
53 
53 
5^ 
5a 
5a 
5* 
5i 
52 
5* 
5^ 
5i 


5 
7 
3 
7 
6 

5 
I 

51  10 
51  10 


s.  d. 

54  - 

64  8 

54  6 

54  8 


54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
64 
54 
64 
54 


4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
2 
1 
4 

54  8 
54  8 
58  6 
53  10 
53  10 
53  9 
53  10 
58  10 
58  5 
53  9 
58  6 


53 
53 


s.    a. 

55  8 

56  1 
56  - 
55  >o 
55  >o 
55  >o 
55  10 
55  «o 
55  »o 
55    8 


55 

55 

55 

55 

55 

55 

55 

55 

55 

55 

55 

55 

55 

55 

54  II 

54  II 


«.  d, 

57  6 

67  7 

57  7 

57  6 

57  6 


57 

67 

57 

57 

57 

57 

57 

57 

56  11 

56  10 

56  6 

57  - 
66  8 
57  - 
56  7 
56  9 
56  7 
56  6 
56  8 
56  8 
56    8 


*  In  the  case  of  companies  doing  a  foreign  or  colonial  business,  the  premiums  for  the  home 
t  These  payments,  it  is  stated,  are  calculated  to  allow  a  reduction  of  60  per  cent,  after 
X  Return  for  half-year  only.  §  Amalgamated  with  Scottish  National. 


Digitized  by 


Google 


18800 


Bates  of  Life  Inturwnee  PrenUums. 


131 


of  the  undermentioned  Life  Insurance  Companies  at  the  Ages  from  26  to  41  inclusive^  with 
Company  and  the  Proportion  of  Expenses  to  that  of  Income  ;  tM  Companies  being  Classified 
StatisticcU  Returns  to  the  Board  of  Trade  under  the  Life  Insurance  Uompa/nies  Act  of  1870.] 
Premifsm  Sxceedimg  iL  i6s,  ^d. 


Meui 

Proportiou 

36, 

37. 

38, 

39. 

40. 

41. 

Annoftl 
Pre- 

Premium 
Income. 

of 
ExpeoMi 
to  Premium 

mium. 

Income. 

s.    d. 

*.    d. 

s. 

(2. 

*.  d. 

«.    d. 

*.     tf. 

#.    d. 

£ 

Perent. 

68     9 

70    9 

n 

9 

74  9 

77    - 

79    3 

62   10 

307,629 

3*9 

London  Life  t 

61     4 

62  10 

64 

6 

66  2 

67  11 

69    9 

58     5 

142,867 

IO'2 

Bock 

61     4 

62  10 

64 

6 

66  2 

67  II 

60    9 

58     5 

254,784 

8-0 

Law  Life 

61     4 

62  10 

64 

6 

66  2 

67  II 

69    9 

58    5 

149,706 

5'5 

Equitable 

61    10 

63    9 

(>s 

9 

67  9 

69     9 

71    9 

58     2 

89,408 

50*5 

Positiye 

60     7 

62    7 

«4 

7 

66  8 

68  10 

71    3 

57    - 

186,264 

8-3 

Hand-in-Hand 

60     - 

61    8 

63 

6 

65  4 

67    4 

69    6 

$6  10 

9,177 

75*1 

Colonial 

59     8 

61    3 

62 

II 

64  8 

66     6 

68    6 

56  10 

168,222 

J3*i 

Norwicb  Union  (N.S.) 

59     9 

61    3 

63 

- 

640 

66     3 

68    2 

56    9 

204,345 

13*1 

Scottish  Equitable 

59     9 

61    3 

63 

- 

64  6 

66     3 

68    2 

56     9 

579,194 

10*9 

„       Widows*  Fund 

59     8 

61    2 

62 

11 

646 

66     3 

68    2 

56     9 

178,940 

11-6 

„       Amicable 

59     8 

61    2 

63 

9 

64  6 

66     3 

68    2 

56     7 

138,960 

io*9 

Bojal  Exchange 

59    4 

61    6 

63 

66  1 

67    4 

69    6 

56    4 

22.567 

53*5 

United  Kingdom 

59    5 

61    1 

62 

8 

64  4 

66     1 

67  11 

56    4 

103,249 

12*3 

West  of  England 

2,424,812 

Exceeding  il.  i^s.  < 

ffKJ  not  Exceeding  zl.  i6s.  id. 

s.  d. 

s,    d. 

#. 

d. 

#.    <;. 

s.    d. 

s.    d. 

#.    d. 

£ 

PercnU 

59  4 

61    2 

63 

3 

65    4 

67     6 

69    9 

56     I 

81,046 

12-7 

Mutual 

59  1 

60    8 

62 

4 

64    1 

65  11 

67  10 

56     - 

140,067 

io*7 

Legal  and  General 

59  3 

60  11 

62 

8 

64    6 

66     5 

68    5 

55  I' 

86,310 

12*2 

FeUcan 

59  3 

61    1 

63 

- 

66    - 

66     9 

68    6 

55  10 

167,712 

9*4 

Briton  Med.  and  Gen. 

59  - 

60    9 

62 

6 

64    4 

66     3 

68    4 

SB    9 

14,280 

H'o 

National  of  Ireland 

59  - 

60    9 

62 

6 

64    4 

66     3 

68    4 

55     9 

266,025 

9*4 

„        Provident 

59  - 

60    9 

62 

6 

64    4 

66     3 

68    4 

55     9 

182,836 

14-6 

Provident 

59  - 

60    9 

62 

6 

64    4 

66     3 

68    4 

55     9 

91,582 

12-4 

Athis 

59  - 

60    9 

62 

6 

64    4 

66     3 

68    4 

55     9 

28,619 

23 -8 

Marine  and  General 

58  7 

60    2 

61 

10 

68    7 

65     5 

67    4 

55    9 

132,103 

9*7 

Eagk: 

58  7 

60    3 

62 

- 

63  10 

65     9 

67    9 

55     7 

66,203 

11-9 

National 

59  « 

60    9 

62 

7 

64    5 

66    4 

68    6 

55     7 

147,814 

5'i 

Metropolitan  Life 

58  6 

60    - 

6i 

7 

63    8 

65    - 

66    9 

55     7 

32,427 

19*5 

,  ProTincial 

584 

59    9 

61 

4 

62  11 

64     7 

66    4 

55     6 

51,232 

10*9 

University 

58  3 

59    9 

61 

3 

62  10 

64    7 

m   8 

55    6 

97,523 

14-2 

Union 

58  6 

60    3 

62 

3 

64    3 

66     6 

68    9 

55    5 

129,617 

14-6 

Eng.and  Scottish  Law 

58  6 

60    2 

62 

- 

64    1 

66     I 

67  11 

55    4 

309,894 

11-9 

N.Briti8h  &  Mercantile 

58  2 

59    8 

61 

4 

63    1 

64  11 

66  10 

55     3 

81,442 

I3'4 

Imperial  Life 

58  3 

60    - 

61 

3 

63    8 

65     3 

67    3 

55     a 

328,454 

14-4 

Life  Assoc,  Scotland 

58  - 

59    6 

6t 

62    9 

64     6 

66    5 

55     i 

115,500 

11-9 

Guardian 

58  3 

69  10 

61 

6 

63    3 

65     - 

66  10 

55     a 

159,609 

J5'* 

Scottish  Union  § 

58  3 

60    - 

61 

10 

63  10 

65  10 

68    - 

55     I 

413,717 

26-4 

Gresham 

58  z 

59  10 

61 

7 

63    5 

65     4 

67    4 

55     I 

95,303 

20'I 

,  General 

58  4 

60    2 

62 

63  11 

65  u 

67  11 

55     > 

1,184,170 

50'3 

Prudential  II 

58  5 

60    4 

62 

4 

64    6 

66     6 

68    7 

55    - 

99,181 

10-7 

Alliance 

58  5 

60    4 

62 

4 

64    6 

66     6 

68    7 

55    - 

130,448 

H'3 

Sun  Life 

4,563.109 

busioess  are  taken  for  oompariaon. 

seven  parents. 

II  Including  in  expenses  141,000^.  of  special  new  bos 

inesscharg 

es. 

e2 

Digitized  by  VjOOQ IC 


132 


MisceUanea,  [Mar. 

III.  Companies  with  a  Mean  Annual  Premium 


s,     d. 

Reliance 

London  &  Provin.  Law   45 
Law,  Property,  and  Life  44  1 1 

3 
5 
I 
6 
3 


Lir.  and  Lon.  &  G-lobe* 
London  and  Southwark 

Emperor 

British  Equitable  . 
Midland  Counties . 

Caledonian 

SoTereign    

London  Assurance. 

Law  Union 

United  Kent  

Rojal  

Yorkshire   

Queen 

Scottish  Commercial .... 

Commercial  Union 

Scottish  Imperial  

Westminster  and  Qten. 

Scottish  National  t 

Patriotic  of  Ireland   ... 

Star 

Masonic  and  General... 

United  King.  Temp 

Cler.  Med.  and  Gheneral 

Equity  and  Law 

standard  t 

Imperial  Union  §   

Qreat  Britain 

Sceptre    

National  Guardian    .... 
City  of  Glasgow  Life.... 


44 
45 
45 

44  10 

45  - 
44  9 

3 
3 
6 

ID 

S 
9 
7 
9 
10 

9 

9 

9 

10 

9 
3 

44  1 
44  I 


27. 


8,       d, 

45  4 

46  3 

45  11 

46  - 
45  6 
45  7 

45  3 

46  5 
46  5 

45  11 

46  - 

45  10 

46  3 
46  4 
45  9 
45  11 
45  8 
45  11 
45  9 
45  - 
45  2 
45  - 
45  - 
45  - 
45  - 
45  - 
45  3 
45  3 
45  1 
45  - 
44  10 
44  9 
44  8 


28. 


*.  d. 

46  8 

47  5 
47 
47 
46 
46 
46 
47 
47 
47 
47 
47 
47 
47 
47 
47 
46 

47 
47 
46 
46 

46 
46 
46 
46 
46 
46 
46 
46 
46 
46 
46 
46- 


29. 


8.  d. 

47  11 

48  8 
48  8 
48  8 
48 
48 

47  8 

48  8 
48  9 
48  2 
4S  4 
48  2 
48  6 


48  7 

48  4 

48  2 

47  11 

48  3 
48  2 
47  7 
47  9 


47 

47 


47  6 

47  7 

47  6 

47  8 

47  9 

47  2 


47 
47 
47 


47  2 


30. 


49  4 
49  10 
49  5 


49  5 

49  4 

49  3 

49  - 

49  II 

49  10 


49  4 

49  6 

49  4 

49  8 

49  9 


49 
49 


49  I 


49 
49 


48  10 

49  - 
48  9 
48  9 
48  9 
48  10 
48  9 
48  10 
48  II 
48  5 
48  4 
48  8 
48  6 
48  5 


81. 


8.  d. 

50  8 

51  1 
50  8 
50  8 
50  8 


50  7 

50  4 

51  - 
50  11 
50  7 
50  8 

60  5 
50  11 

61  - 
50  5 
60  6 
50  8 


32. 


«.  d, 


50  7 

50  5 

50  - 

50  2 

50  - 

50  - 

50  - 

50  - 

50  - 

50  1 

50  1 

49  8 

49  7 

49  10 

49  9 

49  8 


5» 

5* 

5* 

5i 

5* 

5a 

51 

5* 

5» 

5» 

5* 

51 

5i 

5* 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51 

51  - 

50  II 


33. 


53  8 
53  5 


63  3 
53  5 


34. 


63 
53 
53 


53  3 


52  10 

53  ' 
52  11 

52  8 

53  - 
52  9 
52  9 
52  9 
52  9 
52  9 
52  11 
52  8 
52  8 
62  4 
52  6 
52  5 
52  4 


*.  d. 

5S  I 

55  I 

54  10 

54  10 

54  10 

54  II 
54  10 
54  9 


54 
54 
54 

54 


54  II 
54  9 
54  8 


54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 


53  10 

54  I 
53  II 
53  10 


*.  d, 

66  9 

56  6 

56  6 

56  5 

66  6 

56  6 

56  6 

66  2 

66  1 

56  3 


56 
66 
56 


66  2 
56  3 
56  - 
56    - 

55  9 

56  10 
55  10 
55  10 
55  10 

55  11 

56  « 

55  7 

56  9 

55  10 

56  8 
55  8 
55  6 
55  8 
55  6 
55     5 


t  Amalgamated  with  Scottish  Union.    The 


•  With  guaranteed  bonus, 
as  yet  of  the  amalgamated  company. 

§  In  this  case  the  policies  are  payable  at  specified  ages  as  well  as  at  death. 


lY.  Companies  with  a  Mean  Premium 


British  Empire  

British  Workman's   . 
Scottish  Proyinoial    . 

Unirersal    

Lancashire 

Northern 

Whittington  

Edinburgh 

Crown , 

Royal  Farmers' , 

Church  of  England   .. 


8.      d. 

8.   d. 

8,      d. 

8.      d. 

8,       d. 

43  5 

44  8 

45  10 

47  - 

48  3 

43  I 

44  3 

45  6 

46  8 

47  II 

41  II 

44  3 

45  7 

46  10 

48  I 

44  4 

45  6 

46  7 

47  8 

48  10 

44  - 

45  - 

46  - 

47  - 

48  6 

43  I 

44  4 

45  7 

46  10 

48  - 

43  6 

44  6 

45  8 

46  10 

48  - 

43  - 

44  1 

45  3 

46  5 

47  7 

4*  5 

43  8 

44  10 

46  1 

47  4 

4i  4 

43  7 

44  10 

46  1 

47  5 

42  6 

43  6 

44  7 

46  8 

46  10 

8.      d. 

49  7 
49  3 
49  4 
49  11 
49  6 
49  3 
49  2 
48  10 
48  9 
48 
48 


8.     d. 

50   II 


50 
50 
51 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
9  I  50 
1  49 


#.  d. 

8.       d. 

8.      d. 

62  5 

53  10 

55  4 

52  1 

•;3  8 

65  2 

62  1 

53  7 

55  2 

52  3 

53  7 

54  11 

52  - 

53  10 

55  - 

51  11 

Si     5 

54  11 

61  6 

53  - 

54  8 

51  6 

53  - 

54  6 

51  6 

53  - 

64  6 

51  6 

53  - 

64  6 

50  10 

5*  4 

53  11 

Digitized  by 


Google 


1880.] 


Bates  of  Life  Insurance  Premiums. 


133 


Exceeding  2I.  1 

13*. 

9£ 

and  not  Exceeding 

2l. 

15*- 

Mean 

Proportion 

86. 

87. 

88. 

89. 

40. 

41. 

Annual 

Premium 

of 
Expenies 

Pro- 

Income. 

to  Premium 

miam. 

Income. 

s,    d. 

*.     d. 

9, 

d. 

*.     d. 

*. 

d. 

«. 

d. 

9. 

d. 

£ 

Percnt 

58    4 

60    1 

61 

11 

63  11 

65 

10 

68 

- 

55 

- 

85,400 

21*1 

Beliance 

5«     - 

59    8 

61 

3 

63    - 

64 

10 

66 

9 

SS 

- 

80,789 

9'5 

London  &.  Provin.  Law 

58    - 

59    9 

61 

6 

63    6 

65 

6 

67 

7 

54 

II 

8,783 

n'9 

Law,Property,  and  Life 
Liv.  and  Lon.  &  Globe* 

58     - 

59    9 

61 

6 

63    5 

65 

5 

67 

7 

54 

11 

235,341 

9'4 

f8     1 

59  10 

61 

9 

68    8 

^5 

8 

67 

8 

54 

10 

4,124 

I5'0 

London  and  Southwark 

58     z 

59  10 

61 

7 

63    7 

65 

7 

67 

7 

54 

10 

14,352 

34> 

Emperor 

58     2 

60    - 

61 

11 

68  11 

66 

68 

2 

54 

10 

126,282 

27*3 

British  Equitable 
Midland  Counties 

57    8 

59    8 

60 

10 

62    8 

64 

8 

66 

4 

54 

10 

2,741 

I7*» 

57     7 

59    8 

61 

- 

62    9 

64 

6 

66 

4 

54 

9 

64,073 

t6-8 

Caledonian 

57  11 

59    7 

61 

4 

68    2 

65 

2 

67 

2 

54 

9 

74,652 

14'3 

Sovereign 

57  10 

59    5 

61 

2 

63    - 

64 

II 

66 

11 

54 

9 

159,455 

9*9 

IxHklon  Assurance 

57     8 

59    4 

61 

2 

63    2 

65 

3 

67 

2 

54 

9 

65,728 

»3*4 

Law  Union 

57     7 

59    - 

60 

7 

62    4 

64 

3 

66 

4 

54 

8 

21,514 

11-6 

United  Kent 

57     7 

59    1 

60 

8 

62    4 

64 

I 

65 

11 

54 

8 

245,058 

9*9 

Eojal 

57     6 

59    3 

61 

I 

63    2 

65 

- 

66 

5 

54 

7 

41,433 

12-3 

Yorkshire 

57     6 

59    8 

61 

I 

63    - 

65 

- 

66 

5 

54 

7 

52,383 

14-1 

Queen 

57     8 

59    4 

6i 

1 

62  11 

64 

II 

67 

- 

54 

6 

13,519 

5^-6 

Scottish  Commercial 

57     3 

58  11 

60 

8 

62    5 

64 

2 

m 

- 

54 

5 

97,178 

'4*3 

Commercial  Union 

57     5 

59    - 

60 

9 

62    6 

64 

4 

66 

2 

54 

4 

24,664 

13*2 

Scottish  Imperial 

57     6 

59    8 

61 

2 

63    3 

65 

67 

- 

54 

4 

46,182 

20'9 

Westminster  and  Gten. 

57     6 

59    4 

6i 

~ 

62    8 

64 

6 

66 

6 

54 

4 

98,206 

i6-8 

Scottish  National  t 

57     6 

59    8 

6t 

I 

63    - 

65 

- 

67 

1 

54 

3 

9,571 

8-5 

Patriotic  of  Ireland 

57     6 

59    8 

61 

1 

63    - 

64 

II 

66  11 

54 

3 

197,298 

i6-2 

Star 

57     6 

59    8 

61 

- 

63    - 

65 

~ 

67 

- 

54 

3 

5,318 

56-2 

Masonic  and  (General 

57     6 

59    3 

61 

I 

63    - 

64 

II 

66  11 

54 

3 

225,844 

13*0 

United  King.  Temp. 

57     6 

59    8 

61 

- 

63    - 

65 

- 

67 

- 

54 

3 

185,434 

in 

Cler.  Med.  and  General 

57     5 

59    - 

60 

9 

62    7 

64 

6 

66 

6 

54 

3 

123,690 

lOT 

Equity  and  Law 

57     3 

58  11 

60 

8 

62    6 

64 

5 

66 

3 

54 

2 

675,222 

13'7 

Standard! 

57    4 

59    - 

60 

10 

62    8 

^^4 

6 

66 

7 

54 

1 

2,613 

52-8 

Imperial  Union  § 

57     2 

58  11 

60 

10 

62  10 

65 

- 

67 

8 

54 

I 

70,149 

34*0 

Ch-eat  Britain 

57    4 

69    - 

60 

10 

62    9 

64 

8 

66 

8 

54 

1 

27,479 

25*9 

Sceptre 

57     2 

58  11 

60 

9 

62    8 

64 

8 

66 

5 

54 

- 

666 

I2'3 

National  Guardian 

57    - 

58  10 

60 

7 

62    6 

64 

6 

66 

5 

53 

10 

134,919 

14-2 

Citj  of  Glasgow  Life 

3,114,910 

last  returns  of  each  company  in  the  blue  books  haye  been  made  use  of,  there  being  no  return 
X  Home  scheme,  with  profits  equal  division. 


Exceeding  2I.  I2«.  6d.  and  not  Exceeding  il.  139.  ^d. 


9.    d. 

9,    d. 

9,  d. 

*.  d. 

*.     d. 

9.     d. 

*.     d. 

£ 

Feront 

56     6 

58    7 

60  4 

62  8 

64     2 

66    2 

53     9 

101,962 

20*6 

56  II 

58    9 

607 

62  6 

64     6 

66    8 

53     8 

33,387 

6\'6 

S^  11 

58    8 

60  7 

62  6 

64    6 

66    3 

53     7 

129,924 

>5*7 

56    5 

58    - 

59  7 

61  3 

63     - 

64    9 

SI     7 

121,239 

10-5 

56     6 

68    - 

59  9 

61  6 

63     6 

65     6 

53     6 

60,498 

11*4 

56     7 

58    4 

60  I 

62  - 

63   II 

65  10 

53     5 

167,581 

9'9 

56    4 

58    2 

60  2 

62  2 

64     2 

66    2 

53     5 

40,013 

28-7 

56     I 

57    9 

59  6 

61  8 

67,     2 

65    2 

52  11 

165,656 

14-2 

5<5     1 

57  10 

59  6 

61  4 

63     4 

65    6 

52  10 

138,788 

13*5 

56     I 

57    9 

59  6 

61  4 

63     4 

66    5 

52  10 

9,940 

17*2 

SS    8 

67    6 

59  4 

61  4 

61     6 

66    9 

52     6 

77,186 

14-4 

1,036,124 

British  Empire 

British  Workman's 

Scottbh  Provincial 

Universal 

Lancashire 

Northern 

Whittington 

Edinburgh 

Crown 

Eoyal  Fanners' 

Church  of  England 


Digitized  by 


Google 


184 


MiseeUcm^a, 


[Mar. 
y.  Compcmie^  with  a  Mean 


London  and  Lancashire 

Provident  Clerks*  

Wesleyan  and  General 

Clergy  Mutual   

Argus  

Friends  Provident 

Economic    

Scottish  Provident 


9,  d, 
4*  - 
41  3 
43  9 
41  4 

41  " 

4Z  I 
40  - 
38  6 


27. 


*.  d. 

43  8 
42  7 

44  - 
42  6 

42  1 

43  - 
41  - 
39  2 


*.  d. 

44  5 
43  " 

45  5 
43  10 
43  a 
43  10 
4*  - 
39  " 


29. 


9.  d. 

45  8 

45  2 

45  10 

45  - 

44  8 

44  9 

43  1 

40  8 


80. 


9.    d. 
46  10 


4^ 
46 
4<5 
45 
45 
44 
41 


31. 


*.  d. 

48  - 

47  7 

46  11 

47  6 
46  8 
46  9 
45  5 
42  6 


32. 


*.  d, 

49  3 

48  10 

47  5 

48  8 
47  II 
47  9 
46  8 

43  5 


88. 


9.  d 

50  8 

50  8 

50  6 

50  - 

49  8 

48  10 

48  - 

44  6 


84. 


9.    d. 
5^  » 


51  9 
5»  7 
51  6 

50  7 
50  - 
49  5 
45  7 


35. 


58 
58 
52 
58 
52 
51  2 
50  11 
46  10 


H 

26 

II 
8 


9* 


£    9.d. 

Companies  with  mean  premiums  exceeding  2  16  3 

M  „  2  15  -  and  not  above  2^  16«.  Bd. 
„  „  2  18  9  ,»  21. 15*.  -<i. 
»,  „  2  12  6  „  2^  13*.  9d. 
„  Hot  exceeding  2  12  6 

Total 


£ 
z,4a4»8i* 
4»563»io9 
3»iH»9»o 
1,036,124 

1,014,796 


12,163,751 


VII. — Sepori  of  a  Committee  with  reference  to  the  Gemw  of  1881. 

A  COPT  of  the  following  Report,  approved  of,  and  adopted  by 
the  Conncil,  has  been  submitted  to  the  President  of  the  Local 
Government  Board. 

The  CoMHiTTEB  AppoTNTiD  hy  the  COUNCIL  of  the  Statistical 
SociBTT  of  London,  wi  the  l^th  November^  1879,  for  the 
Purpose  of  Considbbino  "  Whether  any  Suogistions  can  with 
"  advantage  he  Madk  as  regards  Improvements  in  the  Inquiries, 
"  or  Machinery,  connected  wUh  the  Census  (tf  1881,**  herewith 
siihmit  their  Report. 

It  appears  to  the  Committee  that  the  subject  referred  to  them 
divides  itself  into  two  branches  : — 

1.  The  nature  and  form  of  the  inquiries  to  be  made. 

2.  The  form  in  which  the  information,  when  obtained,  is  ix>  be 

abstracted  and  published. 


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1880.]  Beport  of  a  OommiUee  €^h  f^fe^^hce  to  the  Cktrnts  of  1881.   135 
Premium  not  BxeeedU^g  zL  iik.  6d 


*" 

MeM 

PrOportioB 

86. 

»r. 

88. 

69.  ' 

40. 

4d^ 

▲nuual 

Premiam 

of 
UKpeoftefe 

Pre- 
mium. 

Income. 

to  Premiam 
Income. 

s.  d. 

s.      d. 

*.    d. 

s,    d. 

*.  tf. 

^.     <i?. 

•.      d. 

£ 

Per  cat. 

SS  2 

66  11 

58     8 

60    6 

6*4 

64    8 

5*     I 

65,846 

ire 

London  and  Lancasliire 

55  ' 

56  10 

58     9 

60    8 

6i  8 

65    2 

51    II 

94,219 

13*9 

Provident  Clerks' 

5»  7 

63    7 

56     8 

61  10 

^4  5 

66    4 

51    10 

.   18,927 

i9-i 

Wealeyan  and  Gtenoral 

548 

56    '6 

58    4 

60    2 

61  2 

64    - 

5^     7 

196,517 

6-9 

Olef  gy  Mutual 

53  7 

55    2 

56  II 

58    8 

60  7 

62    7 

50    8 

26,475 

10*6 

ArguA 

52  5 

58    8 

55     t 

56    ^ 

58  « 

69    8 

50    "-• 

81,284 

ii*i 

Fridnd«  Ph)vident 

5^6 

54    2 

55  " 

67    9 

59  9 

61  10 

49     >! 

227,281 

8-6 

Eoonomic 

48  a 

49    8 

5«     3 

52  11 

54  9 

56    8 

46    - 

824,297 

10*9 

Scottish  Provident 

1,024,796 

As  the  Censns  Bills  will  be  soon  laid  before  Parliament)  and  l^e 
opiAiolU  of  the  Gonii6il  on  the  former  branch  should  be  stibmitted 
withont  delay  to  the  Government,  the  Oommittee  hare  deemed  it 
desirable  to  oonfine  their  attention,  in  the  first  instance^  to  that 
branch,  and  to  such  points  in  the  second  brandi  as  ard  necessarily 
Connected  with  it,  and  to  reserve  iAiQVt  suggestions  on  the  latter  for 
a  future  report. 

The  Committed  are  of  opinion  i^^ 

1.  That  the  results  of  the  Census  shdnld  be  presented  to  the 
public,  not^  as  hitherto,  in  the  form  only  of  separate  reports  6n  the 
three  divisions  of  the  United  Elingdom,  but  in  a  general  report  oil 
the  whole  Kingdom,  iKdth  tables  exhibiting  the  more  important 
facts  rekkting  to  ihe  whole  collectively.  At  the  same  time  it  is 
desirable  not  to  dispense  'with  the  separate  reports  hitherto  pub^ 
lished. 

2.  That  the  same  information  should  be  obtained,  and  iDonse^ 
quently  the  sane  form  of  inquiries  should  be  adopted,  throughout 
the  whole  Eohgdom^  including  the  Isle  of  Man  and  the  Channel 
Islands* 

The  reasots  for  these  reoomm^ndatiDns  ore — ^That  the  past 
arrangement  makes  it  difficult  for  all  but  statistical  adepts  to  ascer- 
tain the  leading  facts  relating  to  the  population  of  the  United 
Kingdom  at  one  view^  while  the  difficulty  fwr  adepts  is  greatly 
increased  by  the  necessity  and  consequent  expense  of  procuring 
thjree  series  of  costly  volumes ;  or  is  even  trendered  insuperable  by 
the  results  being  so  classified  in  the  three  separate  reports,  and  the 
annexed  tables,  as  to  make  it  impossible  to  combine  them  in  a  form 
applicable  to  the  whole  of  the  Kingdom^ 

8.  That  the  occasion  oi  each  recurring  ^nsud  shall  be  taken  by 
the  Grovernment  to  require  from  all  public  departments  under  its 
control  who  are  charged  with  the  supervision  of  any  branch  of  the 
national  life,  special  reports,  in  as.  much  detail  as  will  be  practic- 
able and  useful,  at  the  date,  or  as  near  as  convenient  to  the  date, 
of  the  General  Census. 

As  examples  4f  tiie  iaten^on  of  the  Coijamittee»  they  woidd  4ite 


Digitized  by 


Google 


136  MiseeUanea,  [Mar. 

the  Edacation  Committee  of  the  Privy  Conncil,  who  can  snpplj  the 
statistics  of  edncation,  and  render  it  nnnecessary  to  make  inquiries 
on  this  subject  in  the  Householder's  Schedule.  The  Local  Gt>yem- 
ment  Board  can  supply  detailed  returns  regarding  pauperism,  to 
which  the  Commissioners  of  Charities  can  add  further  valuable 
information.  Beports  from  the  Commissioners  of  Prisons  and 
Lunacy  will  throw  light  upon  the  subjects  of  crime  and  disease. 
The  Board  of  Trade  can  supply  the  agricultural  returns  in  more 
detail  than  usual;  while  the  Inspectors  of  Factories  and  Mines 
might  furnish  returns  bearing  upon  the  industrial  condition  of  the 
population. 

The  Committee,  although  deeply  impressed  with  the  import- 
ance of  obtaining  an  Industrial  Census  of  the  Kingdom,  have  hesi- 
tated to  recommend  it  on  this  occasion,  looking  to  the  careful  preli- 
minary consideration  which  must  be  given  to  the  details  of  the 
arrangements  for  its  prosecution,  and  also  to  the  additionaf  expense 
which  its  preparation  would  entail ;  but  they  desire  to  record  their 
conviction  that  it  is  desirable  that  before  the  next  following 
Census,  steps  should  be  taken  to  combine  such  a  census  with  the 
general  enumeration  of  that  year. 

In  the  meantime  the  Government  may  be  able,  from  the  sources 
above  indicated,  and  perhaps  from  large  public  companies  having 
the  management  of  railways,  docks,  &o,^  &c.,  to  procure  a  series  of 
returns,  which,  when  brought  together  in  an  Appendix  to  the 
General  Census  Report,  will  form  a  very  important  and  valuable 
addition  to  that  document. 

4.  That  it  is  desirable,  for  a  variety  of  purposes,  connected  with 
the  growth  and  movement  of  the  population,  the  provision  of 
sanitary  arrangements,  and  the  testing  of  the  conclusions  drawn 
from  the  periodical  returns  of  births,  deaths,  and  marriages,  that  a 
census  should  be  taken  every  five,  instead  of  every  ten,  years. 

If  the  labour  and  expense  of  such  a  census  in  the  same  form  as 
that  adopted  for  the  Decennial  Census  should  be  deemed  too  great, 
the  Committee  recommend  that  a  nominal  census  only  should  be 
taken,  which  would  show  the  number  of  houses,  and  the  number 
and  ages  of  the  population.  This,  the  Committee  have  reason  to 
believe,  could  be  carried  out,  and  its  results  could  be  abstracted 
and  published,  at  a  small  cost. 

The  Committee  are  satisfied  that  if  a  census  were  taken  more 
frequently,  a  machinery  might  be  organised  which  would  tend  to 
the  enumeration  being  more  accurately  and  more  completely  taken 
on  each  occasion,  and  to  the  abstracts  being  more  rapidly  given  to 
the  public. 

They  would  call  attention  to  the  fact,  that  although  the  several 
preliminary  reports  of  the  Census  of  1871,  taken  on  the  3rd  April, 
were  furnished  in  the  following  June,  the  final  reports,  with  the 
detailed  tables,  were  dated  aa  follows : — 

For  England  and  Wales 30th  July,  1873. 

„  Scotland     Ist  May,       74. 

„  Ireland  29th  Sept.,    75. 

Several  causes  appear  to  have  contributed  to  the  delay  in  the 

Digitized  by  VjOOQ IC 


1880.]  Beport  of  a  Oommiitee  with  reference  to  the  Census  of  1881.    137 

presentation  of  the  Irish  Beport,  some  of  which  will  be  obviated 
on  the  approaching  occasion,  and  the  Committee  will,  in  their  next 
report,  recommend  a  change  in  the  form  of  the  Abstract  Returns 
which  will  greatij  expedite  the  work. 

With  these  preliminary  general  observations,  the  Committee 
submit  the  following  Recommendations  to  the  Council,  with  the 
suggestion  that,  if  adopted,  they  should  be  forwarded  without  delay 
to  the  President  of  the  Local  Government  Board,  together  with  a 
copy  of  this  report,  both  in  print,  for  the  convenience  of  perusal 
and  reference : — 

Recorrnnendations. 

1.  That  vdth  a  view  to  a  General  Beport  upon  the  population  of 

the  United  Kingdom,  to  be  prepared  under  such  authority 
as  Her  Majesty's  Government  and  the  Legislature  may 
decide,  the  same  form  of  Householder's  Schedule  should  he 
adopted  throughout  the  whole  Kingdom. 

2.  That  the  Census  of  1881  should  embrace  all  the  information 

obtained  on  the  laat  occasion,  vdth  the  additions  hereinafter 
suggested. 

3.  That  in  accordance  with  previous  recommendations,  and  in 

agreement  with  the  Census  of  Ireland,  and  of  most  of  the 
British  Colonies,  including  the  most  important,  in  1871, 
the  religions  profession  of  each  inhabitant  should  be 
obtained  by  the  insertion  of  a  column  for  that  purpose  in 
the  Householder's  Schedule. 

Note. — ^The  Committee  object  to  its  being  left  optional 
to  persons  to  fill  up  this  column,  and  to  any  limitation  of 
the  heads  under  which  they  should  describe  themselves. 

4.  That  in  continuance  of    the  inquiry  snccessfully  made  in 

Scotland  in  1861  and  1871,  information  should  bo  obtained 
thence,  and  for  the  other  divisions  of  the  United  Kingdom, 
as  to  the  house  accommodation,  i.e.,  as  to  the  number  of 
rooms  in  each  dwelling  house. 

Note. — The  density  of  the  population  in  a  district  is 
determined  by  the  namber  of  inhabitants  in  a  given  space, 
but  the  number  of  inhabitants  which  any  locality  can 
accommodate  with  due  regard  to  sanitary  laws  is  resolved 
by  the  number  of  houses  used  for  habitation,  and  the 
accommodation  those  houses  afford.  Thus  from  either 
the  greater  housing  capacity  of  the  buildings,  or  the  greater 
proportion  of  inhabitable  dwellings,  one  district  can  with 
security  to  health  possess  a  greater  density  of  population 
than  another.  A  return  of  the  number  of  rooms  in  each 
house,  and  an  enumeration  likewise  of  the  dwellings  used 
for  habitation,  are  requisite  for  the  proper  consideration  of 
the  subject. 

t>.  That  "dwelling"  houses  designed  for  habitation  should  be 
distinguished  from  those  designed  for  other  purposes,  such 
as  stores,  warehouses,  school  houses,  factories,  offices  and 
chambers,  <&^. 

6.  That  dwelling  houses  not  in  actual  occupation,  and  '*  being 


Digitized  by 


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138  Miscellaned.  [Hat. 

"  to  let,"  should  be  difttingtliflh^d  and  feltedidfed  feej>atately 
in  the  abstracts. 

NOTB.-^The  difititoctiott  hithettb  adoj)tfei  ^girding  hotides 
has  been  between  inhabited  and  nninhabited  houses,  and 
houses  building.  If  the  above  two  suggestians  be  adopted, 
houses  will  be  divided  into  :-^ 

Dweiling-houses — inhabited. 

„  not  inhabited. 

„  of  which  "to  let." 

„  building. 

Other  builditgA. 

7.  That  the  headings  of  the  last  column  Ibut  one  oi  tte  House- 

holder's Schedule,  for  i-^cording  the  place  "  where  bom,*'  be 
changed  as  follows,  with  the  double  object  of  adapting  the 
schedule  to  the  whole  of  the  Elingdom,  and  o^  eliciting  the 
birthplace  of  all  British  bom  persons,  instead  of  confimng 
it  to  those  bom  in  the  same  division  of  the  Kingdom,  as 
at  present. 

PROPOftSD  Form. 
Where  Bofn. 

Opposite  the  names  of  those  bom  in  the  United  Kingdom,  write 
the  county,  and  town  or  parish. 

If  bom  out  of  the  United  Kingdom,  write  the  particular  State 
or  country. 

The  Committee  do  not  attach  much  value  to  the  addition  made 
in  the  original  schedule,  viz. : — "  And  if  also  a  British  subject,  add, 
"  *  British  subject,*  or  *  naturalised  British  subject,'  as  the  case 
*'  may  be ;  '*  but  to  meet  the  case  of  the  children  of  British  parents 
bom  abroad,  they  would  suggest  the  addition  of  the  words,  *'  If  of 
"  *  British  parents,'  add  those  words." 

8.  That  steps  be  taken  to  ascertain  from  What  departments  of  the 

Government,  and  from  what  public  bodies,  such  reports 
as  have  been  suggested  in  the  first  part  of  this  report 
should  be  obtained^  and  that  timely  measures  b^  taken  to 
obtain  them. 

9.  That  in  the  instructions  wit^  regard  to  filling  up  the  cohimn 

of  Employments,  care  be  taken  to  remove,  as  far  as  prac- 
ticable, the  difficulties  which  experience  has  pointed  out  as 
hindering  an  exact  definition  and  classification  of  the 
occupations  of  the  population. 

10.  That  in  making  arrangements  for  the  Census  of  1881,  they 

should  be  framed  with  the  prospect  of  a  simili^,  or  an 
intermediate  partial,  Census  in  1886. 

11.  That  for  the  promotion  of  municipal  and  sanitary  objects, 

of  works  of  construction  and  production,  and  for  other 
useful  purposes,  means  should  be  afibrded  to  the  public  of 
obtaining,  at  a  reasonable  charge,  more  detailed  information 
regarding  any  locality  than  it  is  necessary  or  eonvenient 
to  supply  in  the  gen^raJ  tables* 


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1880.]  Notes  on  EcononUcal  ^nd  Statistical  Works.  139 

NoTB. — The  Committee  apprehend  that  the  central 
anthorities,  by  whom  the  Cenans  is  made  and  its  results 
are  abstraoteo,  must  confine  the  abstracts  to  fixed  and 
recognised  bonndaries,  and  that  any  variation  from  these 
can  only  be  designed  by  persons  possessing  local  informa- 
tion,  and  with  a  definite  object  in  each  case.  The  existence 
of  some  permanent  census  machinery  in  connection  with 
the  General  Census  Office,  would  facilitate  the  preparation 
of  such  returns,  as  well  as  of  those  which  the  legislature 
and  the  executive  would,  doubtless  often,  desire  to  obtain, 
if  the  means  of  absti-acting  them  were  in  existence. 

The  Committee  conclude  this  Report  with  the  remark  that  the 
first  six  of  the  above  Recommendations  and  the  ninth  and  tenth 
are  in  substantial  agreement  with  the  Resolutions  of  the  Council  of 
"  The  National  Association  for  the  Promotion  of  Social  Science," 
which  have  already  been  brought  to  the  notice  of  the  Government. 

RA.WS0IC  W.   RaW80N> 

Ohairman* 
Statistical  Socistt  of  Loimolr, 
7th  February,  1880. 


YlU.-^Notes  «n  Econofnieal  and  BtoHstiodl  Works. 

La  Tra/nsformation  des  Moyens  de  Transpmi  e^  ses  consequences 
^eOnomiques  et  sooiales.  Pl»r  Alfred  de  Foville,  Chef  de  Bureau  au 
Minist^re  des  Finances,  (fee.  (Ouvrage  conronn^  par  TAcademie 
des  Sciences  Morales  et  Folitiques.)  Paris,  Guillaumin  et  Cie., 
1880. 

This  able  and  interesting  volume  deals  with  a  branch  of  what 
may  be  termed  social  physiology.  It  treats  of  the  development 
and  functions  of  means  of  communication.  M.  de  Foville  com- 
mences by  laying  down  the  proposition  that  movement  is  as 
essential  to  the  life  of  a  people  as  to  that  of  an  animal  or  a  plant ; 
and  that  according  as  the  internal  movement  of  a  community  is  or 
is  not  highly  devdoped,  the  people  composing  it  may  be  considered 
as  advanced  or  behindhand  in  civilisation.  The  cause  of  this 
movement  occurring  in  society  is  the  necessity  for  exchange,  both  of 
manufactured  commodities  and  raw  produce,  and  the  equal  or  greater 
necessity  of  rapid  personal  movement.  And  the  need  for  the 
exchange  of  these  arises  from  the  great  differences  in  the  products  of 
different  parts  of  the  globe,  and  in  the  characters  of  the  men  who 
dwell  in  them.  This  process  of  interchange  is  the  basis  of  modem 
life,  and  "  just  as  in  the  animal  world,  the  degree  of  perfection  of 
each  species  is  measured  by  the  development  of  the  apparatus  of 
circulation,  in  like  manner  the  degree  of  civilisation  of  each  people 
may  be  measured  by  the  importance,  efficiency,  and  value  of  its 
channels  and  means  of  communication."  With  this  view  of  the 
subject  constantly  before  him,  M.  de  Foville  has  carefully  investi* 
gated,  first,  the  general  development  of  meant  of  communication, 


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140  Miscellanea.  [Mar. 

and  next,  the  economic,  moral,  political,  and  other  social  effects 
that  have  been  produced  by,  or  which  have  at  all  events  appeared 
simnltaDeonsly  with,  the  snccessive  stages  of  this  development. 
The  book  is  pre-eminently,  bnt  by  no  means  exclnsively,  a  book 
about  railways.  The  means  by  which  the  internal  movements  of 
society  were  formerly  effected  have  long  since  either  succumbed 
altogether,  or  have  taken  a  new  lease  of  life  as  assistants  and 
feeders  to  their  conqueror.  **  The  principal  peoples  of  Europe  have 
completed  their  main  systems,  and  are  only  occupied  in  increasing 
their  ramifications."  But  the  steamship,  the  canal,  the  electric 
telegraph,  and  the  tramway  also  receive  the  notice  due  to  them. 
The  first  part  of  the  volume  treats  of  the  direct  results  of  the 
application  of  steam  and  electricity  to  the  purposes  of  man.  By 
the  direct  results  are  meant  not  so  mucn  the  actual  physical 
results,  such  as  the  existence  of  so  many  miles  of  railway  in  the 
various  countries,  and  of  so  much  steam  tonnage  in  their  merchant 
marines,  but  two  general  results,  namely,  the  increase  of  speed 
and  diminution  of  cost.  M.  de  Foville  begins  by  endeavouring  to 
obtain  an  idea  of  the  rapidity  and  cost  of  movement  before  the 
introduction  of  railways.  The  data  for  this  investigation  are  not 
extensive,  but  he  gives  some  very  interesting  facts  r^arding  this 
part  of  the  subject,  in  so  far  as  it  concerns  France,  in  which 
country  locomotion  was  for  a  long  time  slower  than  elsewhere. 
The  tables  relative  to  the  speed  attained  on  various  railways  in 
different  countries  contain  little  that  is  novel,  and  it  is  the 
question  of  cost  on  which  the  author  has  bestowed  most  pains. 
Concerning  the  cost  of  travelling  in  the  last  century,  M.  de  Foville 
quotes  from  a  guide  book  published  in  1775,  which  is  now  rarely 
met  with.  This  curious  work  gives  detailed  estimates  of  all  the 
expenses  of  travelling  in  most  of  the  countries  of  Europe.  Th0 
writer's  notions  of  expense  are  those  of  a  wealthy  man,  as  may  be 
seen  from  the  fact  that  he  proposed  to  spend  340  frs.  in  England, 
and  300  frs.  in  France  per  diem.  The  last  official  regulation  affecting 
post  horses  in  France  was  issued  in  1840.  Previous  to  the  introduc- 
tion of  railways,  M.  de  Foville  estimates  the  mean  cost  of  locomotion 
at  1 4  centimes  per  kilometre ;  the  cost  of  travelling  by  rail,  even  as 
early  as  1835,  was  about  8  centimes  per  kilometre.  Since  then,  in 
consequence  of  successive  changes  in  the  tariff,  the  mean  cost  has 
fallen  to  5*19  centimes.  These  amounts  relate  to  passengers.  The 
saving  as  compared  with  the  earlier  modes  of  travelling  is  thns 
about  55  per  cent.  M.  de  Foville  does  not  overlook  the  fact  of 
the  great  expense  of  laying  down  railways.  He  gives  a  table, 
showing  the  cost,  per  kilometre,  of  railways  in  various  countries  in 
1858  to  1875.  That  cost  is  still  much  higher  in  England  than  any- 
where else,  but  the  cost  has  risen  a  good  deal  on  the  continent 
during  the  period  referred  to.  M.  de  Foville  then  examines  the 
tariffs  of  countries  other  than  France.  In  England  he  finds  the  rates 
rather  higher  than  in  France,  not  apparently  making  allowance  for 
rebates  and  other  reductions,  which  very  materially  diminish  the 
actual  cost  of  carriage  here.  The  saving  in  the  cost  of  travelling 
effected  by  the  introduction  of  steam  was  much  greater  here  than 
elsewhere,   because  the   cost  of  titivelling  was  much  higher  in 


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1880.]  Notes  on  Economical  and  Statistical  Worlcs,  141 

England  before  that  event.  Belgium  appears  to  have  tried  several 
experiments  in  tariffs,  without  any  very  satisfactory  result.  As 
regards  the  carriage  of  merchandise,  M.  de  Foville  estimates  the 
saving  consequent  on  the  employment  of  steam  at  about  75  per 
cent,  per  ton  kilometre.  This  calculation  is  probably  correct  as 
regards  France,  though  the  taxes  and  some  other  charges  are  not 
included  in  it,  on  the  ground  that  they  are  a  set  off  against  similar 
taxes  on  the  older  modes  of  transport,  and  also  that  the  use  of  the 
roads  was  practically  gratuitous.  As  a  curiosity  among  the  tariffs 
in  force  in  other  countries,  M.  de  Foville  cites  those  on  some  of 
the  wheat  carrying  lines  of  the  United  States  in  1878-79,  when 
competition  had  driven  them  down  to  rates  which  were  equivalent 
to  a  charge  of  1*2  centimes  per  ton  kilometre.  He  quotes  the  opinion 
of  several  able  French  engineers,  that  the  railway  tariffs  can  hardly 
go  lower,  and  are  very  likely  to  rise  in  future.  The  grounds  of  this 
opinion  are  the  tendency  of  wages  to  rise;  butM.  de  Foville  thinks 
that  this  cause  of  increased  cost  naay  be  neutralised  by  improve- 
ments in  the  working  of  the  lines,  and  by  judicious  developments  of 
the  traffic.  In  speaking  of  the  increased  security  of  modem 
travelling,  the  author  points  to  the  defective  information  supplied 
as  to  accidents  affecting  servants  of  the  companies,  and  hints  that 
it  would  be  well  to  imitate  England  in  this  matter.  In  France 
there  has  been,  it  seems,  no  account  of  the  accidents  to  i*ailway 
servants  published  for  any  year  later  than  1869.  Turning  from 
railways  to  roads,  M.  de  Foville  remarks  that  these  latter  have  by 
no  means  been  rendered  useless  by  the  spread  of  railways,  but  have 
on  the  contrary  increased  steadily  in  length,  besides  having  more 
spent  on  them  per  kilometre.  Their  function  is  chiefly  to  feed  the 
railways,  and  consequently  roads  which  cross  the  general  direction 
of  a  railway  system,  have  gained  in  importance  at  the  expense  of 
those  parallel  to  it.  The  author  here  entei*s  on  an  interesting 
mathematical  investigation  of  the  attraction  exercised  by  a  railway 
connecting  two  important  centres.  By  the  aid  of  a  little  elementary 
geometrical  conies,  M.  de  Foville  is  able  to  show  that  the  "  zone  of 
attraction  "  of  the  two  terminal  stations  will  be  respectively  the 
two  branches  of  a  hyperbola,  which  has  the  two  stations  for  its  foci, 
and  the  middle  point  of  the  line  joining  them  for  its  centre.  There 
is  a  good  deal  that  is  interesting  and  valuable  in  those  portions  of 
the  work  which  are  devoted  to  canals,  and  to  the  ocean  highway. 
The  "  indirect "  effects  of  the  improved  modes  of  locomotion  are 
treated  in  as  systematic  a  manner  as  the  "  direct ''  effects  of  the 
employment  of  steam.  We  need  not  speak  of  them  at  length, 
however,  as  they  are  a  portion  of  the  subject  matter  of  works  on 
the  general  progress  of  civilisation.  The  principal  effect  dwelt  on 
by  M.  de  Foville  is  the  unification  of  prices,  and  he  gives  some 
rather  striking  instances  of  the  differences  in  the  price  of  wheat 
which  existed  even  as  late  as  1847,  in  which  year  there  was  a 
difference  of  20  frs.  between  the  market  prices  in  two  departments 
of  France  per  hectolitre  of  wheat.  The  author  remarks  that  the 
improvement  in  our  means  of  communication,  both  by  land  and  sea, 
has  practically  resulted  in  rendering  famine  an  impossibility  in  the 
civilised  world.    Among  the  minor  economio  effects,  he  mentions 


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142  MiseeUanea.  [Mar. 

the  tendency  to  concentrate  retail  business,  and  thus  kill  ont  the 
smaller  traders.  In  conclusion,  we  are  glad  to  find  that 
M.  de  Foville  takes  a  hopeful  view  of  the  prospects  of  free  trade 
in  France. 

A  History  of  the  Precimis  Metcds,  from  the  Earliest  Times  to  the 
Present.  By  Alexander  Del  Mar,  IJ.  S.,  formerlj  Director  of  the 
Bureau  of  Statistics  of  the  United  States ;  Member  of  the  United 
States  Monetary  Commission  of  1876.  (George  Bell  and  Sons, 
1880.) 

Mr.  Del  Mar's  work  is  intended  as  a  successor  to  that  of 
Mr.  William  Jacob.  Mr.  Jacob's  book  may  fairly  be  considered 
out  of  date,  considering  the  immense  increase  in  the  production  of 
the  precious  metals  that  has  occurred  since  he  wrote.  Besides  this, 
Mr.  Del  Mar  is  able  to  show  that,  with  all  his  ability  and  care, 
Mr.  Jacob  fell  into  more  than  one  serious  error,  particularly  in 
underestimating  the  productiveness  of  Brazil.  These  deficiencies 
are  noted  in  the  preface  to  Mr.  Del  Mar's  book.  Speaking  of  the 
work  of  his  predecessor,  our  author  says,  "  It  fails  to  mark  the 
significant  agency  of  conquest  and  slavery  in  the  production  of  gold 
and  silver ;  it  is  vitiated  throughout  by  unsafe  calculations  of  the 
world's  stock  of  these  metals  in  ancient  and  mediceval  times;  it 
affords  no  information  of  the  very  considerable  movement  from 
Japan  to  Euro^  during  the  sixteenth  and  seventeenth  centuries ;  it 
scarcely  mentions,  and  thus  underrates  the  importance  of  the 
Brazilian  placers  which  have  yielded  to  the  world  nearly  200  million 
pounds  sterling  of  gold ;  it  contains  no  connected  history,  indeed, 
but  little  mention,  of  the  ratio  of  value  between  gold  and  silver ; 
and  it  omits  all  reference  to  the  devastation  of  the  earth,  and  the 
social  mischiefs  entailed  upon  mining  countries  1^  the  search  for 
these  metals."  On  all  points  except  the  last,  Mr.  Del  Mar  seems  to 
have  made  out  his  case,  but  his  remarks  about  the  moral  and 
material  mischief  produced  by  gold  and  silver  mining  are  too 
sweeping.  That,  however,  is  a  minor  point,  and  does  not  detract 
from  the  merit  of  the  book  as  a  comprehensive  treatise  on  the 
history  of  the  precious  metals.  Mr.  Del  Mar,  while  objecting  to  the 
vague  and  unsatisfactory  guesses  of  Mr.  Jacob,  as  to  the  amounts 
of  gold  and  silver  existing  in  early  periods,  refuses  to  attempt  to 
give  an  estimate  himself.  As  regards  Brazil,  he  calculates  the  gold 
production  of  that  country  up  to  1870  at  180  million  pounds. 

Economic  Studies,  By  the  late  Walter  Bagehot.  Edited  by 
Bichard  Holt  Hutton.     (Longmans,  Green,  and  Co.,  1880.) 

This  volume  contains  the  incomplete  fragments  of  a  work  which 
Mr.  Bagehot  had  intended  to  write,  but  was  unable  to  finish,  unfor- 
tunately for  the  world.  The  main  point  we  notice  in  this  exceed- 
ingly interesting  book  is  its  logical  connection  with  the  anther's 
"  Physics  and  Politics,"  a  work  in  which  he  shows  how  one  great 
"  peculiarity  of  this  age,"  the  "  sudden  acquisition  of  much 
physical  knowledge,"  has  operated  to  modify  the  notions  formerly 
held  on  politics  and  political  economy.  As  regards  the  latter  the 
extension  of  our  knowledge  of  the  conditions  of  life  in  various 
countries  and  at  various  periods^  gave  rise  to  the  historical  school 
of  economists,  who  deny  that  there  are  any  laws  of  economics  at  all. 


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1880.]  Notes  on  AddUions  to  the  Library.  143 

Hr.  Bageliot  held  that  the  older  eoonomistB  were  not  wrong  in 
their  views  of  the  economic  conditions  of  modem  England,  but 
that  the  historic  school  were  sound  in  their  opposition  to  the 
attempts  of  later  writers  of  the  "  orthodox  *'  school  to  apply  these 
yiews  to  all  countries  and  all  periods.  He  also  held  that  aa  other 
conntries  advance  in  wealth  and  civilisation,  the  extent  of  the 
applicability  of  the  general  doctrines  inculcated  by  Ricardo  and 
Mill  will  increase.  The  phenomena  of  *' business"  will  be  the 
same  wherever  "business"  is  done,  and  the  theories  which  are 
true  or  almost  true  in  England,  the  land  of  **  business,"  will 
become  true  in  other  countries  in  time.  Briefly,  then,  Mr.  Bage- 
hot  ma^  be  said  to  have  gone  far  on  the  road  to  reconciling  the 
conflicting  claims  of  "  orthodox  and  historical "  economics,  for 
which  alone  he  would  have  deserved  the  gratitude  of  all  who  per- 
ceived the  logical  need  for  such  a  reconciliation  in  the  interests  of 
economic  science  itself.  Their  thanks  are  also  due  to  Mr.  Hntton, 
Mr.  Bagehot's  intimate  friend,  to  whose  careful  and  patient  labour 
they  are  indebted  for  the  arrangement  of  the  papers  which  are 
here  published*  The  latter  were  at  the  untimely  death  of  their 
author,  in  some  oon^ion,  to  which  the  mind  that  bad  produced 
them  alone  had  the  key,  and  Mr.  Hutton's  self-imposed  task  was 
consequently  ViQi  altogether  an  easy  one^ 


IX. — Notes  on  some  of  the  Additions  to  the  Library^ 

Annwiire  Statistique  de  la  Norvege.  Premiere  AnnSe^  1879. 
£labor6  dans  le  Bureau  Central  de  Statistique.     Kristiania,  1879* 

The  Norwegian  Statistical  Office  have  decided  to  pubbsh  an 
annual  volume  containing  a  resume  of  the  more  important 
statistical  information  which  is  obtained  in  that  kingdom  each 
year.  This,  the  first  volume  of  the  kind,  is  necessarily  somewhat 
imperfect.  Apparently,  it  is  intended  that  it  should  be,  to  a  large 
extent,  modelled  on  the  Statistical  Abstract  of  the  Board  of  Trade. 
In  all  cases  where  the  figures  were  obtainable  they  are  given  for  a 
series  of  years,  and  in  nearly  every  case  those  for  two  or  three 
years  are  supplied.  The  returns  are  brought  down  to  1878  as 
regards  the  population,  national  finances,  imports  and  exports, 
bsmking,  and  in  some  other  instances.  The  difficulty  of  producing 
the  first  volume  of  such  a  work  is  much  greater  than  that  of 
issuing  those  subsequent  to  it,  and  its  value  for  practical  purposes 
cannot  be  overestimated. 

BesuUadojB  Oenerales  del  Genso  de  la  Tohlacion  de  'Espana  segun 
el  empadionamiento  hecho  enSl  de  Diciem^e,  1877.  Por  la  Direc^ 
cion  General  del  Institute  Geografico  y  Estadistico.     Madrid,  1879. 

The  returns  of  the  Spanish  Census,  taken  on  81st  December, 
1877,  show  that  the  actual  residents  in  Spain  at  that  date  numbered 
16,625,860  persons.  There  were  also  565,554  persons  returned  as 
"  absent,"  of  whom  the  great  majority  were  Spanish  subjects,  the 
remainder,    1,088,   being  foreigners.      The  returns  a,re  given  by 


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144  Miscellanea,  [Mar. 

provinces  and  districts,  the  most  popnlons  province  being  Barcelona, 
with  835,306  persons,  and  that  with  the  least  population  being  Alava, 
with  93,191.  As  the  information  contained  in  this  volume  is  con- 
fined to  a  statement  of  the  number  of  persons,  male  and  female, 
who  were  resident  in  Spain  at  the  date  of  the  census,  there  is 
nothing  further  of  interest  to  say  regarding  it.  Apparently  the 
Spanish  authorities  are  of  the  same  opinion,  for  the  remarks  of 
the  Count  of  Toreno,  who  signs  the  introduction,  are  very  meagre. 
It  appears  that  since  1860,  when  the  last  census  previous  to  this 
was  taken,  there  has  been  an  increase  of  population  amounting  to 
952,324  persons,  or  about  6  per  cent. 

8toria  e  teoria  generals  della  Statistica  del  Dr.  Antonio  Gabaglio, 
Professore  di  Statistica  nel  R.  Institute  Tecnico  e  Incaricato  di  tale 
insegnamento  nella  R.  Universita  di  Pavia.  Con  nove  tavole 
miniate.     Ulrico  Hoepli.     Ulilavo,  1880. 

We  had  occasion  to  notice,  in  the  Journal  of  the  Society  for 
March,  1878,  the  able  and  lucid  work  of  M.  Maurice  Block, 
entitled  TraitS  ThSorique  et  Pratique  de  Statistique,  and  in  that 
for  December,  1877,  we  commented  on  the  profound  volume  by 
Dr.  Mayr  on  Die  Oesetzmdssigkeit  im  QeselUchaftsleben,  We  have 
now  to  record  the  appearance  of  another  volume  on  the  same 
subject — the  work  of  Dr.  Antonio  Gabaglio,  the  Professor  of  Sta- 
tistics in  the  University  of  Pavia.  Of  all  the  books  on  the  scientific 
theory  of  statistics  with  which  we  are  acquainted,  this  of  Dr.  Gubaglio 
is  the  most  exhaustive,  and,  on  the  whole,  the  most  satisfactory. 
This  assertion  is  not  intended  as  any  disparagement  of  the  works 
of  Dr.  Mayr  and  M.  Block,  for  the  purpose  of  each  of  these  two 
writers  was  different  from  that  or  Dr.  Gabaglio.  The  three 
authors  agree  to  a  very  large  extent  in  their  conception  of  the 
nature  of  statistics,  and  in  their  modes  of  expounding  it ;  but 
Dr.  Mayr,  when  he  wrote  Die  Gesetzmdssigkeit  im  QeselUchaftslehen 
addressed  an  audience  presumably  unacquainted  with  the  subject. 
He  furnished  a  manual  of  statistics  for  the  use  of  that  large  and 
increasing  body  of  intelligent  persons  who  desire  to  possess  a 
general  conception  of  the  principles  of  science  in  general,  and  of 
the  nature  and  methods  01  the  particular  sciences.  Accordingly 
Dr.  Mayr  described  with  unrivalled  skill  the  nature  of  statistics 
and  its  relation  to  the  sociological  sciences,  and  gave  a  rSsumd  of 
the  more  general  results  that  have  been  arrived  at  by  means  of 
statistics.  On  the  other  hand,  M.  Block  applied  himself  to  the 
historical  and  practical  sides  of  statistical  inquiry,  and  paid  great 
attention  to  setting  forth  the  results  of  his  own  valuable  experience 
as  bearing  on  the  problems  presented  to  the  officials  of  statistical 
departments.  The  theoretical  aspect  of  statistics  received  only  a 
general,  and  not  always  a  sound,  treatment  at  his  hands.  The 
treatise  of  Dr.  Gabaglio  is  a  complete  analysis  of  the  theory  of  sta- 
tistics, and  a  complete  historical  account  of  their  rise  and  progress, 
so  far  as  such  an  account  was  needful  for  his  purpose.  The  first 
third  of  the  volume  deals  with  this  latter  subject.  It  is  divided 
into  chapters,  of  which  the  first  two,  extending  over  about  forty 
pages,  contain  such  information  as  is  available  regarding  what,  by 
courtesy,  is  called  "  statistics  in  antiquity  and  in  the  middle  ages." 


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1880.]  Notes  on  Additions  to  the  Library.  145 

We  tlien  have  a  chapter  whicli  carries  the  histoiy  of  statistics  down 
to  Qu^telet,  and  in  which  the  work  of  the  various  contributors  to 
the  advancement  of  statistics  is  touched  on  briefly.  The  remaining 
five  chapters  of  the  first  part  are  devoted  to  an  account  of  the  work 
done  in  Belgium,  France,  Germany,  England,  and  Italy,  since 
Qu^let,  by  the  publication  of  his  famous  "Letters,'*  gave  to  sta- 
tistics the  status  of  a  branch  of  scientific  knowledge.  The  special 
views  of  each  writer  in  each  country  are  briefly  described,  and  this 
portion  of  the  work  therefore  forms  a  valuable  epitome  of  the  views 
of  the  chief  statistical  authorities  of  Europe,  on  those  first  prin- 
ciples of  statistics  regarding  which  ihere  is  more  or  less  difference 
of  opinion  among  those  competent  to  form  a  judgment.  That 
Germany  obtains  the  lion's  share  of  the  space  devoted  to  this 
historical  inquiry  is  natural,  and  we  can  hardly  blame  an  Italian 
for  giving  rather  more  space  to  his  own  country  than  the  number 
of  eminent  Italian  statisticians  would  perhaps  warrant.  But  cer- 
tainly England  has  no  right  to  grumble  at  the  small  amount  of 
space  allotted  to  her,  for  hitherto,  unhappily,  English  works  on  the 
theory  of  statistics  have  resembled  the  too  famous  "  snakes  of 
Norway  " — there  have  been  none.  Dr.  Gabaglio  generously  endea- 
vours to  make  out  a  case  for  us  by  mentioning  the  names  of  John 
Stuart  Mill  and  Buckle,  as  well  as  that  of  Porter.  But  though 
Porter  was  a  great  practical  statist,  he  was  not  strong  as  regards 
theory,  and  neither  Mill  nor  Buckle  devoted  their  ab&ties  to  sta- 
tistics, except  in  a  purely  incidental  way.  It  is  true  there  are 
passages  in  Mill's  works,  particularly  in  his  remarkable  essay  On 
the  D^inition  a/nd  Method  of  Political  Economy,  as  well  as  in  the 
concluding  chapters  of  the  Logic,  which  bear  on  the  theory  of  sta- 
tistics, but  we  doubt  whether  the  writer  realised  the  full  scope  of 
the  remarks  in  question.  And  as  to  Buckle,  his  great  work  is 
statistical  only  in  the  sense  in  which  that  of  Achenwall  and  the 
older  "  descriptive  "  school  receives  the  title.  Nevertheless,  there 
are  passages  in  the  History  of  OimUsation  which  show  that  a  dim 
conception  of  the  function  of  statistics  was  present  to  the  mind  of 
this  author  also.  The  second  part  of  Dr.  Gubaglio's  work  is 
nominally  divided  into  six  chapters,  but  Chapter  V,  "On  the 
Method  of  Statistics  "  occupies  by  far  the  greater  part  of  it.  The 
first  chapter,  after  dealing  briefly  with  the  etymology  of  the  word 
"  statistics,"  discusses  various  definitions  that  have  been  proposed 
for  it,  and  in  particular  criticises  the  distinction  proposed  to  be 
drawn  by  several  of  the  German  writers  between  Stalistik  and 
Btaatenkunde,  between  the  "  theory  of  statistics,"  and  the  "  statistics 
of  a  State"  Dr.  Grabaglio  considers  this  nomenclature  objectionable 
on  more  grounds  than  one,  and  we  agree  with  him.  He  proceeds 
to  consider  the  defects  of  the  definitions  offered  by  the  various 
authors  whose  views  are  stated  in  Chapters  IV  to  VIII  of  Part  I. 
The  criticisms  are  generally  sound,  but  we  do  not  think  that 
Dr.  Gkibaglio  altogetiber  does  justice  to  M.  Block,  in  saying  that 
his  definition  "  represents  statistic  as  a  simple  description  of  the 
actual  state,  which  makes  no  use  of  numbers,  and  does  not  trouble 
about  laws."  M.  Block  expressly  says  at  the  commencement  of 
his  "  partie  th^rique"  that  statistic,  as  a  science,  is  identical  with 

VOL.  XLin.     PAST  I.  L 


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146  Miicdlanea.  [Mar; 

"  demograpliy,*'and  he  elsewhere  define*  demog^phy  as  "  la  science 
de  rhomme  yivant  en  soci^,  en  tant  qu'elle  pent  etre  exprim6e 
par  lea  ohiffres,"  which  is  really  nofc  bad  as  a  mere  deaoription  of 
this  branch  of  knowledge.  Dr.  (jabaglio^s  charge  is  rather  too 
sweeping  therefore,  but  we  admit  that  there  is  a  certain  want  of 
accuracy  and  rigidity  about  the  theoretical  portion  of  M.  Block's 
work  which  cannot  but  be  displeasing  to  so  close  a  reasoner  as 
Dr.  Gtibaglio.  As  we  hare  alr^dy  said,  M.  Block  is  less  a  master 
of  theoretical  than  of  practical  statistics.  When  we  come  to  our 
author's  own  definition,  we  find  that  according  to  it  the  science  of 
statistics  (statistica  come  scienza)  is  ^Hhe  study  of  the  actual 
social-political  order  by  means  of  mathematical  induction.''  Against 
this  definition  we  have  little  to  say.  It  is  perhaps  rather  better 
than  Engel's,  and  is  certainly  preferable  to  Mayr's,  both  of  which 
make  statistics  intrude,  to  some  extent,  on  the  sphere  of  general 
sociology,  but  the  view  taken  by  all  three  authorities  is  essentially 
the  same.  We  are  rather  inclined  to  take  exoeption  to  the  t^m 
^  mathematical  induction  "  (induzione  matematica),  as  equivalent 
to  what  the  Glermans  call  '*  Massenbeobachtung,"  which  excellent 
w(M:d  may  be  translated  "aggregate  observation. "  The  phrase 
"  mathematical  induction  "  does  not  indicate  with  sufficient  clear* 
ness  the  processes  which  are  intended  to  be  denoted  by  it.  There 
is  an  additional  objection  to  its  use,  that  this  phrase  is  already 
appropriated  to  a  procedure  of  mathematics  proper,  namely,  the 
artifice  by  which  the  laws  of  permutations  and  combinations,  to 
take  a  simple  instance,  are  demonstrated,  in  which  we  show  that  if  a 
certain  law  empirically  assumed  for  a  series  of  terms,  holds  when  a 
particular  number  of  the  terms  is  taken,  it  will  also  hold  when  that 
number  is  increased  by  one.  On  the  other  hand,  the  term  *'  aggre- 
gate observation"  or  " Massenbeobachtung,''  or  '* osservazione 
coUetiiva,"  thoroughly  expresses  the  nature  of  the  characteristic 
process  of  statistics.  In  Chapters  II  and  III  the  author  defines  the 
limits  of  statistics,  and  its  relations  with  the  other  social  sciences, 
such  as  economics,  politics,  "social  physiology,"  "  social  psychology," 
and  history,  as  well  as  with  jurisprudence.  Here  we  think  that 
Dr.  G«bagJio  fails  to  deal  satisfactorily  with  the  subject,  on  grounds 
which  we  can  for  the  present  only  indicate.  It  seems  to  us  Ainda- 
mentally  eironeous  to  set  up  statistics  as  an  independent  social 
science,  the  proper  conception  being  that  statistics  is  essentially  a 
method  applicable  to  all  sciences  alike,  but  pre-eminently  to  the  social 
sciences.  W  hen  applied  to  sociology  the  function  of  statistics  is  to 
extricate  and  render  perceptible  the  facts  relating  to  communities 
of  human  beings ;  the  facts  themselves,  when  thus  made  perceptible^ 
must  be  dealt  with  by  the  scienoes  under  which  they  come.  This 
is  very  nearly,  thougn  not  quite,  coincident  with  M.  Block's  view. 
Chapter  Y,  the  most  important  of  all,  treats  of  the  method  of 
statistics.  Dr.  GUkbaglio  commences  with  a  dissertation  on  scientific 
method  in  general.  The  phenomena  of  society  are  produced  by 
causes,  some  of  which  are  constant  and  some  variable.  Phenomena 
of  this  class  may  be  investigated  in  three  ways.  First,  by  "  obserw 
vation  of  external  psychical  activity  associated  with  observation  of 
internal  observation."     (From  the  context,  ihiM  rather   obscore 


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1880."]  AddiHofiB  to  the  Idbrary.  147 

sentence  appears  to  mean  "  by  observation  of  the  external  manifes- 
tations in  others  of  psychical  processes,  coupled  with  observation 
of  the  processes  of  one's  own  mind."  Second,  by  "  historical 
observation*'  (the  historical  method).  Third,  by  "collective,  or 
mass,  observation."  At  this  point  Dr.  Gabaglio  inserts  his  state- 
ment of  the  difference  between  the  method  of  statistics  and  mathe- 
matics. Mathematics  deal  with  abstract  quantity,  while  the  objects 
of  statistical  investigation  are  not  abstract  quantities,  but  "  facts 
translated  into  concrete  quantities."  The  method  is  applicable  to 
all  the  sciences.  We  work  by  aid  of  the  statistical  metlwd  when 
we  investigate  the  climates  of  countries,  and  the  meteorological 
phenomena  which  affect  them.  We  employ  the  statistical  science 
when  we  apply  the  results  of  these  investigations  to  explain  the 
phenomena  of  mortality,  or  investigate  the  influence  of  the  prices 
of  the  chief  means  of  subsistence  on  the  number  of  marriages  or  of 
crimes.  Dr.  Ghkbaglio  treats  exhaustively,  with  the  aid  of  simple 
mathematical  formulsa,  of  all  the  forms  of  statistics.  He  uses  the 
method  of  least  squares  for  determining  probable  values  whenever 
it  is  possible,  and  he  concludes  by  giving  a  full  description  of  the 
nature  and  use  of  diagrams,  and  of  the  useful  method  of  graphic 
representation.  Taken  as  a  whole,  this  volume  is  the  most  complete 
work  on  statistics  which  has,  as  far  as  we  know,  appeared  in  any 
language,  and  to  students  of  this  important  branch  of  knowledge 
its  value  cannot  but  be  great. 


X. — Additions  to  the  Library  during  the  Quarter, 
Additions  to  the  Librari/  during  the  Quarter  ended  Zlst  Marcky  1880. 


DOMtiOM.. 


By  w1k»  PrMtnttd. 


Austria  and  Hungary — 

Statistisches  Jahrbuoh  des  E.  K.  Ackerban-ministe-' 
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Oesterreiohs  im  Jahre  1878.  128  pp.,  8yo.  Wijsn, 
1879 

StatistiBches  Jahrbuch,  f£ir  1878.  Hefte  9  and  11. 
Imp.  8vo.    Wien,  1879 

Stotifltiachefl  Jahrbuoh  fiir  Ungam,  1877, 7*'  Jahrgang. 
Hefte  1—3,  6—10,  und  11.  Imp.  8to.  Budapest, 
1880  


Imperial  Central  Sta- 
tistical    Oommis- 


Boyal   Statistical 
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Belgixun — 
Bulletin  hebdomadaire  de  Statistique  D^ograrohiqueT  -r>^    t«  .  ««-    •p^,^ 
et  Medicale.    Ann6e  xi,  Nos.  1  et  2,  efc  8,  9,  efc  10.  \  ^'-  Jaww"".  ^^^' 
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NatdonalOkonomisk  Tidsskrift,  Bind  15,  Hofte  1  og  2. 

8vo.    Kj6benliftTn,  1880 

SiatiHuk  Tahelvmrh,  4*  RtBkke— 
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17*»  Jtili,  1876.    (Superfide  enw 

meno^  ftc)    4to   

litis  D.  Nr.2.  Yare-Indfdnelen  oe  Udfdnden, 
Handel8-Flaaden,slib0farteD  aamt 
Bnenderins  Froduktionen,  &c.,  i 
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tion,  &o.)  4U>.  KjObenhaTn, 
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Danish  Political  Eco- 
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Statistical  Bureau  of 
DenmariL 


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legislation  comport,  8*  ann^,  Becembre,  1879, 
4*  ann^  Janrier,  1880.    8to.    Paris 


;del 

>,  et  !>  M.  1.  de 


Forilla 


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Partie  litteraire,  tome  xxtI,  No.  6,  Becembre;  et' 

tome  xxriii,  Nos.  1 — 8,  Jan. — Mar 

„    Technique,   tome  zxrii,  No.  12,  Deoembre, 
et   tome  xzx,  No.  8,  Mars,  1880.     8to. 

Paris,  1879-80 

Soci^t^  de  Statistiqne  de  Paris,  Journal  de  la,' 
zxi«  ann^.  1880.  Nos.  1—^,  Jan. — Mar.  Imp. 
8to.    Paris  


The  Editor 


>  The  Society 


Qermany — 

Monatshefte    zur    Statistik  des  Deutschen    Beichs.' 

Band  xxxvii,  Hefte  11  und  12  (Not.— Dez.,  1879)  ; 

nnd  Band  xliii.  Heft  1  (Jan.,  1880).    4to.    Berlin 
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Jahrgang,  1880.    8to.  Berlin 

BsBLiir.   YerOffentlichungen  des  Statistischen  Bureau's^ 

der  Stadt ;  Bheschliessungen,  Gkburten,  Sterbefalle 

nnd  Witterung.    Nos.  60—66,  1879  j   und  1—10, 

1880.    4to ^ 

Hambubo.     Neuee  Handels-Archiy;  Jahrgang  1879. ' 

8to.    1880  ^ 

Sazokt.  Zeitschrift  des  K.  S&chsischen  Statistischen 

Bureau's,  Jahrgang  25,    Hefte    1    und    2.     4to. 

Dresden,  1879 

PBI788IA.    Preussische  Statistik,  B&nde  49,  60,  51,  52.^^ 
Folio.   Berlin,  1879 

Zeitschrift  des  K5niglich  Preussischen  Statistischen 
Bureau's,  19«'  J^irgang,  Hefte  8  und  4,  Juli— 
Dezember,  1879.    Folio.    Berlin 


Italy— 

Notizie  e  Studi   sulla  Agricoltura,  1877.     xri  and' 

1130  pp.,  imp.  8to.    Boma,  1879 

Annali  cU  Agncoltura,  1879,  Nos.  15  e  19  (Pte  1>) ; 

e  1880,  No.  28.  8to.  Roma 

Annali  dell'  Industria  e  del  Commercio,  1879.  No.  11 ; 

el880,Nos.  10— 18.    8to.   Roma,  1879-80   

Annali  di  Statistica.    Serie  2*,  toI.  10, 1879 ;  ctoL  11, 

1880.    Diagrams.    8to.    Boma   


Imperial  Statistical 
Office 


Statistical  Bureau  of 
Berlin 

Chamber    of   Com- 
merce, Hamburg 

Royal  Statistical 
Bureau  of  Saxony 


Royal  Statistical 
Bureau  of  Pmssia 


Directorate-General 
of  Statistics ; 

Ministry  of  Agricul- 
ture, Industry,  and 
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140 


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De  raasistanoe  Publiqne  et  des  ^blissementB  de  charity 

et  Iiutitutions  pieiises  en  Nonr^  (£xpo8^  pour 

la  Stat.   Internationale).    120  pp.      8yo.      Borne, 

1880  

Atti  Pariamentari.    Sesdone  del  1878-79.    Camera  dei 

Deputati,  No.  190a 

Biforma  della  legge  elettorale  Politioa  del  17  Dicem- 

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Boma 

Bflanci  Oomunali,  anno  xyi,  1878.    Imp.  8to.  Boma  .... 
BoUettino  Settimanale  dei  Frezzi  di  Aicuni  del  prinoi- 

pali  Prodotti  Agrari.    Anno  1879.      Nob.  48 — 52 ; 

e  anno  1880,  Noe.  1 — 8.    Imp.  8yo.    Boma  

BoUettino  Mensile  delle  Sitnazioni   dei  Oonti  deg^ 

Istituti  d'Emissione.    Anno  i,  Noe.  9 — 11,  Sett — 

Dee.,  1879.    Imp.  8to.    Boma 

BoUettino    Bimeetrale   deUe   Sitnazioni    dei    ContL 

Anno  z,  Nos.  4  e  5,  Ag.— Ott.,  1879.    Imp.  8to. 

Boma 

BoUettino  Bimeetrale  del  Bieparmio,  Anno  4,  No.  5, 

Ott.    Imp.STO.    Boma,  1879  

BoUettino    di    Notizie   OommerciaU.      Nos.   26 — 29, 

1879  ;  e  1, 1880.    Imp.  8vo.    Boma 

BoUettino  Oonsolare.   Vol.  zy,  faec.  11  e  12,  Nor.— 

Die.  1879 ;  e  toL  zvi,  faeo.  1,  e  2  Gen.  e  Feb.    1880. 

8to.    Boma 

Statistica  del  Gommeroio  Sjpeciale  dt  Importazione  e  di 

Ezportazione  dal  G^nnaio— Dec.,  1879.  4to.  Boma 
Statistica   delle   Careen   per   Tanno  1876.     YoL  x. 

Imp.  8fo.    Civita  Veocfaia,  1879 

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folio  

Belazione  Medioo-Statistica  sidle  condizioni  Sanitarie 

deU'  Esercito  Italiano  neU'  anno  1877.    Diagrams, 

8vo.    Boma,  1879   

Quattordicesimi     Belazione     sul     servizio     Postale, 

1876-78.    Map.4to.    Boma,  1879    

Belazione  Statistica  sui  Telegrafi  del  Begno  d'ltaHa, 

ndl'  anno  1878.    Diagram,  4to.    Boma,  1879  

A   Diagram    in  Plaster  of   Paris,    representing : — II 

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2*  Seiie,  yoL  zviii,  iame.  24,  Dic^  1879.  8yo. 
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Biyista  Eoropea,  Biyista  Intemazionale.  VoL  xyi, 
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Society  Italiana  d*Igiene,  CKomale  deUa,  anno  1^,' 
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Naftherlands — 

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„   10.    Statiitik  orer  Norges  Eommnnale  Fi- 

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of,  for  the  year  ending  31st  October,  1879.    8vo. 

Pari  Pap.  [C-2489].     1880  

Navy,  Statistical  Beport  of  the  Health  of  the,  for  1878.  \  Admiralty 

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Water  Trust,  Beport  on  Financial  Affairs  for  1879, 

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8vo.    London  j  ^ 

Boyal    United  Service  Institution,   Journal  of  the,  1  mv    j    i.**^  *,• 

vol.  ixiii.  No.  103.    Phites,  Ac.,  8vo.    London,  1879  /  ^^^  AMtitution 
Social  Science  Association,  Sessional  Proceedings  of  the,  1  nru     a        '  *■' 

vol. xii,  Nos.  land 2, Jan.— Feb.,  1880.  8vo.  London/  ^^^  Association 
Surveyors,  Transactions  of  the  Institution  of,  vol.  xii,  1  «,,     t    l-*.  *.- 

parte  4^^,  8to.    London,  1880 }  ^^^  ^*^^^ 

WancUworth.    Report  on  the  Sanitorv  Condition  of.T  ^*  ^°^  °j^°?k 
during  1878.     »ro.    London,  1879 |     DLtriot 


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1880.] 


AddHtMU  to  iha  Library. 
Donatwna — Cowtd. 


157 


DomtionM. 

Bj  whom  Presented. 

Atbenffium,  The.    (Montblj  parts)  ....  Oorrenl 

Bankers'  Magazine  (London) 

Capital  and  Labour *»„ 

t  numbers 

» 

»^ 
M 

N 

» 
ft 

n 
»» 
» 
tt 

ft 

jorology,] 
82  pp.,  V 

The  Editor 

Commercial  World,  The « 

Kconomisty  The 

*9 

Insnranoe  Giusette.  The  

Becord.  The  

„        World,  The    

Inyestors'  Monthly  Mannal,  The 

Lx>n  and  Coal  Trades  BeTiew    

»* 

Mai^hinery  Market,  The 

Nature 

Beview,  The 

Statist,  The 

Textile  Manufacturer,  The 

Universal  Engineer,  The   

Urania;  a  Monthly  Journal  of  Astrology,  Mete 
and  Physical  Science,  toI.  i,  January,  1880. 
8to 

>9 

n 

Trade  Circulars  for  the  Tear  1879— 

BAlfiuit  Linim  TnulA  HoniTnitt^W  rTiinen^ 

The  Committee 

Boutcher,  Mortimer,  and  Co.,  London  (Leath< 
Durant  and  Co.,  London  (Silk) 

It)  

TheUrm 

"/   •••••••••••• 

Baton  (H.  W.)  and  Sons,  London  (Silk) 

Niohol  (W.)  and  Co..  Bombay  TG^neral  Prices^ 

PixW  and  Abell.  Tjondon  rBullion> 

Powell  (T.  J.  and  T.),  London  (Leather) 

Bagg  (A.)  and  Co.,  Lirerpool  (Wool) 

Bonald  and  Sons,  Lirerpool  (Wool) 

Thompson  (W.  J.  and  H.),  London  (China  Tea)   

Umson.  Elliott,  and  Co..  LiTflmool  rTobaooo^    

It 

Wool  Brokers*  Association.  LiTemool 

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158  Mucellamd.  [MaiC 

Purchase, 

American  Almanac  and  Treasury  of  Facts  for  1880.    884  pp.,  cloth, 
12mo.    New  York  and  Washington. 

Annales  d'Hygiftne  publique.    Nos.  8, 10 — 16,  October,  1879,  to  March, 
1880.    8to.     Paris,  1879. 

Archivio  di  Statistioa.     Anno  17,  faso.  1—4.    8to.    Boma,  1879. 

Banking  Almanac,  Directory,  &o.,  for  1880.    Cloth,  8to.    London. 

British  Almanac  and  Companion  for  1880.     12mo.    London. 

Classified    Directory  to  the  Metropolitan    Charities,  for  1879,  with 
Appendix.     (Fourth  Annual  Edition.)     12mo. 

Eason's    Almanac   and    Handbook    for    Ireland,  for    1880.    12mo. 
Dublin  and  London. 

Financial  Reform  Almanac  for  1880.    8to.    London. 

Inde;^  Society's  Publications,  No.  4,  containing  Report  of  First  Annual 
Meeting,  1879,  and  four  Appendices,  yiz. : — 

(1)  Index  to  Books  and  Papers  on  Marriage  between  near  Kin,  bj 

A.  H.  Huth. 

(2)  Index  of  the  Styles  and  Titles  of  English  Soyereigns,  by  W. 

De  Gray  Birch. 

(3)  Indexes  of  Portraits  in  the  "  European  Magazine,"  "  London 

Magazine,"  and  ''  Register  of  the  Times,"  by  E.  Solly. 

(4)  Index  of  Obituary  Notices  for  1878.    4to.    London,  1879. 

Journal  des  Economistes.   4*  sMe,  Nos.  20—27,  August — ^December, 
1879,  and  January— March,  1880.    8vo.     Paris. 

Lowe's  Handbook  of  the  Charities  of  London  for*  1880.    12mo. 

Masttnt  (F).    The  Statesman's  Year  Book  for  1880.    12mo.    London. 

Medical  Directory  for  1880.    8to.    London. 

Mitchell's  Newspaper  Press  Directory  for  1880.    Imp.  8vo.    London. 

Oliver  and  Boyd's  New  Edinburgh  Almanac  for  1880.    8to. 

Post  Office  London  Directory,  for  1880.    Boy.  8vo. 

RoBXBTS    (C,    F.R.C.S.).     A  Manual  of   Anthropometry,     Cloth, 
diagrams,  8to.    London,  1878. 

Surtees  Society,  Publications  of  the.    Vol.  Ixix,  cloth,  8yo,    London. 

Thom's  Irish  Almanac  and  Official  Directory  for  1880.     Royal  8vo. 
Dublin. 

Todd  (T.  J.) .    The  Book  of  Analysis,  or  a  New  Method  of  Experience. 
Cloth,  8to.    London,  1881. 

Whiteker'a  Ahnanae  for  1880.    Cloth,  12mo. 


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1880.] 


159 


REGISTRATION   OF  THE   UNITED   KINGDOM. 


No.  L-ENGLAND  AND  WALES. 

MARRIAGES— To  30th  Sbpteicbbb,  1879. 
BIRTHS  AND  DEATHS— To  3l8T  Deoekbbs,  1879. 


A. — Se^nal  Table  of  Marriages,  Births,  and  Deaths,  returned  in  the 
Years  1879-78,  and  in  the  Quarters  of  those  Tears. 

Calendar  Years,  1879-78: — Numbers. 


Teari 

'79. 

'78. 

'77. 

'76. 

•76. 

'74. 

'73. 

Marriages  No. 

BiHhs „ 

Deaths   ....  „ 

882,866 
528,194 

189,657 
891,418 
539,574 

194,343 
887,055 
500,348 

201,835 
887,464 
510,308 

201,212 
850,607 
546,453 

202,010 
854,956 
526,632 

205,615 
829,778 
492,520 

•Quarters  of  each  Calendar  Year,  1879-78. 
(I.)  Masbiaoss: — Numbers. 


Qrs.  ended 
last  day  of 

'79. 

•78. 

•77. 

•76. 

•76. 

•74. 

•73. 

Marcli No. 

35,851 

39,106 

39,755 

41,757 

42,376 

41,413 

41,217 

June  „ 

46,488 

48,433 

49,054 

51,218 

48,410 

52,827 

53,408 

September    „ 

45,071 

46,510 

47,732 

49,135 

49,826 

49,144 

49,709 

December     „ 

— 

55,608 

57,802 

59,725 

60,600 

58,626 

61,281 

(II.)  BniTHS: — Numbers. 


Of s.  ended 
last  day  of 

*79. 

'78. 

'77. 

'76. 

'75. 

'74. 

78. 

Marcb No. 

226,669 

221,567 

230,036 

229,980 

214,862 

214,514 

215,744 

June  „ 

221,011 

228,702 

223,220 

225,866 

214,939 

217,598 

206,516 

September   „ 

218,170 

222,004 

213,190 

216,167 

211,109 

210,323 

204,167 

December    „ 

217,016 

219,146 

220,609 

215,451 

209,697 

212,521 

203,361 

ail.) 

Deaths  .- 

—Nwrnbers. 

Qrs.  ended 
last  day  of 

79. 

•78. 

*77. 

76. 

'76. 

'74. 

'73. 

March No. 

156,390 

139,825 

135,000 

142,269 

162,256 

136,518 

132,432 

June  , 

132,186 

129,111 

131,289 

126,212 

130,999 

123,907 

118,582 

September   „ 

103,733 

129,348 

109,565 

119,909 

121,547 

124,253 

114,676 

December    „ 

135,885 

141,290 

124,494 

121,918 

181,651 

141,954 

126,830 

Digitized  by 


Google 


160 


Periodical  Eetwms. 


[Mar. 


Annual  Rates  of  Marriaobs,  Births,  and  Deaths,  per  i,ooo  Persons 
LiYiNG  in  the  Tears  1870-78,  and  in  the  Quarters  of  those  Tears. 

Calendar  Years,  1870-78: — General  Ratios. 


TiAma 

'79. 

Mean 
'69-78. 

'78. 

^77. 

•76. 

•76. 

•74. 

'78. 

Estmtd.  Fopln. 
of    England 
til  ihou*andi\ 
in  middle  of 
each  Year.... 

25,i^5» 

— 

^4.854. 

a4.547, 

24.144. 

^3.944. 

^3.^49. 

a3,35«» 

Persons  Mar-\ 
ried / 

Births 

861 
210 

i6'6 
35*7 

21-8 

16-8 

86-9 
21-7 

16-8 

861 
20*4 

16-6 

86-6 
21-0 

16-8 

85*5 
22-8 

171 

86-2 
22-3 

17-6 
85*5 

Deaths 

21-1 

Quarters  of  each  Calendar  Tear,  1870-'78. 
(I.)  Pbbsovb  Married  : — Ratio  per  1,000. 


Qrs.  ended 
last  day  of 

'79. 

Mean 
•69-78 

'78. 

•77. 

•76. 

•76. 

•74. 

•78. 

March     

11-6 
14*8 
14*2 

13-7 
i6-8 
i6-i 
19*6 

12*8 
15-6 
14.8 
17*8 

181 
16*0 
15*4 
18*7 

13-8 
16*9 
161 
19*5 

14*4 
16-2 
16-6 
201 

14*2 
17*9 
16-6 
197 

14*3 

Jnn^ , 

18-8 

September  

December   

16-9 
20*8 

(11.)  Births  :- 

Qrs.  ended 
last  day  q^ 

79. 

Mean 
'69-78. 

•78. 

•77. 

•76. 

•76. 

•74. 

'78. 

March 

86'6 
35-2 
34*4 
34*2 

37-1 
36-a 
34*7 
34-8 

36*2 
36*9 
35*4 
350 

38*0 
36*5 
34-5 
36-7 

38-0 
37*4 
35*4 
35*3 

36*4 
360 
350 
34*7 

36-8 
36*9 
35-8 
36-7 

37-5 

June 

35-5 

September  

December   

34*7 
34-5 

i 

JH.)  Deaths  :- 

—Ratio  per  i,occ 

. 

Qrs.  ended 
last  day  qf 

March 

'79. 

Mean 
'69-78. 

•78. 

•77. 

•76. 

•76. 

'74. 

•78. 

26*2 
211 
16*4 
21-4 

24*1 
21*2 
20*2 

21-9 

22-8 
20-8 
20*6 
22-6 

22*3 
21-5 
17*7 
201 

23*5 
20-9 
19*6 
200 

27-5 
21-9 
201 
21*8 

23*4 
210 
20-8 
23*8 

23*0 

Jane -... 

September  

December  «. 

20-4 
19-5 
21*6 

Digitized  by 


Google 


1880.] 


Uegistraf-QeneraVt  Beport: — England. 


161 


B.  -Comparative  Table  of 

Consols,  Provisions,  Coal,  and  Pauperism  in 

each  Quarter  of  1877-78-79. 

Ayerage  Prices  of 

pAUpemisM. 

Consols 

Dis- 

Whkat 

Mkat  per  Ponnd 

St  the  Metropolitan 

Meat  Mnrkei 

Potatoes 

Coal 

Quarterly  Average  of 

(for 

count 

per 

(Best 

(Sf'H. 

the  Number  of  Paupers 

Qoarten 
ending 

Money) 
per 

lOO/. 

charged 
bytlie 
Bank 

of  Eng. 

Quarter 

in 

England 

and 

(by  the  Carciwe), 
with  the  Jf«u  Prices. 

Quality) 
per  Ton  at 
Waterside 

Market. 

borne) 
in  the 
London 
Market 

Relieved  on  the 
iM/i^ay  of  each  Week. 

Stock. 

land. 

Wales. 

B<er. 

Uutton. 

Somhwsrk. 

per  Ton 

In-door. 

Out-door. 

1877 

£ 

*.    d. 

d.  d.  d. 

<;.  <;.  d. 

*.  *.  *. 

*.     d. 

Mm.  31 

95J 

2'0 

51     4 

4t-7i 
6i 

6-9f 

7* 

138-172 

^55 

16     8 

15^.778 

582,697 

June 80 

941 

^•9 

61     5 

6f 

4i-9i 
7 

136-174 
>55 

18     2 

143,674 

528,878 

Sept.  30 

95i 

a'4 

62     ~ 

6* 

4f-9l 

7* 

97—126 
111 

17      7 

>39»iii 

509,110 

Deo.  81 

96i 

4*5 

52    4 

8f-8 
5l 

4i-8j 

152—174 
163 

18      3 

151*701 

512,839 

1878 

Mar.  31 

95f 

2'4 

50  10 

4i-8i 
6* 

4|-9i 

7 

188-212 

200 

16      2 

162,442 

540,571 

June 80 

951 

a-8 

50    2 

4*-8f 
6» 

6— 9i 
7t 

150—187 

168 

16     4 

151,715 

583,787 

Sept.  30 

95^ 

4'3 

44    6 

4i-8i 
61 

4i-»i 

7 

120—161 

'35 

16     - 

145,956 

513,616 

Dec.  81 

95 

5*4 

40    2 

4i-7i 
6 

4i-«l 
6i 

111—132 

121 

17     4 

159,7*1 

523,996 

1879 

Mar.  81 

96i 

3*3 

39    - 

3i-7i 
5» 

4i-8i 
6* 

118—144 
131 

16     6 

172,200 

599,991 

June 30 

m 

2-0 

41    2 

V 

4i-9 

12^-161 

144 

16     2 

i59,94<> 

567,916 

Sept.  30 

971 

2*0 

47    2 

4^71 
5l 

41-9 
«l 

182—233 

207 

14  10 

157,113 

548,755 

Dec.  81 

98 

2-6 

48    1 

3j-7i 
5t 

4i— 7i 
6t 

136-160 
148 

15  10 

173,099 

565,644 

G. — Oeneral  Average  Death-Rate  Table: — Annual  Rate  of  Mortality  to  1,000 
of  the  Population  in  the  Eleven  Divisions  of  England  and   Wales, 


Divisions. 


England  and  Wales 

I.  London 

II.  South-Eastem  

ni.  South  Midland 

IT.  Eastern 

T.  South- Western , 

TI.  West  Midland 

yn.  North  Midland 

rni.  North-Western 

IX.  Yorkshure 

X.  Northern  

XI.  Monmthsh.  and  Wales   . 

YOL.  XLIII.      PAET  I 


Average  Annual  Rate  of  Mortality  to  1,000  Living  in 


Ten  Years, 


1851^.     18ftl-70. 


22*2 


23-6 
19*6 

20-4 
20*6 
20*0 
224 
21*1 

25*5 
23*1 

22*0 
21*3 


22*4 


24*3 
191 
20*2 
20*1 
19*9 
21*8 
20*8 
26*3 
240 
22-7 
21*6 


Year 
lb78. 


21*7 


23*4 
17*8 
i8*8 
19*5 
19*3 
21-6 

20'9 

iS'9 

22*6 
21*7 
21'1 


1879.    Quarters  ending 


March. 


25*2 


271 
20*3 
22-3 
230 
23*  1 
251 
25-9 
30*6 
25-5 
22*4 
24*3 


June. 


211 


22*4 
17*8 
19*5 
20*2 
19-6 
21*2 
21*4 
231 
21-1 
20*9 
21-8 


Sept. 


16*4 


18*4 
131 
14*0 
15*4 
140 
15*4 
170 
18-9 
170 
171 
16*3 


Dec. 


21*4 


24*9 
170 
180 
18*7 
18*8 
20*4 
21*8 
25*4 
21*2 
19-8 
19*6 


Digitized  by 


ML 

Google 


162 


Periodical  Betums, 


[Mar. 


jy.^Special  Average  Death-Rale  Table: — Annual  Rate  of  Mortautt  per 
i,ooo  in  Town  and  Country  Disfricts  of  England  in  each  Quarter  of  the 
Years  1879-77- 


Area 

in  Sutute 
Acres. 

PopnUtion 
Eiinmerated. 

Qimrters 
ending 

Annual  Rate  of  Mortality  per  1,000 
in  earli  Quarter  of  the  Years 

1871. 

1879. 

Mean 
•69-78. 

1878. 

1877. 

Inl84Di8trict«,andl 
67  Sub -districts,  1 
comprising      the  ( 
Chief  Townt J 

3,184,419 

12,900,142 

rMarch.. 
J  June  .... 

1  Sept 

LDec 

Year  .... 

26-6 
21-6 
17-5 
23*8 

22-7 

24-5 
22-2 
231 
24-8 

23-8 
22-7 
19-2 
22-3 

22-4 

23-8 

23-7 

220 

84,134,802 

9,812,124 

Year  .... 

fMarch.. 
J  June  ... 

1  Sept 

LDec 

191 

192 

190 

18-2 

In  tbe   nmuiniiicr   Dia-") 

comprising  chiefly  f 
Small    Town$   ana 
Countrjf  PaH»k*»  J 

23-2 
20-3 
14-7 
180 

21-8 

194 

i6*9 
i8-6 

20-5 
18-9 
17-2 
19-4 

20-2 
19-6 
15-6 
17-2 

JVb^.— The  three  montha  JaaoMT,  Fehraary,  March,  eontain  90,  and  in  leap  year  91  da/s;  the  three  montha 
April.  Hay,  June,  91  daya ;  and  each  of  the  laat  two  opartera  of  the  year,  93  daya.  For  Uiia  meqtudity  a  oonrectioB 
ia  made  in  f^i«ml^bng  the  rate  of  mortality  in  the  dimrent  <iQartera  of  the  year. 


"E,— Special  Town    TViife;— Population  ;    Birth-Rate  and  Death-Ratb  in  each 
Quarter  of  1870,  in  Twentt-Threk  Large  Tomm. 


Cities*  Ice. 


Estimated 

Population  in 

the  MiddSe 

of  the 
Year  1879. 


Annual  Rate  to  i,ooo  Liring  during  the  Thirteen  AVeeks  ending 


29th  March. 
(1st  Ouarter.) 


Births.    Deaths. 


SSth  June. 
(2nd  Quarter.) 


Births.    Deaths. 


27th  September. 
(3rd  (Quarter.) 


Births.    Deaths. 


3rd  Jan..  1880. 
(4th  Quarter.)* 


Births.    Deaths. 


Total  of  23  towns  in  U.  K. 

London  

Brighton   

Portsmouth  

Norwich    

Plymouth 

Bristol   

Wolverhampton  

Birmingham 

Jjeicester  

Nottingham 

Liverpool  

Manchester  

Salford  

Oldham 

Bradford   

Leeds 

Sheffield    

Hull  

Sunderland  

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Edinburgh    

Glasgow    

Dublin  


8,502,896 

3,620,868 

105,608 

I3»»82i 

85,222 

74»293 
209,947 

75,100 
388,884 
125,622 
169,396 
538,388 
361,819 
177,849 
111,318 
191,046 
311,860 
^97,138 
14<5,347 
114,575 
146,948 
226,075 
578,156 
314,666 


37-8 

380 
29-0 
32-4 
35-2 
34-0 
380 
421 
42-4 
40-2 
37-8 
40-8 
38-8 
44*4 
35-6 
35-7 
381 
36-5 
39-7 
41-7 
37-4 
330 
36-8 
31-8 


27-8 

27-1 

21*3 
20-3 

H'9 
23-6 
23-8 
27*8 
26*6 
26-1 
26*9 
32*9 
35*1 
31*5 
27-5 
247 
26-5 
26-4 
26-4 
24-6 
*5'4 

21-8 

26-6 
43*3 


35-7 
35*4 
31-2 
31-3 
34-9 
291 
34-8 
38*4 
40*5 
35-9 
35-7 
37-6 
35-7 
381 
340 
31-6 
36-3 
35-8 
40-8 
40-8 
37-3 
34*3 
86*3 
32-7 


22-7 
22*4 

i8-o 
t5-8 

22*0 
21-7 
20*1 

»3'3 

22*4 

19*9 

20*7 

23-6 
25-8 

22-8 

21-3 

21*1 
2fO 
2fO 
21-8 
22-8 

25*4 
20'6 

22*0 

36-5 


35-6 

35-8 
28*8 
31-5 
31-4 
32-6 
35-4 
34-7 
38-4 
381 
35-2 
38*4 
36*4 
40*3 
34-9 
31-2 
36-5 
35-6 
39-7 
38-6 
36-8 
31-8 
33-2 
32-4 


8-4 

8-4 
6-2 
3*0 
7*4 
7*3 
6-5 
6-0 
6-6 
8-0 
7*4 
*4 
o'S 
9*5 
7*2 
6-8 
8-3 
6*5 
6-8 

9*5 

20*9 

6-5 
7*0 

25*1 


35-6 

36-7 
30-2 
31-7 
34-7 
301 
35-2 
37-3 
39-2 
36-0 
35-4 
38-9 
34-5 
37-7 
340 
330 
36-6 
35-6 
38*3 
36-5 
35'9 
32-2 
31-4 
28*4 


24-6 
249 

20*2 

17*7 

22-7 

26-8 
23*7 
23-8 

23*1 
22-4 

25*3 

30-2 

26-2 

*5'7 

20'8 
22*0 

24'3 

21*2 

23'9 
20-8 

22-8 

19*7 
21-3 
35-6 


*  This  quarter  contains  fourteen  weeks. 


^itized  by 


Goo^It 


1880.] 


Bsgiatra/r-OeftLeraV 8  Repwi: — Bnglcmd. 


163 


F.^Divisional  Table: — Marriages  in  the  Tear  ending  ZOth  September;  and  Births 
avd  Deaths  in  the  Tear  ending  31«<  Decemher^  1879,  as  Registered  Quarterly, 


I 

S 

8 

4                i                <                7 
MAaniAQM  in  Qaartem  ending 

DIVISIONS. 
(England  mnd  Wales.) 

in 
SUtate  Acres. 

1871. 
(Fsrsom.) 

3l8t 

December, 
1878. 

Slst 
March. 
187«. 

SOth  June. 
1879. 

SOth 
1879. 

Engld.  kWAJLEB....T»taU 

37,319.221 

No. 
22,712,266 

No. 
^  55,608 

No. 
35,851 

No. 
46,488 

No. 
45,071 

I.  London ».. 

II.  South-Eaetern  « 

III.  Soutb  Midland 

IV.  Eastern 

75,362 

3,994,431 
3,201,325 

3,211,441 

4,981,170 
3,945,460 
3,535445 

1,998,914 
3,702,384 
3,547,947 

5,125,342 

3,254,260 

2,167,726 
1,442,654 
1,218,728 

1,880,777 
2,721,931 
1,406,935 

3,889,044 
2,444,762 
1,365,041 

1,420,408 

9,533 

5,205 
3,278- 
3,162 

3,646 
6,369 
3,455 

8,429 

6,333 
3,067 

3,131 

6,276 

3,096 
1,530 
1,530 

2,496 
3.847 
1,996 

6,408 
4,852 
2,330 

1,991 

8,524 

4,184 

2,304 
1,946 

3,228 
5,112 
3,130 

7,639 
5,173 
2,610 

2,638 

9,187 

4,096 
2,280 
1,708 

V.  South-Western 

VI.  West  Midland  

VII.  North  Midland 

VIII.  North-Westem 

IX.  Yorkshire 

2,871 
4,875 
2,541 

7,937 
4,849 

z.  Northern  

2,616 

XI.  Monmthsh.&Wales 

2,311 

8 

9             10             11             12 
BiETHS  in  each  Quarter  of  1879  ending 

18            14             IS            16 
Oraths  in  each  Quarter  of  1879  ending 

DIVISIONS. 
(England  and  Wales.) 

Slst 
March. 

SOth 
Jane. 

SOth 
Septem- 
ber. 

Slst 
Decem- 
ber. 

3l8t 

March. 

SOih 
June. 

SOth 

Septem- 

her. 

Slst 
Decem- 
ber. 

No. 
226,669 

No. 

221,OH 

No. 
218,170 

No. 
217,016 

No. 
156,390 

No. 
132,186 

No. 
103,733 

No. 
^35,885 

I.  liondon 

34,262 

19,511 
13,007 
10,736 

14,585 
27,555 
14,495 

38458 
25,728 
15,192 

13,140 

31,900 

18,647 
12,861 
10,847 

14,187 
26,992 
14,305 

36,620 
25,179 
15,633 

32,276 

19.007 
12,311 

10,2f9 

13,901 
25,894 
13,993 

37,163 
25,365 
14,925 

13,116 

35,658 

19,169 
12,370 
10,716 

13,646 
25,365 
13,960 

85,292 
24,741 
13,817 

24,4-29 

12,407 
8,733 
7,305 

10,935 

18,367 

9,643 

28,685 

1.7,822 

8,87  < 

20,248 

11,024 
7,739 
6,472 

9,388 

15,660 

8,067 

21,944 

14,933 

8,380 

8,881 

16,633 

8,198 
5,625 
5,012 

6,772 

11,492 

6,476 

18,137 

12,138 

6,958 

6,292 

24,230 

n.  South-Eastem  

III.  South  Midland 

IV.  Eastern 

10,629 
7,205 
6,087 

V.  South-Westem 

VI.  West  Midland  

vn.  North  Midland 

vni.  North-Westem 

ix.  Yorkshire 

9,063 

15,266 

8,295 

24,388 
15,149 

X.  Northern 

8,049 

XI.  Monmthsh.ft  Wales 

ld,84( 

[) 

12,2 

S2 

9,18 

9 

7,674 

,  *  These  are  revised  figures,  and  will   be  found  to   differ  somewhat  from  those  first 
published. 


Digitized  by 


C^Sogk 


164 


Periodical  Returns. 


[Mar. 


G. — Oeneral  Meteorological  Table, 

[Ahttracted  fiom  the  particulars  tupplied  to  the 


Temperature  of 

Elastic 
Force 

of 
Vapour. 

Weight 
of  Vapour 

1879^ 

Air. 

Evaporation. 

Dew  Point. 

Ai^- 
Daily  aange. 

Water 
of  the 
rhames 

ina 

Cubic  Foot 

of  Air. 

Month!. 

Mean 

DiflT. 
from 
Aver, 
age  of 

!o8 
Year». 

Diff. 
from 
Aver- 

Years. 

Hean. 

Diff. 
from 
Aver- 
age of 

88 
Years. 

Mean. 

Diff. 
from 
Aver- 

Years. 

Mean 

Diff. 
from 
Aver- 

Years. 

Mean. 

Diff. 
from 
Aver- 

Years. 

Mean. 

from 
Aver- 
age of 

88 
Years. 

Jan 

o 
81  •» 

o 
-4-7 

o 
-8-8 

0 

80-4 

o 
-8-8 

o 
27-0 

o 
-8-2 

o 
7-1 

0 

-2-6 

o 
84-9 

In. 
•146 

In. 
-066 

Grs. 
1^7 

6r. 
-0^7 

Feb 

88-9 

-0-5 

-1-2 

86 -7 

-l-O 

34-7 

-0-4 

8-3 

-2-9 

38-9 

•201 

-006 

9^8 

-©•1 

Mar.    .. 

41-2 

+01 

-0-4 

38'6 

-0-7 

35-2 

-11 

14-2 

-0-4 

48  0 

•90S 

-010 

9-4 

-0-1 

Mean  ... 

37-1 

-1-7 

-2-8 

SS-2 

-2-8 

32-3 

-3-2 

9-9 

-2-0 

38-9 

•184 

-•024 

2^1 

-0^8 

April  ... 

43-2 

-2-9 

-4-0 

40-7 

-3-4 

87 -a 

-30 

:l6-8 

-2-2 

48-4 

•226 

-•029 

9-6 

-0  8 

May 

48-4 

-4-1 

-4-8 

44-7 

-4-2 

40-7 

-46 

18-3 

-21 

52-0 

•254 

-•046 

2-9 

-0^6 

June  ... 

66-9 

-1-8 

-2-1 

6V8 

-0-6 

51-0 

+0-4 

17-4 

-8-8 

69-6 

•374 

+  •004 

4-9 

+0^1 

Mean  ... 

49-5 

-2-8 

-8-5 

46-4 

-2-7 

43-1 

-2  4 

17-3 

-2-7 

52-7 

•284 

-•024 

8-2 

-0-3 

July 

68-1 

-8-6 

-^•1 

56-6 

-2-1 

58*4 

-0-6 

16-6 

-6-7 

60-6 

•409 

-•008 

46 

-01 

Aug.    ... 

69-9 

-1-0 

-1-6 

67-4 

0-0 

f>6*2 

+1-4 

16-4 

-8-4 

62  9 

•436 

+  •018 

4-9 

+0^3 

Sept.  ... 

66-8 

-0-2 

-0-8 

&3-8 

-01 

51-4 

+0-4 

16-3 

-2-2 

68-8 

•879 

+  •001 

4  8 

-01 

Mean  ... 

68-1 

-1-6 

-2-2 

55-6 

-0-7 

63-3 

+04 

18-1 

-&-8 

60-7 

•408 

+  004 

4^6 

0-0 

Oct 

491 

-0-6 

-11 

47-6 

-0-7 

46-8 

-0-2 

19-6 

-2-3 

— 

•308 

-•006 

8^6 

-01 

Not.    ... 

88-8 

-40 

-5-2 

86-6 

-4-8 

•34-9 

-5-2 

10-9 

-1-4 

— 

•197 

-•049 

2^3 

-©•5 

Dec.    ... 

32*4 

-6-7 

-7-6 

81-3 

-7-8 

28-8 

-7-9 

10-6 

+  1-2 

- 

•168 

-062 

1-9 

-0-6 

Mean  ... 

89-9 

-8-7 

-4-6 

38-4 

-4-2 

36 -3 

-4-4 

11  1 

-0-8 

- 

•221 

-•039 

2^6 

-0^4 

Note. — In  reading  tltis  titble  it  will  be  borne  in  miud  that  the  sign  (— )  minus  signifies 


The  mean  temperature  of  the  air  for  October  was  49°'l,  being  0°-5  and  l^'l 
reapectively,  below  the  averages  of  the  preceding  108  years  and  88  years.  It 
was  2^^4  lower  than  the  value  in  1878. 

The  mean  temperature  of  the  air  for  November  was  38°*8,  being  4°'0  and 
5**'2  respectively,  below  the  averages  of  the  preceding  108  years  and  88  years.  In 
the  preceding  108  years  there  are  but  four  instances  of  so  cold  a  November,  viz., 
in  the  year  1782,  34°-7;  in  1786,  86°7;  in  1851,  37°-9;  and  in  1871,  37*^-6. 

The  mean  temperature  of  the  air  for  December  was  82°*4^  being  6^*7  and 
7^*6  respectively,  below  the  averages  of  the  preceding  108  years  and  38  years.  It 
was  the  coldest  December  in  this  century,  and  there  are  but  three  instances  of  so 
c?)ld  a  December  back  to  1771,  viz.,  in  the  year  1784,  31*^;  in  1788,  29°D;  and 
in  1796,  30°-4. 


Digitized  by 


Google 


1880.] 


Meteorological  Report 


165 


for  the  Year  ended  31«<  December,  1870. 
Regittrar-Genenil  by  JAMxa  GLAisHBm,  E8Q.»  F.R.S.,  &e.] 


Degree 

Reading 

Weight 

of  a 

Cubic  Foot 

of  Air. 

Daily 
Hon- 
zontel 
More. 
ment 
of  the 
Air. 

Reading  of  Tliermometer  on  Grata. 

of 
Hnmidity. 

of 

Barometer. 

Bam. 

Numlier  of  Night! 
itwai 

Low. 

eit 
Read. 

ing 

at 
Night. 

High. 
est 

Read, 
ing 
at 

Night. 

1S79. 

)fMa. 

Diff. 

from 
Aver- 
ngeof 

38 
Years 

Mean. 

Diff. 
from 
Arer. 

Tears. 

Mean. 

Diff. 
ftrom 
Aver- 

Years. 

Annt. 

Diff. 

from 
Aver- 
age of 

64 
Ycar». 

At  or 
below 
SOo. 

Be- 

tveen 
80O 
ami 
40O. 

Above 
40O. 

Month! 

80 

-  7 

In. 
29-661 

In. 

+  •097 

Gra. 
668 

Grs. 
+  10 

In. 
2-6 

In. 
+0-7 

Milei. 
283 

24 

7 

0 

187 

o 
33-0 

January 

87 

+  3 

29 -368 

-■488 

647 

-  6 

3-8 

+2-3 

808 

11 

14 

8 

28-0 

44-9 

Feb. 

8f) 

-  2 

29-809 

+  069 

669 

+  2 

0^6 

-1-0 

816 

13 

Snm 
88 

1 

Snm 

4 

24-9 

42-2 

March 

82 

29-674 

-•091 

654 

+  8 

Sum 
7-0 

Sum 
+2-0 

Mean 
301 

Sum 
48 

18-7 

Higfast 
44^ 

Mean 

81 

+  8 

29  620 

-•241 

644 

■  +  1 

2-6 

+0-9 

229 

8 

30 

2 

24-0 

40-6 

April 

76 

-  1 

29-838 

+  -062 

644 

+  8 

8-4 

+1-3 

260 

8 

14 

9 

24-6 

46  6 

May 

80 

-t-  « 

29-641 

--171 

681 

-  1 

4-8 

+2-3 

277 

0 

3 

27 

86  8 

66-6 

June 

7» 

+  8 

29-666 

I--120 

640 

+  1 

Slim 
10-3 

Sum 

+  4-6 

Mean 
256 

Sum 
16 

Sum 
37 

Sum 
38 

Lowent 
24-0 

%•' 

Mean 

84 

+  » 

29-628 

-•177 

629 

+  1 

8-7 

+  1-2 

314 

0 

0 

81 

400 

68-6 

July 

88 

+  9 

29-672 

-•114 

528 

0 

6-2 

+8-8 

286 

0 

0 

31 

41-0 

66-2 

August 

84 

+  4 

29  802 

-•008 

684 

+  1 

2-8 

i+0-4 

221 

0 

8 

27 

86-0 

67-0 

Sept. 

84 

+  7 

29-701 

-•098 

680 

+  1 

Sam 
11-7 

Sum 

+  4-4 

Mean 
273 

Sum 
0 

Sura 
3 

Sum 

89 

Lowest 
36-0 

X" 

Mean 

89 

+  8 

29-962 

+  -2M 

646 

+  6 

0-8 

-2-0 

263 

8 

12 

16 

29-2 

oOO 

October 

8S 

-  8 

80-084 

+  •295 

669 

+  11 

0-9 

-1-6 

239 

18 

11 

1 

16-0 

42-2 

Nov. 

87 

-  1 

80-139 

+  -863 

668 

+  16 

0-6 

-1-4 

230 

24 

7 

0 

13-7 

37-5 

Dec. 

87 

0 

30-024 

+  -800 

667 

+  11 

Sum 
2-3 

Sum 
-4-9 

Mean 
241 

Sum 
46 

Sum 
80 

Sum 
17 

LowMt 
13-7 

"«W 

Mean 

below  the  average,  and  that  the  aign  (+)  plus  signifies  above  the  average. 


The  mecm  temperature  of  the  air  for  the  quarter  was  89°^9,  being  8^^7 
and  4^*6  reapectiTely  below  the  avflraget  of  the  preceding  108  years  and 
88  years. 

The  mean  high  day  temperatures  of  the  air  were  2^*8,  fSi^'i,  and  7^*5  respec- 
tivelj,  below  their  averages  in  October,  November  and  December. 

s 

The  mean  tow  night  temperatures  of  the  air  were  0°'6,  4^*0,  and  8^-5  respec- 
tively, below  their  averages  in  October,  November  and  December.  Therefore  the 
days  and  nights  were  cold  Uironghont  the  quarter,  and  particularly  so  in  November 
and  December. 


Digitized  by 


Google 


166 


Periodical  Returns, 


[Mar. 


No.  n.-6G0TLAND. 
BIRTHSl,   DEATHS,  aitd    MABBIAGES,  nr  thx  Ybab 

(BNDBD   aiST  DbOSMBBB,  1879. 


I. — Sevial  Table  : — Number  of  Bprths,  Deaths,  and  Marriaobs  in  Scotland^  and 
their  Proportion  to  the  Population  estimated  to  the  Middle  of  each  Year^  during 
each  Quarter  of  the  Years  1679-76  inclusive. 


1879. 

1878. 

1«77. 

1876. 

1875. 

Number. 

Per 
•Cent. 

Number. 

Per 
Cent. 

Number. 

Per 
Cent. 

Number. 

Per 
Cent. 

Number. 

Per 
Cent. 

1st  quarter— 

Births 

Deaths 

Marriages .. 

31,830 

22,364 

5,956 

3'5i 
2'47 
0-66 

81,226 

20,320 

6,063 

3-48 
2-26 
0*63 

31,256 

20,525 

5,977 

3*51 
2'3i 
0*67 

82,333 

21,294 

6^663 

3-67 
241 
0*75 

31,096 

25,116 

6,369 

3-56 
2-87 
0-73 

Mean  Tern- 1 
perature  j 

84°0 

89°-9 

38''-5 

3r-9 

88°-7 

2.nd  Quarter- 

Births 

Deattis 

Marriages .. 

32,968 
18,784 
'6,050 

3-64 

2-04 

0*67 

33,629 

19,&14 

6,095 

3*74 

2-17 

0-68 

33,355 

19,580 

6,735 

3*75 

2'20 
0*76 

53,088 

19,270 

6,469 

3'75 
i-i8 

0-73 

32,294 

19,518 

6,638 

3*70 

2-23 

0*76 

Mean  Tern- 1 

perature  j' 

46*'-8 

50''-4 

4r-5 

49°'2 

60^-73 

Srd  Quarter— 

Births 

Deaths 

Marriages  .. 

81,436 

16,115 

5,061 

3-47 

1-67 
0*56 

31,236 

17,344 

5,508 

3-48 
1*93 
o-6i 

30,988 

15,919 

5,694 

3*45 
1*79 
0*64 

80,790 

16,465 

5,895 

3*49 
1-87 
0*67 

30,123 

18,050 

5,723 

3 '45 
2-07 
0*65 

MeanTem-' 
perature 

64^1 

5r-5 

54''0 

56'0 

5r-27 

^th  Quarter— 

Births 

Deaths 

Marriages .. 

30,064 

17,480 

6,523 

3-32 
1*93 
0-72 

30,616 

19,597 

6,662 

3*4< 
2-i8 

0-74 

31,225 

17,916 

7,384 

3*51 

2*OI 
0*83 

80,588 

17,093 

7,546 

3-46 
1*94 
0-86 

30,180 

19,101 

7,191 

3*45 
2-19 
0-82 

Mean  Tem- 
perature 

40°-4 

39°-2 

42°-8 

43°-5 

4r-7 

Year— 
Population . 

3.6^7,453 

3>593»929 

3»56o,7i5 

3.5*7,811 

3,495»2H 

Births 

Deaths 

Marriages.. 

125,736 
73,329 
23,462 

3-46 

Z'02 
0*65 

126,707 
76,775 
24,333 

3'53 

2-14 

o'68 

126,824 
73,946 
25,790 

3-56 
2*o8 

0-72 

126,749 
74,122 
26,563 

3*59 

2"10 

0-75 

123,693 
81,785 
25,921 

3'54 
i'34 
0-74 

Digitized  by 


Google 


1880.] 


Begtstrar-OeneraVs  Report : — Scotlcmd. 


167 


I  r. — Special  Average  Table: — dumber  of  Births,  Deaths,  and  Marriages  in  Scotland  and 
in  the  Tovm  and  Country  Districts  for  each  Quarter  of  the  Year  ending  3lst 
December,  1879,  and  their  Proportion  to  the  Population;  also  the  Number  of 
Illegitimate  Births,  and  their  Proportion  to  the  Total  Births. 


TotHl   Births. 

Illegitimate 

Births. 

Deaths. 

Marriaifes. 

Registration 
Groups 

Per 
Cent. 

Ratio. 

Per 

Ratio. 

Per 

Ratio. 

Per 

Ratio. 

of  Districts. 

Number 

One  in 
every 

Nnmber 

Cent. 

One  in 
erery 

Number. 

Cent. 

One  in 
every 

Number. 

Cent. 

One  in 
every 

Isf  Quarter— 

Scotland  

31,830 

3*51 

28 

2,736 

8-6 

11-6 

22,364 

3^-47 

40 

5,966 

0-66 

152 

Principal  towns 

10,955 

r46 

29 

911 

8-^ 

120 

8,125 

*'57 

39 

2,421 

0*76 

132 

Large          „ 
Small 

3,894 

4*20 

24 

275 

7*1 

141 

2,959 

3'J9 

31 

707 

076 

132 

7,463 

V67 

27 

605 

8-1 

12-3 

4,801 

2-36 

42 

1,288 

0-63 

159 

Mainland  rural 

8,778 

r^f 

30 

894 

lo'a 

9-8 

5,758 

2*2<; 

46 

1,311 

0-50 

200 

Insular        „ 

740 

231 

43 

50 

6-8 

14-7 

721 

2*20 

44 

229 

071 

141 

2nd  Quarter — 

^" 

Scotland  

32,968 

3-64 

27 

2,606 

7*9 

12-7 

18,784 

2-04 

49-0 

6,050 

0-67 

140 

Principal  towns 

11,506 

V6^ 

28 

959 

8M 

120 

7,007 

2*21 

45-2 

2,392 

076 

132 

Large          „ 

4,294 

46  s 

22 

273 

6-4 

15-6 

2,327 

2*51 

39-8 

698 

075 

133 

Small 

7,878 

V87 

26 

561 

7'i 

141 

4,230 

2*o8 

AS'\ 

1,280 

0*63 

159 

Mainland  rural 

8,576 

V^7 

30 

770 

9*0 

111 

4^657 

1-78 

56-2 

1,578 

o'6o 

167 

Insular        „ 

714 

2'23 

45 

43 

60 

16-7 

563 

176 

56-8 

102 

0-32 

313 

9rd  QuaHer— 

Scotland  

31,436 

3*47 

29 

2,729 

8-7 

11-6 

15,115 

1-67 
1-73 

60-0 

6,061 

0-56 

179 

Principal  towns 

10,781 

3*40 

29 

940 

8-7 

11-5 

5,462 

58-0 

2,236 

071 

142 

Large          „ 

3,980 

429 

23 

265 

6-7 

16-0 

1,892 

2-04 

490 

645 

070 

144 

SmaU 

7,598 

3*74 

27 

627 

8-3 

121 

3,478 

1-71 

58-5 

1.076 

o-.')3 

189 

Mainland  rural 

8,177 

V12 

32 

846 

10-^ 

9-7 

8,831 

146 

68-4 

1,009 

0-39 

259 

Insular        „ 

900 

2-8 1 

36 

51 

5*7 

17-6 

452 

1-41 

70-9 

95 

0-30 

337 

Uh  Quarter— 

Scotland   

30,064 

3'32 

30 

2,606 

8-6 

11-5 

17,480 

^•93 

52 

6,523 

072 

139 

Principal  towns ' 

10,285 

3-25 

31 

873 

8-^ 

11-8 

6,538 

2-o6 

48 

2,420 

076 

131 

Large 

3,782 

4-o8 

25 

264 

7-0 

14-8 

2,259 

2*44 

41 

724 

078 

128 

SmaU 

7,169 

3'S2 

28 

675 

8-0 

12-5 

4,060 

2'OC 

50 

1,441 

071 

141 

Mainland  rural 

7,915 

V02 

33 

839 

io'6 

9-4 

4,198 

r6o 

62 

1,785 

0-68 

147 

Insular        „ 

923 

2*88 

35 

55 

6-0 

16-8 

425 

^'11 

75 

163 

0-48 

209 

Papulation  of  Scotland, 


Population. 

ScoUand. 

Principal 
Towns. 

Large 
Towns. 

Small 
Towns. 

Mainli«na 
Rural. 

Insular 
Rural. 

By  Census  of  1871    

Estimated  to  the  middle  \ 
of  1879   ' 

3,360,018 
3»627,453 

1,079,211 
1,266,521 

318,740 
371,076 

767,487 
813,646 

1,062,576 
1,048,013 

182,004 
128,198 

Digitized  by 


Google 


168 


Periodieal  Beturns, 


[Mar. 


III. — Ba»tardy  Table: — Proportion  of  Illbgitimatb  in  every  Hundred 
Births  in  the  Divisiom  and  Counties  of  Scotland,  during  each 
quarter  of  the  Year  ending  31«/  December,  1870 ;  unth  the  Corresponding 
Figures  for  1878  added  for  Comparison, 


Divitioni  aad  CoantiM. 


Per  Cent  for  the  Qtuirtert  ending 


SUt 
March. 


80th 
June. 


HOth 
Sept. 


Silt 
Dec 


Per  Cent,  for  the  Qumrten  endiig 

187B. 


Slit 
March. 


SOth 
Jane. 


SOth 
Sept. 


Silt 
Dec. 


SOOTLAUD 


8-6 


7-9 


8-7 


8-67 


8*46 


7-8 


8-5 


Divisions — 
Northern  

North-western.. 

North-Eastern .. 

East  Midland   .. 

West  Midland  .. 

South- Western.. 

South-Eastem  .. 

Southern   


Countiss — 

Shetland 

Orkney    

Caithness 

Sutherland 

Boss  and  Cromarty 

Inverness    

Nairn  

.  Elgin   

BanflT  

Aberdeen 

Kincardine 

Forfar 

Perth  

Fife 

Kinross    

Clackmannan ... 

Stirling    

Dumbarton 

Argyll 

Bute    

Renfrew 

Ayr 

Lanark    

Linlithgow 

Edinburgh  

Haddington    ... 

Berwick  

Peebles    

Selkirk     

Roxburgh    

Dumfries 

Kirkcudbright 

Wigtown 


7-0 
6-6 

8-3 
6-8 
7*0 
8-1 
14*6 


4-0 

3-6 

II-4 

6-8 

4-0 

9'2 

9*3 

13-8 

i8-z 

14-6 

i6'9 

9-8 
8-3 
6-9 

**7 

7'5 
6-3 
5*3 
9'5 
8-0 

5*4 
8-0 

7-2 
8-4 
8-0 

7*4 

9*3 

ii-7 

7-5 

12*9 

14*6 

M-4 
17-7 


72 
6-6 

129 
8-8 
5-8 
6-6 
7-6 

11-3 


2-2 

60 

10-8 

6-7 

41 

6-6 

80 

13-9 

160 

131 

9-6 

102 

9-7 

6-5 

5-4 

66 

60 

61 

6-2 

61 

6-6 

71 

6-6 

7-9 

7-4 

7-8 

6-9 

60 

8-3 

100 

11-6 

11-2 

131 


y6 

6'o 
14*0 
9*5 
6-7 
7*5 
7*5 
U*9 


61 
6-0 

141 
9-6 
7-7 
71 
7-6 

14-3 


8-9 
6-0 
14-9 
90 
6'4 
6-9 

7*5 
14-1 


3*o 

5-7 
7-0 

5*9 

6*5 
9-6 

11*9 

i8-o 

13*1 
16-8 

11-4 
8*5 
7'i 

io*6 

6'S 

5*8 
5*9 

lO'O 

4*5 
6-5 
8-1 
7-6 
8-6 

7*1 
8-6 

8-3 

6-4 

10*4 

12-4 

•4*1 
14-9 
14*6 


3-9 

60 

7-6 

6-3 

3-9 

8-0 

61 

15-6 

14*6 

13-8 

16-6 

11-3 

9-4 

6-6 

14-6 

7-7 

8-1 

61 

9-5 

6-8 

6-9 

7-5 

7-4 

8-2 

71 

5-4 

10-9 

9-6 

101 

12-8 

16-6 

14-4 

12-7 


5*1 
9-6 
II-4 
7*7 
3*7 
8-1 

17*5 

22*2 
17*3 

<3*3 

I4'4 

9*3 

9*6 

8-0 

12-8 

9*5 
6-1 

5*6 
8*4 
5*7 
5-6 
6-9 
7'2 
7-6 
7*4 
B'S 
12-6 

7*5 

2*7 

io*4 
i3*« 
i6-7 
i8*o 


90 
61 

130 
8*4 
6-6 
6*4 
7*6 

11*3 


6-4 

72 

13*6 

6*4 

6*0 

7*0 

6*5 

14*8 

140 

12*8 

12*3 

9*8 

7*3 

6-9 

11*6 

7*4 

6*6 

4*8 

6-9 

6*5 

5*1 

6*7 

6*6 

91 

7*5 

61 

7*8 

8*7 

7*1 

9*1 

12-1 

11-2 

12*9 


7*1 

5*9 

14*0 

8*9 

6*2 

71 

8*4 

13*4 


4*» 

7*6 

8-3 
7-8 
3-6 
8*1 

7*4 
16*2 
i6'4 
'3-8 
10*0 

9*9 
io*4 

6-9 

4-8 
7*o 
7*i 
4*3 
7*3 
3*9 
6*4 
7'5 
7-1 
7*9 
8*o 
101 
13*1 
4-8 
8*o 
8-7 
U*8 

i6-3 
i6*i 


8-67 


61 
60 

141 
9*6 
7*7 
7*1 
7-6 

14*3 


3*9 

60 

7-6 

6*3 

3-9 

80 

61 

15*6 

14*6 

13-8 

15*6 

11*3 

9*4 

6*6 

14*6 

7*7 

81 

61 

9*6 

6-8 

6*9 

7-6 

7*4 

8-2 

7*1 

5*4 

10*9 

9*6 

101 

12-3 

16*6 

14*4 

12*7 


Digitized  by 


Google 


1880.]  Registrar-aeneraVs  BepoH:^ Scotland.  169 

IV. — Divistonal  7'aW«:— Marriaobs,  Births,  anc?  Dbaths  Regiitered  in 

the  Year  ended  ^Ut  December,  1870. 

(Compiled  from  the  Regiitrar-General'i  Quarterly  Retnmi.) 


1 

DIVISIONS. 

(Scotland) 

8 

kMMk 

in 
SUtute  Acrei. 

8 

Population. 

1871. 

(Persons.) 

4 
Marriagee. 

6 
Birthi. 

6 
Deaths. 

SOOTLAVD  TotaU 

19,^391377 

No. 
3,360,018 

No. 
23,729 

No. 
126,850 

No. 
75,860 

I.  Korthem  

2,261,622 

4.739,876 
2,429.594 

2,790,492 
2,693,176 

1,462,397 
1,192,524 
2,069,696 

127,191 
166,851 
398,199 

559,676 
251,088 

1,188,218 
475,523 
203,772 

598 

800 

2,604 

3,575 
1,494 

9,646 
3,816 
•1,196 

8,124 

4,279 

13,694 

19,626 
9,081 

52,436 

18,193 

6,417 

2,044 
2,836 
7,175 

12,098 
5,515 

31,920 

10,317 

3,955 

n.  North- Western 

in.  North-Eaatern 

IT.  Bast  Midland    

T.  West  Midland 

ri,  Soutb-Western 

yn.  South-Eastern  

VIII.  Southern   

No.  IIL-GREAT  BRITAIN  AND  IRELAND. 

SumcART  of  Marriages,  in  the  Year  ended  30th  September,  1879 ;  and 
of  Births  and  Deaths,  in  the  Year  ended  Zlet  December,  1870. 

(Compiled  from  the  Quarterly  Retnmi  of  the  reapectire  Regittrara-Oeneral.) 


[OOO'i  omitted.] 

Marriages. 

Per 
1,000  of 
Popu- 
UUon. 

Birtha. 

Per 

1,000  of 
Popu- 
lation. 

Death!. 

Per 

COOHTKIXS. 

Area 

in 
Statute 
Acres. 

Popu- 

bUon, 

1871. 

{Persons.) 

l.OOOof 
Popu- 
lation. 

England    and! 
Wales / 

Scotland 

37,319, 

19,639, 
20,323, 

No. 
22,712, 

3,860, 
5,412, 

No. 
183,018 

23,729 
23,824 

Ratio. 
8-1 

7*1 

4*4 

No. 
882,866 

126,850 
185,408 

Ratio. 
38-9 

37-7 
25*0 

No. 
528,194 

75,860 
105,432 

Ratio. 
23-2 

22-6 

I'vland    .    . 

19-5 

G^BSAT  BbitaiwI 

AND  IbBLAND  J 

77,281, 

31,484, 

280,571 

7-3 

1,145,124 

36-4 

709,486 

22*2 

Note. — ^The  numbers  against  Ireland  represent  the  marriages,  births,  and  deaths 
that  the  local  registrars  hare  succeeded  in  recording ;  but  how  far  the  registration 
approximates  to  absolute  completeness,  does  not  at  present  appear  to  be  known.  It 
will  be  seen  that  the  Irish  ratios  of  marriages,  births,  and  deaths  are  much  under  those 
of  England  and  Scotland. — Ed.  8.  J, 


Digitized  by 


Google 


iro 


Periodical  Returns. 


[Mar. 


Trade  of  United  Kinflrdom,  for  the  Tears  1878-74. — Declared  Value  of  the  Total 
Exports  of  Foreifrn  and  Colonial  Produce  and  Manufactures  to  each  Foreign 
Country  and  British  Possession. 


Merchmndise  Exported 
to  tlie  following  Foreign  Coontriet,  Sec 


[000*8  omitted.] 


1878. 


1877. 


1876. 


1875. 


1874. 


I.— FOBEIGN  COUNTBIBS. 

Northern  Enrope;  ^iz-i  Russia,  Sweden,  1 
Norway,  Deumark,  k  Iceland,  &  Heligoland  J 

Central  Europe;  viz.,  Germany,  Holland  1 
and  Belgium  j 

Western  Europe ;  viz.,  France,  Portugal,  1 
(with  Azores,  Madeira,  &c.),  and  Spain,  V 
(with  Gibraltar  and  Canaries) J 

Southern  Europe;  viz.,  Italy,  Austrian! 
Empire,  Greece,  Ionian  Islands,  and  Malta  / 

Levant ;  viz.,  Turkey,  with  Wallachia  and  1 
Moldavia,  Syria  and  Palestine,  and  Egypt  J 

Northern  Africa;    viz.,  Tripoli,  Tunis,  1 

Algeria,  and  Morocco  j 

Western  Africa 

Eastern  Africa;  vrith  African  Ports  on 
Red  Sea,  Aden,  Arabia,  Persia,  Bourbon, 
and  Eooria  Mooria  Islands  

Tndian  Seas,  Siam,  Sumatra,  Java,  Philip- 1 

pines ;  other  Islands ^ J 

South  Sea  Islands  

China,  including  Hong  Kong 

United  States  of  America 

Mexico  and  Central  America   

Foreign  West  Indies  and  Hayti  

South  America  (Northern),  New  Granada,  l 

Venezuela  and  Ecuador  j 
,,  (Pacific),    Peru,    BoUvia,i 

ChiU,  and  Patagonia  ....  j 
,1  (AtIantic),Brazil,  Uruguay,  1 

and  Buenos  Ayres    J 

Other  countries  (unenumerated) 


:} 


4.799» 
20,915,. 

i2>973, 

1,766, 

737, 

178, 
257, 

328» 


£ 
4,687, 

22,182, 

12,789, 

1,778, 
474, 

77, 
299, 


307, 


4,951, 
23,543, 

14,343, 

2,066, 
593, 

76, 
270, 


183, 


£ 
5,478, 

25,842, 

13,509, 

2,056, 
655, 

86, 
259, 

162, 


Total — Foreign  Countries.. 
n. — ^British  Possessions: 


British  India,  Ceylon,  and  Singapore 
Austral.  Cols. — New  South  Wales  and  Vic- 


ic-l 


toria.  So.  Aus.,  W.  Aus.,  Tasm.,  and 
Zealand   

British  Xorth  America 

„      W.Indies  with  Bt>8h.GKiiana& Honduras 

Cape  and  Natal  

Brt.  W.  Co.  of  Af.,  Ascension  and  St.  Helena. 

Mauritius    

Channel  Islands ., 

Other  possessions  


Total — British  Possessions 


General  Total  £ 


38a, 

2,980, 

121, 

689, 

37, 

323, 

735» 
109, 


344, 

3,509, 
119, 
497, 

33, 

264, 

593, 

150, 


290, 

3,393, 

97, 

595, 

41, 

297, 

406, 

136, 


407, 

3,194, 

125, 

406, 

58, 
360, 
452, 

79, 


47,329, 


1^536, 

597, 

306, 

546, 

99, 

22, 

198, 

5o» 


5»3o6, 


52,635» 


47,997, 


51,280, 


53,128, 


1475, 

2^18, 

642, 
328, 
387, 

82, 
106, 
184, 

34, 


5,466, 


53,453, 


1,433, 

1,788, 


347, 

315, 

84, 

22, 

170, 

80, 


4,857, 


56,137, 


1,536, 

1,733, 

646, 

361, 

441, 

94, 

26, 

150, 

31, 


5,018, 


£ 
5,116, 

24,016, 

14,560, 

2,105, 
668, 

93, 
271, 

29, 
34, 


441, 

3,996, 
216, 
490, 

45, 

262, 

512, 

438, 


52,995, 


58,146, 


1,437, 

1,606, 

879, 

325, 

400, 

41, 

69, 

99, 

241, 


5,097. 


58,092, 


Digitized  by 


Google 


1880.] 


Imports,  ExporUy  Shipping y  Bullion. 


171 


^rade  of  TTnited  EUn^dom,  1879-78-77. — Distribution  of  Exports* ^rom  United  Kingdom, 
according  to  their  Declured  Real  VcUue;  and  the  Declared  Real  Value  {Ex-duty)  of 
Imports  at  Port  of  Entry,  and  therefore  including  Freight  and  Importers  Profit, 


Mercbuidiie  {excluding  Gold  and  Sihtr) 

Imported  from,  and  Exported  to, 

the  following  I'oreisn  Conntriet,  Ice. 


I. — FOBEIGN  COUNTBIES: 

Northern  Europe ;  yiz.,  Russia,  Sweden,  \ 
Norway,  Denmark  &  Iceland,  &  Heligoland  J 

CeDtral  Europe;  Tiz., Germany,  Holland,  1 
and  Belgium    „ j 

Western  Europe ;  vi«..  France,  Portugal  i 
(with  Azores,  Madeira,  &c.),  and  Spain  > 
(with  Gibraltar  and  Canaries)    J 

Southern  Europe;  ▼iz-*  Italy,  Austrian \ 
Empire,  Ghreece,  Ionian  Islands,  and  Malta  j 

Levant ;  viz.,  Turkey,  with  Wallaohia  and  1 
Moldavia,  Syria  and  Palestine,  and  Egypt  J 

Northern  Africa;  viz.,  XripoU,  Tunis,  1 

Algeria  and  Morocco J 

Western  Africa 

Eastern  Africa;  with  African  Ports  on 
Bed  Sea,  Aden,  Arabia,  Persia,  Bourbon 
and  Kooria  Mooria  Islands, 

Indian  Seas,  Siam,  Sumatra,  Java,  Philip-  ] 

pines;  other  Islands    J 

South  Sea  Islands    

China  and  Japan,  including  Hong  Kong 
United  States  of  America  ^ 

Mexico  and  Central  America , 

Foreign  West  Indies,  Hayti,  &c. 


•} 


South  America  (Northern), NewGranada,  l 

Venezuela,  and  Ecuador  J 
„  (Pacific),    Peru,    Bolivia,  1 

Chili,  and  Patagonia  ....  J 
„  (Atlantic)Brazil,  Uruguay,  1 

and  Buenos  Ayres    j 

Whale  Fisheries ;  Gmlnd.,  Davis'  Straits,  1 
Southn.WhaleFishery,&Falkland Islands  J 

Total — Foreign  Countries  


II. — Beitish  Possessions  : 

Britiah  India,  Ceylon,  and  Singapore    

Austral.  Cols. — N.  So.W.,Victoria&Qucensld, 

„  „       So,  Aus-,  W.  Aus.,  Tasm.,  1 

and  N.  Zealand J 

British  North  America   

„     W.IndieswithBtsh.Guiana&Honduras 

Cape  and  Natal    

Brt.  W.  Co.  of  Af.,  Ascension  and  St.  Helena 

Mttoritius 

Channel  Islands    


Total — British  Possessions 

General  Total    £ 


[UOO'i  omitted.] 


1879. 


Imports 
ttom 


28,916, 

8,306, 
12,267, 

1.035. 
1,436, 

454. 

3i320, 

167, 
1 2,844, 

90,896, 
1,965, 
3.294, 

1,562, 
7,379, 
5,974, 

153, 


284,919, 


3«,024, 

8,291, 

10,569, 

7,303, 

4.570, 

586, 

642, 

738, 


77.361, 


362,280, 


£ 
11,814, 

33,078, 

20,804, 

8,622, 
9,325, 

602, 
836, 

1,066, 

2,297, 

168, 
10,238, 

20,595, 
1,407, 
2,625, 

1,624, 

1,749, 

8,661, 

12, 


135.223, 


24,201, 
10,080, 

6,178, 

6,465, 

2,812, 

5,844, 

767, 

345, 

599, 


56,281, 


I9«.504, 


1878. 


Imports 
fh,m 


£ 
31,427, 

$7,134, 

54.3*6, 

6,825, 
11,803, 

1,089, 
1,269, 

538, 

3,111, 

116, 

15.426, 

89,071, 

1,500, 

2,217, 

1,164, 

7,957, 

6,375, 

170, 


291,518, 


32,975. 
13,029, 

7,795. 

9,441, 

^,334, 

4.383. 

624, 

889, 

946, 


76,416, 


367,934, 


EaporU 


£ 
10,859, 

34,275, 

21,128, 

8,251, 
10,841, 

406, 
1,174, 

465, 

2,563, 

81, 
9,212, 

14,621, 
1,503, 
2,836, 

1,705, 

2,684, 

8,891, 

22, 


131.457, 


26,853, 
12,480, 

7,089, 

6,412, 

2,761, 

4,911, 

897, 

409, 

536, 


61,347, 


192,804, 


1877. 


Import* 
from 


£ 
36,510 

59,106, 

60,829, 

8,350- 
18,258, 

1,874. 
1,525, 

543. 

3,755. 

82 

16,048 

77,669, 
2,167. 
2,099: 

722; 
8,321, 

8,775. 
177, 


306,81c, 

38,396, 
14,682, 

7,031, 

12,010, 
7,117. 
4.275i 

772i 
1,918, 

938, 


87,139. 


393.949 


Ksperit 


£ 
10,172, 

34,615, 

21,355, 

8,946, 
8,083 

700, 
1,175, 

464, 

3,394, 

78, 
10,119, 

16,313, 
1,925, 
3,169, 

1,783, 

2,864, 

9,134, 

21, 


34»2io, 

28,657, 
13,209, 

6,072, 

7,585, 

3,008, 

4,114, 

833, 

494, 

549, 

64,521, 


198,731, 


*  i,e,f  British  and  Irish  produce  and  manufactures. 

yitized  by 


Google 


172 


Periodical  BekmM, 


[Mar. 


IMPORTS.  -(United  Kingdom.)— For  the  Tears  1870-78-77-76-76.— 2)ec^arec^ 
Real  Value  {Ex-duty),  at  Port  of  EiUry  {and  therefore  indvding  Freight  and 
Importei^s  Profit),  of  Articles  of  Foreign  and  Colonial  Merchandise  Imported 
into  the  United  Kingdom, 

[000*B  omitted.] 


FoRKlOM  AATICLK8  ImFOKTSD. 

1879. 

1878. 

1877. 

1876. 

1875. 

BAwMiTL8.-r«ar<i7tf,&c.  Cotton  Wool  .... 
Wool  (Sheep's).. 
Silk* 

£ 

36,279, 

24*930, 

16,825, 

3,581, 

4,943, 

1,901, 

£ 

88,524, 

24,589, 

16,867, 

8,483, 

6,156, 

1,583, 

£ 

86;489, 

26,310, 

17,733, 

6,055, 

4,978, 

1,686, 

£ 

40,847, 

24,980, 

18,186, 

8,537, 

4,755, 

2,180, 

£ 

46,820, 
22389, 
15,227, 

Flax 

4,880, 

4,822, 

Indigo 

1,62^1, 

88,459, 

85,202, 

9>,>96, 

93,935» 

95,259, 

„        „          yarious.  Hides 

5,109, 

3,477, 

lo,6iy, 

2,>00, 

10,726, 

6,266, 
3,184, 

10,632, 
1,811, 

13,915, 

6.495, 
^,200, 

11,569, 
2,570, 

20,191, 

6,273, 
4,786, 

10,252, 
2,874, 

19,026, 

7,005, 

Oils 

5,868, 

Metals 

12,685, 

TaDow 

2,087, 

Timber 

15,862, 

3^,031, 

35,808, 

45,025, 

43,210, 

42,457, 

,,         ,,          Aareltl,    O-nano 

704, 
7,098, 

1,806, 
8,690, 

1,667, 
9.139, 

2.462, 
8,970, 

1,292, 

Seeds    

8,789, 

7,802, 

io495> 

10,806, 

",43», 

10,081, 

Tropical,  Ac.,PiiODTroK.  Tea  

i',373, 
7,324, 

22,35', 
>,975, 
5,481, 
3,794, 
5,380, 

2,895» 

13,097, 
6,098, 

21,107, 
3,718, 
3,192, 
3,509, 
6,003, 
2,209, 

12,482, 
7,852, 

27,277, 
3,589, 
8,507, 
4,384, 
7,156, 
2,256, 

12,818, 
6,413, 

20,620, 
8,946, 
2,927, 
8,839. 
7,020, 
3,968, 

14,167, 

Coffee  

7,606, 

Sugar  &  Molasses 
Tobacco   

21,917, 
2,987, 

Rice 

1    2,991, 

Fruits  

3,789, 

Wines 

6,821, 

Spirits 

2,885, 

58,573, 

58,928, 

68,403, 

61,541, 

63,162, 

Food  Qraisi  and  Meal. 

ProTisions    

60,596, 
35,901, 

58,378, 
35,951, 

63,210, 
33,241, 

51,550, 
82,837, 

52,714, 
25,752, 

96,497, 

94,324, 

96,45i» 

84,387, 

78,466, 

Remainder  of  Enumerated  Articles    .... 

4^955. 

43,253, 

42,560, 

4>,i99» 

45,716, 

Total  Enxtmbsatbd  Impobt^..^ 
Add  for  Unbihtmeilated  Iicpokts  (say) 

325,3*7, 
36,810, 

328,010, 
38,050, 

354,44^ 
39,500, 

335»704, 
38,300, 

335»Hi, 
38,800, 

Total  Impobts  

362,127, 

366,060, 

393>94i» 

374,004, 

373,94',-:^ 

*  **  Silk,"  inclusive  of  manufactured  silk,  *'  not  made  up." 


Digitized  by 


Google 


1880.] 


Imports,  Exports^  Shipping^  Bvlllon. 


173 


EXPORTS.— (United  Kingdom.)— Por  the  Years  1879-78-77-76-76.— 2)«c;arc(i 
Real  ValuBf  at  Fort  of  Shipment j  of  Articles  of  British  and  Irish  Produce 
and  Manufactures  Exported  frova  the  United  Kingdom, 

[OOO't  omitted.] 


BllTISR  PXODUCB,  IcO.,  BXPOETBD. 

1879. 

1878. 

1877. 

1876. 

1876. 

MiKFBS.— reoT^fZ^.  Cotton  ManufeuitiiFes.. 
Tarn 

51,843, 
iA,i03, 

15*85 1> 
3,714, 
1,696, 

694» 
5»474, 
i,c75, 

£ 

52,908, 

13,006, 

16,723, 

3,910, 

1,921, 

664, 

5,526, 

1,213, 

£ 

66,964, 

12,209, 

17,335, 

8,609, 

1,707, 

572, 

5,830, 

1,291, 

£ 

54,851, 

12,783, 

18,620, 

4,417, 

1,769, 

1,073, 

5,621, 

1,460, 

£ 

58,666, 

13,170, 

21,649, 

6,102, 

1,738, 

878, 

7,271, 

1,865, 

Woollen  Manufactures 
„       Yam 

Silk  Manufactures 

„       Yam 

Linen  Manufactures .... 
Yam 

9^,450, 

95,766, 

99,507, 

100,594, 

I10,Z28, 

„         Sewed,   Appai^l 

3,198, 
3,487, 

8,166, 
3,966, 

2,833, 
8,803, 

2,962, 
3,771, 

8,186, 
4,922, 

Bikberdy.  and  Mllnry. 

6,685, 

7,121, 

6,636, 

6,733. 

8,107, 

'M'KVATii.  Ikjn Bardware  

3,019, 
7,283, 

i9»439» 
3,380, 
1,019, 

7,20i, 

3,290, 
7,490, 
18,394, 
3,622, 
1,057, 
7,321, 

8,336, 
6,683, 
20,095, 
8,503, 
1,363, 
7,829, 

8,481, 
7,198, 
20,731, 
3,401, 
1,202, 
8,901, 

4,266, 
9,099, 
25,781, 
3,730, 
1,300, 
9,646, 

Ma<4»inerT ,,,-.-,,-  ,r-. 

Ii^n 

Copper  and  Brass 

Leaa  and  Tin    

Coals  and  Culm    

4»»342, 

41,074, 

42,809, 

44,914, 

53,821, 

Ceramic  Mannfcts,  Earthenware  and  Glass 

2,5'26, 

2,450, 

2,614, 

2,577, 

2,812, 

Indi^enon*  Kfi^e.  Beer  and  Ale ..,,.... 

i»759» 
235» 
55. 
136, 
552. 
454, 

1,762, 
243, 
66, 
170, 
503, 
390, 

1,895, 
247, 
72, 
196, 
463, 
373, 

1,922, 
210, 
70, 
151, 
529, 
312, 

2,090, 

240, 

88 

and  Products.     Butter    

Cheese   

Candles 

177, 
676, 
277 

Salt ^ 

Spirits    

Soda  

2,300, 

3»<9i» 

3,134, 

3,246, 

3,194, 

5,848, 

Various  Mfmufcts,  Books,  Printed 

953, 

2,058, 
433, 
213, 
664, 

891, 

2,003. 
406, 
221, 
647, 

896, 

1,995, 
366, 
218, 
655, 

877, 

3,343, 
312, 
247, 
659, 

915 

Furniture 

Leather  Manufactures 
Soap   

2,385, 
311 

.     Plate  and  Watches  .... 
Stationery 

uxx, 

804, 
684 

oo*t, 

4,321, 

4,167, 

4,129, 

5438, 

4,599, 

Remainder  of  Enumerated  Articles  

XTnennmerated  Artiolesr,- ,  .,..,.,.„„„.r.„.tT,,r, 

22,936, 
18,053, 

20,953, 
18,139, 

22,509, 
17,281, 

19,796, 
17,330, 

20,880, 
17,200, 

Total  Exports 

191,504, 

192,804, 

198,731, 

200,576, 

223,494, 

Digitized  by 


Google 


174 


Periodical  Betums. 


[Mar. 


SHIPPING.--(United  Kiugdom,)^Account  of  Tonnage  of  Vesseh  Entered  and 
Cleared  with  Cargoee,  from  and  to  Various  Countries,  during  the  Tears  ended 
December^  1879-78-77. 


Countries  from 

whence  Entered  and 

to 

which  Cleared. 


FOEBIGir  COUVTBIBS. 

\  Southern    h 

Sweden    

Norway  

Denmark 

G^erraany 

Holland  

Belgium  

France „ 

Spain  

Portugal 

Italy 

Austrian  territories    

Greece 

Turkey    

Boumania   

Egypt 

United  States  of  America .... 

Mexico,  Foreign  West  1 
Indies,  and  Central  l 
America  J 

Brazil 

Peru    

ChUi    

China  

Other  countries 


Total  British  and  Foreign. 


1879. 


Entered.         Cleared. 


Total,  Foreign  Countries 

Bbitish  Possessions. 

North  American  Colonies .... 

Fast  Indies,  including  1 
Ceylon,  Singapore,  and  V 
Mauritius    J 

Australia  and  New  Zealand 

West  Indies    

Channel  Islands 

Other  possessions  


Total,  JBrititrh  Possessions 


Total  Foreign  Countries 
AND  British  Possessions, 

Tears 

ended 
December, 


ri879 

i     78 

I    77 


Ton*. 

1,161,245 

284,747 

1,143,64S 

665,034 

239,776 

1,653,266 

1,250,035 

828,024 

1,843,596 

1,106,416 

188,603 

262,477 

38,767 

74,442 

164,523 

79,726 

281,056 

4,981,317 

317,892 

209,025 
113,543 
127,832 
138,513 
608,344 


17,746,842 


1,249,901 

949,453 

357,339 
206,795 
296,444 
292,570 


3,352,502 


Tom. 
1,066,649 
151,107 
632»399 
442i»i79 
640,744 

2,361,798 

1,360,310 

872,170 

3,230,265 

713,797 

351,700 

1,029,891 

80,296 

76,749 

264*453 

i3>75i 

430,888 

3,038,411 

464474 

467,276 
79,680 

156,702 
i3»4" 

711,177 


18,670,277 


715,169 
1,530,654 

549402 

179,563 

199,134 

1,005,158 


4,179,080 


21,099,344  22,849,357 


1878. 


Entered. 


Tons. 
1,389,143 

364,882 
1,135,394 

765,235 

226,282 
1,709,068 
1,226,814 

875,987 
1,952,058 
1,155,908 

219,861 

254,066 
39,570 
64,581 

801,974 

201,656 
4,718,304 

223,439 

199,069 
239,363 
32,660 
170,288 
664,099 


18,009,691 


1,248,277 

1,040,738 

809,906 
182,699 
288,739 
238,296 


3,308,665 


21,318,246 


aeared. 


Tom. 

983,599 

237,8' I 

645,757 

425,973 

609,992 

2,277,658 

1,361,961 

902,760 

5,120,192 

665,720 

316,824 

894,049 

85,108 

72,099 

385,180 

394,598 
2»369,354 

412,656 

491,033 
69,667 

176,520 
20,281 

625,858 


17,544,650 


686,395 
1416,506 

597,995 
160,577 
182,052 
993,5  »3 


4,037,038 


21,581,688 


1877. 


Entered.         Cleared. 


Tons. 
1,804,220 

166,737 
1,324,690 

775,660 

202,402 
1,705,672 
1,206,035 

882,532 
1,967,674 
1,184,911 

219,158 

336,877 
37,869 
79,334 

838,643 

417,790 
4,070,638 

198,730 

230,793 
216,438 
62,166 
150,222 
649,728 


Tons. 

938435 
56,542 
746,935 
463,323 
658,951 

2,317,399 
1,322,876 

932,156 

2,98 1 ,046 

696,039 

314,078 

869,110 

88,610 

64,445 

221,353 

470,357 
2,029,537 

413,946 

474,667 

85,543 
186,439 

28,887 
638,132 


18,207,709  16,998,812 


1,641,153 

1,277,962 

269,018 
173,338 
289,199 
273,097 


3,923,767 


707,982 
1,698,887 

598,391 
160,589 
174,691 
857,668 


4,198,208 


22,131,47621,197,020 


Digitized  by 


Google 


1880.] 


Imports,  Exports,  Shipping,  Btdlion, 


175 


GOLD  AHD  SILVER  BULLION  and  SPECIE.— (United  Kingdom.) 
— Declared  Heal  Value  of,  Imported  and  Exported  for  the  Tears 

1879-78-77. 

[OOO'i  omitted.] 


1879.            1 

1878.           1 

1877. 

Conntries. 

Gold. 

SUter. 

Gold. 

SiUer. 

Gold. 

Siher. 

Imported  from — 

Aufltra-liA  

£ 
3,152, 

1,374, 

388, 

£ 

110, 

3»767, 
2,59^» 

£ 
5,681, 

1,591, 

866, 

£ 

21, 

3,548, 

i,6i6. 

£ 
6,655, 

1,172, 

2,062, 

£ 
38, 

So.  Amoa.,  including  1 
Mexico    and   W.  [. 
Indies    J 

United  States  

3,394. 
2,616, 

Prance  

4,914, 

2,903, 
853, 

563, 
409, 

809, 

116, 
2,765, 

6,473, 

2,347, 
833» 

274» 

22, 

349, 

62, 

374. 

8,138, 

5,908, 
2,019, 

376, 
1,578, 

480, 

122, 
2,801, 

1,741, 
4,100, 

77, 
43, 

I, 

41, 
361, 

9,889, 

873, 
1,036, 

501, 
817, 

187, 

121, 
2,528, 

6,048, 

1.521, 
U.855. 

46, 
107, 

I, 

11, 
122, 

Germany,   Holl.   &\ 
Belg / 

Prtgl.,   Spain,   and! 
Gbrltp / 

Mlta.  and  Egjpt 

China,       including  1 

Hong  Kong  J 

West  Coast  of  Africa 
All  other  Countries  .... 

13,331, 

10,734. 

20,872, 

",549, 

15,452, 

21,711, 

Prance       ,,,,,,,r--rrt,T.----,r,rt 

696, 
3,537, 

859, 

723, 
1,871, 

279» 

4^599, 
5,324, 

1,316, 

2,191, 
I1645. 

729, 

6,147, 
8,404, 

744, 

768, 
166, 

1,566, 

Germany,   Holl.  k 
Belg ; 

Prtgl.,    Spain,  and 
Gbrltr.  / 

Ind.  and  Cliina... 

5,092, 

219, 
6,949, 

1,730, 

1,072, 
2,617, 

2,873, 

6,574,* 
614, 

24. 

596, 
350, 

11,239, 

233, 

829, 

847, 

809, 
1,612, 

4.565, 

5,840, 
1,083, 

39. 
191, 

16,296, 

609, 
1,168, 

485, 

683, 
2,121, 

2,500, 

16,361, 
298, 

7, 

59, 
212, 

United  States  

South  Africa    

So.  Amca.,  including  1 
Mexico   and    W. 
Indies    

All  other  Countries  .... 

TotaU  Exported  .... 

17,579, 

11,031, 

14,969, 

11,718, 

20,361, 

19,437, 

Excess  of  imports   .... 
exports    .... 

^, 

297, 

6,903, 

169, 

4,"9()9, 

2,274, 

•  This  entry  is  now  shown  direct,  instead  of  to  Egypt  as  formerly. 


Digitized  by 


Google 


176 


Periodical  Beturns. 


[Mar. 


BRITISH  CORN.— (7<w«tt«  Average  Pricet  (Exolakd  and  Walks) 
Weekly  for  1979. 

[Thife  Table  i»  oommnnioated  hj  tlie  Statutical  and  Com  Department,  Board  of  Trade.] 


Weeks  ended 


Saturday. 


Weekly  Arerage. 
(Per  Imperial  Quarter  J 


Wheat. 


Barley. 


OaU. 


Weeks  eided 

on 

Saturday. 


Weekly  Average. 
(Per  Imperial  Quarter.) 


Wheat. 


Barley. 


OaU. 


1879. 
January  4 

„  11 
„  18 
»      25 

February  1  .... 
.>        8 
„   15 
,,   22 


March  1.. 
„  8.. 
„  15.. 
»  22.. 
„   29.. 

April  5  .. 
,,  12  .. 
„  19  .. 
,,  26  .. 


May  3.. 
,,  10.. 
„  17.. 
„  24.. 
.,  31.. 


June  7 
„  u 
,,  21 
„  28 


*.  d. 

39  7 

39  7 

38  II 

39  I 

38  4 

38  I 

38  I 

37  7 

38  - 

39  I 

39  7 

40  8 
40  8 

40  II 

41  - 
41  2 
40  II 

40  9 

40  9 

40  8 

41  4 
41  5 

41  7 

41  4 

41  8 

42  6 


e,  d. 
38  10 
86  11 

36  11 

37  5 

36  9 
35  7 
35  5 
34  10 

33  10 

34  4 
34  1 
83  9 
33  - 

32  6 
32  8 

30  11 

31  - 

80  1 
30  9 
30  1 
28  10 
28  6 

26  6 
28  2 
25  11 
28  1 


a.  d, 

20  3 

20  I 

19  8 

20  I 

'9  5 

20  - 

19  2 

20  3 

19  7 

20  5 

20  9 

21  I 

20  8 

21  I 
20  8 
20  7 

20  II 

21  9 

ii  5 

21  II 

22  6 
21  II 

21  8 

a*  3 

23  5 

22  I 


1879. 

July  5  

„  12  ....... 

„  19  

„  26  

August  2  .... 
„  9  .... 
„  16  .... 
„  23  .... 
„   80  .... 

September  6 
„  13 
„  20 
.,    27 

October  4..., 
„  11 ... 
„  18.... 
.,   25 ... 

November  1 

8 

15 


December  6 
„  13 
„  20 
,,    27 


e.  d, 

42  4 

43  4 

44  10 

47  7 

49  3 

49  7 

49  5 

49  3 

48  I 

48  z 

47  II 

47  4 

46  5 

47  I 

48  8 

49  9 

49  >o 

50  4 
50  5 
48  9 
47  10 
46  7 

46  7 

46  2 

46  6 

47  1 


8,  d. 

24  6 

24  - 

28  - 

29  1 

28  6 
26  11 
31  - 

31  1 

29  7 

32  11 

36  8 
43  2 
41  11 

40  7 
40  9 
40  10 

40  10 

41  1 
40  8 
40  1 
39  8 
38  10 

38  4 
38  5 
38  7 

37  11 


*.  d. 

24  2 

21  - 

22  - 
^4  4 

2t  8 

24  2 

»3  6 

24  10 

24  9 

26  7 

^5  7 

22  II 

23  II 

23  4 

22  2 

22  2 

a*  3 

22  I 

21  C 

21  4 

21  6 

20  6 

»«  4 

21  4 
20  II 
20  10 


Digitized  by 


Google 


1880.] 


Periodical  BehtoTM. 


177 


BRITISH  COBN. ^Gazette  Average  Prices  (England  and  Wales), 
Summary  of,  for  1870,  vdth  those  for  1878,  added  for  Comparison, 

[This  Tftble  U  oommiuiicated  hj  the  Statiatieal  and  Corn  Department,  Board  of  Trade.] 


Average  for 


January — 

Febrnaiy  m 

March  — -...m.^.. 


First  quarter 


April. 
May  . 
June  . 


Second  quarter.... 


July  

August 

September.. 


Third  quarter  .... 

October ^..^ 

Kovember 

December ».. 


Fcmrth  quarter.... 
ThbYhab    .... 


Per  Imperial  Quarter,  1879. 


Wheal. 


*.  d. 

39  3 

38  - 

39  7 


39   - 


41  - 
40  II 
+1   9 


41  2 


44  6 
49  I 
47   5 


47 


48  10 
48  9 
46   7 


48   I 


43  10 


Barley. 


s. 
37 

85 

83 


35   6 


31  8 
29  7 
27   2 


29   6 


26  4 
29  5 
38   8 


31   4 


40  9 
40  - 
W   3 


39   8 


34  - 


Oats. 


S.  d. 

20 

19  8 

20  6 


20  9 

21  10 
*i   4 


21   8 


22   10 

*3   9 
24   9 


23 


i*  5 
21  4 
21   I 


21   7 


21   9 


Per  Imperial  Quarter,  1878. 


Wheat. 


s.  d. 

51  II 

51  4 

49  7 


50  10 


51      3 

48   - 


50   a 


44  II 
44  9 
43   8 


44  6 


39  7 

40  4 

40   3 


40   a 


46   5 


Barley. 


«.  d. 

43  11 

44  2 
42  5 


43   5 


41  11 
39  10 
36  11 


39   4 


37  5 
36  - 
41   7 


38   4 


40  4 
39  8 
88  11 


39   7 


40   2 


Oats. 


s.  d. 

23  II 

H  3 

24  - 


^4 


a5  4 
26  - 
26   3 


25  10 


*7   6 
26   2 

24   - 


*5  II 


22 

21   10 
21    - 


21    8 


^4   4 


VOL.  XLlll.   PART  I. 


Digitized  by 


Google 


178 


Periodical  Eetums. 


[Mar, 


REVENUE  ov  thb  TJnitbd  Kikodom. 
Net  Produce  in  Quarters  and  Years  ended  31*<  Dec.,  1879-78-77-76. 

[OOO's  omitt«d.] 


QUABTEB8, 
ended  8l8t  Deo. 

1879. 

1878. 

1879. 

Leis. 

More. 

1877. 

1876. 

rhMfcnmfl       

£ 

5>356> 
6,460, 

3,725» 

26, 

1,630, 
365, 

£ 
6,484, 

6,990, 

2,628, 

26, 

1,564, 

826, 

£ 
128, 

680, 

£ 

97, 

76, 
40, 

£ 
6,386, 

6,855, 

2,786, 

46, 

1,677, 

820, 

£ 
5,433, 

Exci06   t • «••••• 

7,058, 

flfajTi'na 

2,692, 

Tftxes      

39, 

Post  Office 

1,552, 

Telegraph  Serrice  .... 

330, 

PiviTiftrfcv  Tar 

16,562, 

17,007, 
440, 

658, 

213, 
46, 

16,919, 
342, 

17,099, 
281, 

fJ*«"WTi  Xjands 

17,048, 

135. 
316, 

1,108, 

17,447, 
141, 
883, 

1,098, 

658, 

6, 

67, 

259» 
10, 

17,261, 
141. 
837, 
644, 

17,380, 
141, 

Interest  on  Advances 
Miflcollaneous 

276, 
880, 

TotaU 

18,617, 

19,069, 

721, 

V 

269, 

18,383, 

18.677, 

Nkt  Dec*.  £462, 

TEAB8, 

1879. 

1878. 

1879. 

Corresponding  Yean. 

ended  Slst  Dec. 

Lttt. 

More. 

1877. 

1876. 

nnntrimfl 

£ 

195750, 

26,277, 

11,019, 

2,644, 

6,3i9» 

i»375» 

£ 
20,166, 

27,372, 

10,652, 

2,665, 

6,180, 

1,380, 

£ 
416, 

1,095, 
11, 

£ 

367, 

'39. 
45. 

£ 
19.762, 

27,868, 

10,968, 

2,636, 

6,133, 

1,820, 

£ 

20,076, 

Excise       • 

27,853, 

flfa,ir|T)8 

10,946. 

Taxes  •  ......«•• • 

2,488. 

Pout  Office 

5,970, 

Telegrapli  Service  .... 

1,295, 

Pro-nertv  Tax 

67,384. 
9>485> 

68,364, 
6,031, 

1,521, 

3454. 

68,187, 
6.736, 

68,627, 
4,095, 

rWvkxm  TAnds  

76,869, 

399» 

1,127, 

4.272, 

74,386, 

410, 

1,047, 

4,642, 

1,521, 
11, 

370, 

4.005, 
80, 

73,923, 

410, 

954, 

3,898, 

72,722, 
405, 

Interest  on  Advances 
UTiaAAllainflOiis 

797. 
8,555, 

Totals 

82,667, 

80,484, 

1,902, 

4,085, 

78,680, 

77,479, 

Net  IncK.  £2,183, 

Digitized  by 


Google 


1880.] 


Periodical  Betums, 


179 


LONDON  OLBABINa;  OIBOULATION,  PRIVATE  AND  PROVINCIAL. 
T/ie  London  Cleainng,  and  the  Average  Amount  of  Promissory  Notes  in  Circulation  irk 
England  and  Wales  on  Saturday  in  each   Week  dttring  the  Year  1879;  and  in 
Scotland  and  Ireland,  at  the  Dates^  as  under. 

CO.OOCTs  omitted.] 


Elf  GLAND 

AHD  Walks. 

SCOTLAMD. 

lUCLAND. 

Londont 

Prirrte 

Joint 

Dates. 

Cletred  in 

Banks. 

Stock 
Banks. 

Total. 

Weeks 

£6 

Under 

Total. 

£6 

Under 

Total. 

Saturday. 

each  Week 
ended 

(Fixed 
Issnes, 

(Fixed 
Jisues, 

(Fixed 
Itsnes, 

ended 

and 
upwards. 

£6. 

(Fixed 
Issues. 

and 
upwards 

£6. 

(Fixed 

IFedHtsday* 

8.72). 

2,49). 

6,21). 

2.68). 

6.86). 

187». 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

1879. 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

JtlL     4 

88,89 

2.09 

1.84 

r.^ 

„    11 

89,55 

2,10 

1.66 

n    18 

97i70 

2,07 

1,83 

iM 

Jan.  18... 

2.06 

8.68 

5,63 

8.70 

2,98 

6,68 

.    26 

9a.48 

2,02t 

1,79 

Feb.    1 

77»38 

J'K 

1.76 

m 

„      8 

111,12 

1.92 

1,74 

Z    16 

76,8| 
109,06 

1,87 

1.71 

3.58 

Feb.  16... 

1,98 

8^ 

5.29 

8,67 

2.84 

641 

..    22 

1,84 

1,70 

3,54 

Mar.    1 

7it53 

1.88 

1.70 

3.53 

„     8 

Z    16 

7a 

1.83 
1.81 

1.70 
1.71 

3.53 
3.52 

Mar.  16... 

1.86 

8.81 

5,17 

8,66 

2.71 

6,a6 

..    22 

102,3a 

IM 

1.74 

tu 

„    29 

75.43 

1.88 

1.80 

April   6 

I03i55 

1.97 

1.88 

3.85 

„    12 

U 

2,02 

1.91 

3.93 

April  12... 

1,86 

8,88 

5,19 

8.62 

2,67 

6,29 

„    19 

2.08 

1.92 

3.95 

u    26 

109.59 

2,01 

1,90 

3.91 

M.y    8 

;  10 

104,75 
90.52 

2,01 
1.98 

1,90 
1.90 

's 

May  10... 

2.00 

8.46 

546 

8,67 

2,66 

6,32 

n     17 

84,26 

1.97t 

1,89 

3.86 

n     24 

109,06 

1.91 

1.82 

l;S 

,.    81...... 

77.9* 

W 

1.78 

June  7 

I03.a5 

1,84 

1.74 

3.58 

June  7... 

2.60 

8.90 

d^o 

8.46 

2.66 

6,00 

..    14 

8149 

1.81J 

1.71 

3.52 

„    21 

104,70 

1,79 

1.68 

i:J2 

>.    28 

8o,ao 

1,80 

1.68 

July    6 

J  12 

115.56 
93,<» 

1.88 
1.86 

1,70 
1.71 

tu 

July    6... 

2,08 

8,60 

5»68 

8,22 

2,48 

5.r> 

„    12 

105,00 

1.84 

1.68 

3.52 

„    2« 

83.83 

1.79 

1,64 

343 

Aug.    2 

73.68 

1,78 

1.68 

3.39 

Aug.   2... 

1.89 

8,08 

5,42 

8,18 

2.42 

5,60 

«      9 

10247 

1,74 

1,68 

3,37 

..    1« 

78,75 

1.72 

1.60 

3.32 

„    28 

S:^ 

1.89 

1.68 

3,27 

„    80* 

1.67 

1,66 

3,23 

„   80... 

1.77 

8.42 

5.19 

8.06 

2.86 

541 

Sept  « 

102,81 

1.87 

1.68 

3,25 

»    18 

74.41 
94,60 
^.75 

1.66 

1,67 

3.23 

„    20 

..    27 

1.67 
1,68 

1.68 
1.68 

l:^al 

Sept  27... 

1.76 

8.46 

5.21 

8,06 

2.42 

5,48 

Oct.     4 

102,93 

1,79 

1.64 

3,43 

„    11 

86,53 

1.86 

1.69 

3.54 

„    18 

'S;g 

1.86 

1,72 

3.57 

„    25 

1.83 

1.72 

3,55 

Oct.  26... 

1.80 

8.68 

5,33 

8,86 

2.68 

6,C3 

Nov.    1 

80,78 

1,848 

1,78 

ni 

„     8 

121,19 

1.86 

1.76 

"    15 

85.21 

1.86 

1.77 

3.62 

«    22 

i»5.97 

1.84 

1.76 

3.60 

Nof .  22... 

2.12 

8.87 

5.99 

8,49 

2.89 

6,38 

»    29 

7741 

1.84 

1.77t 

3,61 

Dec.    8 

'Sul 

1,80 

1.75 

3.55 

«    18 

1,78 

1.71 

3,49 

»    20 

'^M 

1.78 

1.72 

3.50 

Dec  20... 

2.04 

8.79 

5.83 

8.40 

2.88 

6,28 

«    27 

1,80 

1,73 

3,53 

'  The  Wednesdays  preceding  the  Saturdays. 
S  Fixed  Issues.  8,60. 


t  Fixed  issues,  8,66. 
Fixed  Issues.  8.68. 


t  Fixed  Issues,  8,64. 
f  Fixed  Issues,  2,46. 


n2 

Digitized  by  VjOOQ IC 


180 


Periodical  Betums. 


[Mar. 


BANK  OF  ENGLAND, 
Puriuant  to  the  Act  1th  and  Sth  Victoria,  cap.  32  (1844) 

C0,00O*t  omitted.] 


I88UI  DlPASTmRT. 


6  T 

C0LL4TlSiLX.  COLtniHS. 


liabilitiat. 


KotetlMnod 


Datu. 
(WednMayi.) 


Aoeto. 


Gtoreramest 
Debt. 


Other 
Seonritiea. 


OoldCoin 

and 
Bullion. 


Notes 

in  Hands  of 

Pablie. 

(CoL  1  minus 
eol.  1«.) 


Minimum  Batet 

of  Dbeount 

at 

Bank  of  'FF>gi»wd 


£ 

Mlns. 
42.19 
48,73 
43.81 
43.87 
48.95 

44.87 
44.94 
46.«1 
46,87 
46.28 
46.74 
47.16 
47.82 

47,76 
47.19 
47.22 
47.64 
47.61 

47,60 
47.26 
46.97 
47,06 

47.06 
47^ 
48,01 
48.74 

49.02 
48,97 
49,14 
49,16 
49.57 
49.21 
49.19 
49.18 
48,68 

48,46 
48.69 
49.03 
48.88 

48.73 
47.99 
47.25 
46.00 
44.98 

44.08 
48.18 
42.76 
42,76 

41.69 
41.49 
41.44 
41.26 
41.38 


1879. 

Jan.    1  .. 

,      8  .. 

o     16.. 

»     22  .. 

„     ».. 
Feb.    6  .. 

:  S:: 

„     36.. 
Mar.    6  .. 

:  \l: 

„    26.. 
April  2  .. 

lil 

«     80.. 
May    7.. 

••  It:. 

„     28.. 

June  4  .. 

„     11  .. 

;     18.. 

n    81.. 
July    S  .. 

;  iJ:: 

„     23.. 
.,     80  .. 

Aug.    6  .. 

:  ^:: 
:  27.. 

bept.  3  .. 

„     10  .. 

«    17.. 

M     24.. 
Oct    1  .. 

••  i" 

,»     23  .. 

Nov.  6  .. 
„  12  .. 
M     19.. 

Dec.    8  .. 

„     10  .. 

"    V- 
..     24.. 

n      81.. 


£ 
Mlns. 
11.02 
11,02 
11,02 
11,02 
11.02 

11,03 
11,03 
11,08 
11,08 

11,03 
11,03 
11,03 
11,02 

11,02 
11,02 
11,03 
11,02 
11.02 

11,02 
11,02 
11,02 
11.02 

11.02 
11.02 
11.03 
11.03 

11.03 
11,08 
11.03 
11,03 
11.03 

1103 
11,02 
11,02 
11,02 

11.02 
11.02 
11.02 
11,02 

11,02 
11.02 
11,02 
11,02 
11.02 

11,03 
11,03 
11.03 
11,02 

11.08 
11.08 
11.02 
11.02 
11.02 


£ 
Mlns. 
8.98 
8.98 
8.98 
8.98 
8,98 

8.98 
8.98 
8,98 
8.98 

8,98 
8,98 
8.98 
8,98 

8.98 
8.98 
8,98 
8.98 
8,98 

8.98 
8,98 
8,98 
8.98 

8,98 
8,98 
8,98 
8.98 

8.98 
8.98 
3.98 
8.98 
8.98 

3.98 
8.98 
8.98 
8.98 

8,98 
3.98 
8.98 
8.98 

8.98 
8,98 
8.98 
3.98 
8^98 

8^98 
8.98 
3.98 
8.98 

8.98 
3.98 
8.98 
8.98 
3.98 


£ 

Mlns, 
27.19 
27.73 
28,21 
28.67 
28,96 

29.37 
29.94 
80.61 
30.87 

81.28 
81.74 
38.15 
82,82 

82,76 
32.19 
33.23 
33.54 
82,61 

82.60 
32.26 
81,97 
83,06 

32.06 
82.87 
33,01 
83.74 

84.02 
83,97 
34.14 
34.15 
34,67 

84^ 
34.19 
84,18 
83,68 

83,46 
38.69 
84,02 
33.88 

33.78 
82.99 
82.26 
31.00 
29,93 

29.06 
28.18 
27.76 
27.76 

26.69 
26.49 
26.44 
26,25 
26,88 


£ 
Mlns. 
3»,78 

33M 
3146 

39i38 


28,50 
28,89 

29.63 
29,83 
29,42 
29i<H 
29.37 

2943 
29i37 


29,39 
28,90 
28,64 
28,89 

^!i 

29,33 
29,29 
29,32 
29,66 

25,24 
28,83 
28,54 


1079.        Per  cot. 

16  Jan »    4 

29    „    8 


12  Mar 2i 


9  April 2 


6  Not.,. 


Digitized  by 


Google 


1880.] 


PeriodiccU  BetutM. 


181 


— ^WSIXLT  BbTUBN. 

for  Wednesday  in  each  Week^  dwring  the  Tear  1879. 

[0,000's  omittedO 


8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

18 

14 

16 

16 

17 

18 

DATia. 

Assets. 

Totals 

Capital  and  Rett 

Depodts.       1 

Seren 

Secoritiet.      | 

Besanre. 

of 
LiabiU. 

Day  and 
other 
BilU. 

(Wcdn'sdys.) 

ties 

Capital. 

Beat. 

Piblie. 

Private. 

GoTem- 
ment. 

Other. 

Notes. 

Gold  and 
SUverCoin. 

and 
AsseU. 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

1879. 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

Mlns. 

Mlns. 

Mint. 

Mlna. 

Mint. 

Mlna. 

Mlns. 

Mlns. 

Mhs. 

Mlns. 

14,55 

8,81 

4.94 

81.13 

,22 

Jan.  1  

14.72 

r4 

9,41 

.89 

54.14 

14,56 

8,48 

4i75 

89.64 

,27 

..     8 

18.29 

9.69 

,99 

55.59 
55.01 

14,56 

8.69 

4i4i 

8934 

59 

«    16 

18.94 

MM 

10.66 

97 

14»66 

8.68 

tu 

89.60 

.98 

,.    21 

17,09 

10.48 

1,04 

54.93 

14,56 

8,64 

81.08 

.89 

«    29  

16.72 

11.80 

1,06 

53.21 

14.66 

8,58 

5i92 

99.08 

fiO 

Feb.  6 

16,44 

23.99 

12.91 

1.04 

53.38 

14,66 

8,68 

7.43 

98.61 

.88 

„    12 

14.67 

24.04 

14,61 

1,18 

an 

14.66 

8,68 

6,09 

28.87 

.88 

..    19 

14.69 

t'^ 

16.76 

1.26 

14,66 

8,80 

28.71 

.86 

.    26 

14.69 

16,49 

1.27 

55.21 

H56 

8,88 

8,90 

99.86 

^ 

Mar.  6 

14.96 

23.72 

16.96 

1,88 

56,96 

14,66 

8.88 

9i7» 

98,87 

.97 

.,    12 

14,98 

22,54 

17,90 

1.40 

ki 

14.65 

8.92 

10,77 

28,39 

.86 

„    19 

15.46 

22,37 

22,38 

18,66 

1.49 

14,66 

8,98 

'0.97 

98.86 

.84 

..    26 

15.46 

18,98 

1,28 

14»56 

8.98 

98,88 

,87 

April  2  

15.64 

23.00 

18,12 

1,14 

57.80 

14,66 

8,U 

80.66 

.88 

n       9  

14,91 

22. 16 

17,86 

1,80 

55.73 
50.33 

14.66 

8,U 

81,89 

.97 

„    16 

14.91 

22,33 

17,80 

1.29 

14.56 

8.16 

89,89 

.88 

..    28 

14,91 

22,38 

18.60 

1.28 

57.02 
56.04 

14,65 

8,18 

<S65 

81,48 

,99 

..    80 

14,91 

21,00 

18,24 

1.09 

H66 

8,14 

6,98 

80,40 

.81 

May  7 

14.91 

21,33 

18,07 

1.17 

54^^ 

14,66 

8,14 

%a 

99,50 

,98 

H    U 

14.68 

20,97 

17,89 

l*iS 

14.66 

8.15 

2;S 

99,31 

.27 

„    21  

14,68 

21,02 

17.90 

1.29 

54.82 

14,65 

8,15 

98,28 

.26 

n     28  

14,67 

20,19 

18,17 

1,28 

54.26 

H66 

8.10 

7,56 

97,79 

.26 

Jane  4 

14,68 

»9.7o 

17,66 

1.16 

53.19 

14.66 

8.10 

7i70 

27,8(7 

,88 

„    11  

14.68 

19.20 

18,87 

1.26 

53.50 

14,66 

8.10 

7.58 

28.84 

,80 

..    18 

14,68 

10,08 
18,52 

19,87 

1.24 

54.37 

H56 

8.11 

%95 

28,68 

.26 

n    26  

14,68 

1936 

1.40 

54.45 

14.66 

8.17 

7.28 

29,96 

.29 

July  9 

14.48 

20,04 

19.49 

1.26 

55.25 

14.66 

8.80 

4.8a 

82,88 

.88 

M      9 

16.78 

18,27 

19,49 

138 

55.82 

14,66 

8,84 

4.05 

88,61 

.86 

,.    16 

16,76 

17.92 

19.81 

1.89 

55.80 

H66 

8,86 

tn 

88.46 

.86 

„    28  

16.75 

»7.H5 

19.86 

1.97 

im 

14,66 

8,84 

88,29 

.88 

..    80 

16,76 

17,70 

20,26 

1,12 

14.66 

8.88 

4.46 

82,26 

.88 

Anf.  6 

16,80 

'7.47 

19.66 

1,16 

54.98 

14.56 

Pi 

5.5a 

81,80 

.84 

,7 18 

16.80 

n 

19.96 

1.21 

55. 10 

14,66 

8.49 

tu 

81,06 

.28 

„    20 

16.38 

2036 

1.20 

54.84 

14.56 

8.87 

81,06 

,29 

,.    27 

16,93 

16,93 

90,14 

1,17 

54.17 

14.66 

8.72 

4,61 

80,67 

,29 

Sept.  8 

16.68 

17.61 

19,61 

1,19 

53.84 

14.66 

8,72 

1^ 

6,00 

81.14 

,80 

,.    10 

16.84 

17,28 

2038 

1.24 

55.09 

14.56 

8.79 

81.66 

.29 

.,    17 

16,34 

17.25 

20,98 

1.19 

solo* 

14.66 

8,78 

81.48 

,28 

n     24  

16,88 

17.33 

21,16 

1,29 

14.66 

8,79 

5.48 

81.00 

,29 

Oct.  1  

16,88 

17.45 

Si* 

J'Jl 

55.13 

14.66 

8,06 

5i90 

88.51 

.82 

M      8  

19.67 

17.43 

1,10 

56.'73 
55.78 

14,56 

8,07 

5.08 

83.68 

.86 

.,    16  

19.87 

1?;S 

18.41 

1,18 

14.66 

8,07 

4.94 

89.86 

.86 

„    22  

19.17 

17,47 

1,96 

14.66 

8,08 

4.90 

81,96 

.80 

„    89 

19.07 

17.86 

16,66 

1.17 

54.76 

HI6 

8.07 

4.17 

81,69 

.84 

Not.  6 

18,67 

18,59 

16.66x 

J'Jl 

53.82 

14,66 

8.07 

8.12 

81,94 

,84 

„    12 

18.14 

18,76 

16,06 

1,19 

53.02 

14,66 

8,08 

3,36 

81.49 

.86 

„    19 

17,79 

18,89 

14.99 

VI 

52,84 

14.66 

8,08 

3.14 

81,09 

,88 

..    26 

17,29 

18,84 

14,97 

1.09 

52.19 

H66 

8.08 

t^ 

29,97 

,88 

Dec.  8 

16.86 

19.17 

14,10 

J'^ 

50,66 

14,66 

8.04 

28,68 

.84 

„    10 

16.66 

19,01 

14,48 

1-i! 

50.21 

14,66 

8.08 

4.41 

99,11 

.80 

..    17 

16.84 

I9!65 

14,68 

1.26 

5I.4S 

14,66 

8.08 

i:S 

28,04 

.48 

«    24 

16.84 

20,30 

14.02 

^'IZ 

lit 

14»66 

8.07 

29.97 

.28 

-    81  

16.69 

24.29 

18.76 

139 

Digitized  by 


Google 


182 


Periodical  Betuma, 


[Mar.  1880. 


FOREIGN  EXCBANGEB.—Quotatums  as  under,  London  on  Paris,  Hamburg 
and  Calcutta;  — a^  New  York,  Calcutta,  Hong  Kong,  and  Sydney,  on 
JjOJXiyoif,  for  1879. 


1 

s 

S 

4 

6 

« 

7 

8 

» 

London 

on 
Piria. 

8  ni.d. 

London 

on 

Hunborg. 

8m.d. 

New 
York. 

60d.i. 

Calcutta. 

Hong 
Zong. 

6m.d. 

Sydney. 
SOd.«. 

Standard 

Datm. 

(Approxi- 
mately.) 

Indian 

Council 

Bills. 

CalcntU 

on 

London 

Bank  BiUi. 

tf  m.  a. 

SUttr 

in  Ban  in 

Loodott. 

pr.oi. 

1879. 

Per  cnt. 

d. 

d. 

d. 

Per  cnt. 

d. 

Jan.    8.... 

„   17.... 

25-57i 
26-62i 

20-76 
20-67 

4-81i 

4-84 

i8| 
19* 

19* 

20 

43* 

— 

491 
501 

Feb.  11 .... 
„    26.... 

26-46 
26-47i 

20-61 
20-64 

4-85 
4-86} 

IS- 

i9i 
I9i 

43| 
43i 

— 

49* 
481 

Mar.  11 .... 
„    26.... 

25-62i 
25-60 

20-66 
20-66 

4-86i 
4-85 

;:» 

;if 

43* 

— 

49i 
60* 

April  8  .... 
„    22.... 

25-60 
26-42i 

20-66 
20-61 

4-86 
4-86 

I9i 
"9* 

•9i 
i9« 

.It 

— 

m 

49K 

May   6.... 
„    20.... 

25-87i 
26-40 

20-68 
20-59 

4-86} 
4-871 

19* 

v.\ 

— 

601 
60i 

June  3  .... 
„    17.... 

25-37i 
26-46 

20-59 
20-60 

4-87 
4-87 

19A 

20 

47i 

— 

62i 
62 

July   8.... 
„    17.... 

25-46 
26-47i 

20-62 
20-63 

4-86i 
4-85i 

•9« 
19H 

»oi 

46f 
45* 

— 

62t 
61* 

Aug.  6  .... 
„    19.... 

26-46 
26-47i 

20-63 
20-64 

4-811 
4-8U 

19* 
I9i* 

:» 

44| 
+4* 

— 

61* 
61ii 

Sept.  4 .... 
„    18.... 

26-52i 
26-60 

20-66 
20-65 

4-80} 
4-81i 

>9i 
>9« 

20* 

44* 
44* 

— 

61* 
611 

Oct.    2.... 
„    16.... 

26-60 
26-47i 

20-63 
20-62 

4-81 
4'80t 

«9« 

20 

44* 

— 

in- 

Nov.  4.... 
„    18.... 

26-42i 
26-46 

20-66 
20*66 

4-79i 
4-80} 

»oi 

20i 

20}» 
20H» 

4«*» 
4«i» 

— 

68i 
63i 

Dec   4.... 
„    18.... 

26-47i 
26-47i 

20-67 
20-57 

4-81 
4-81i 

aoi 

20i» 
20i» 

4«* 
45*' 

— 

62} 
621 

•  These  are  at  four  months'  date  only. 


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JOURNAL 


OT  THB 


STATISTICAL  SOCIETY. 


(Jfmmbtb  1834.) 


Vol.   XLIIL— Part  II. 
JUNE,  1880. 


LONDON: 
EDWARD  STANFORD,  65,   CHARING  CROSS,  S.W. 

1880. 

Digitized  byCjOOQlC 


STATISTICAL    SOCIETY. 


HIS  BOTAL  HIGHNESS   THE   PRINCE   OF  WALES,   E.G. 


COUNCIL    AND    0 F F I C E R S.— 1879-80. 

{having  filled  the  Office  of  President), 


Thb  RiaHT  HovoiTBABLE  Thb  Eael  of 

SHAPTESBrET,  K.G.,  D.C.L. 
The  Right  Honoubablb  The  Eael  of 

Haeeowby,  K.G.,  D.C.L. 
The    Rioht   Honoitbable   The   Lobd 

Otteestonb,  M.A.,  F.E.G.S. 
The  Bight  Hokoubablb  The  Eabl  of 

Debet,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S. 
James  Heywood,  Esq.,  M. A.,  F.R.S. 


The    Right   Honoitbable   The    Lobd 

Houghton,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S. 
William  Nbwmabch,  Esq.,  F.R.S.,  F.I.  A. 

(Corr.  Member  Inst,  of  France). 
Wm.  Fabb,  Esq.,  M.D.,  C.B.,    D.C.L., 

F.R.S.  (Corr.  Member  Inst,  of  France). 
William  A.  Gut,  Esq.,  M.B.,  F.R.C.P., 

F.R.S. 
Geobgb  Shaw  Lefetbb,  Esq.,  M.P. 


Tf^xtiititnt 
THOMAS   BRASSEY,    ESQ.,   M^. 

eitf^XtixtitvAi. 

F.  J.  MoiTAT,  M.D.,  F.R.C.S.         I   Feedbbick  Pubdy. 

A.  J.  Mundblla,  M.P.  I   Sib  R.  W.  Rawson,  C.B.,  K.C.M.a. 

^XvAttti. 

Jambs  Heywood,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.R.S.     |  Sib  John  Lubboce,  Babt.,  M.P.,  F.R.S. 

William  Newmaboh,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 

RiCHABD   BlDDULFH   MABTIN,  M.A. 


€0undL 


Majob-Gekebal  H.  p.  Babbage. 

Abthub  H.  Bailey,  F.I.A. 

T.  Gbaham  Balfoitb,  M.D.,  F.R.S. 

A.  E.  Bateman. 

Stefhen  Bottbne. 

Edwabd  William  Bbabbooe,  F.S.A. 

James  Caibd,  C.B.,  F.R.S. 

J.  Oldfibld  Chadwick,  F.R.G.S. 

Hammond  Chubb,  B.A. 

Hyde  Clabkb. 

Lionel  L.  Cohen. 

Caftain  Patbick  G.  Cbaigte. 

JULAND   DaNVBES. 

Robebt  Giffen. 
Feedbbick  Hendbies. 


Henby  Jbula,  F.R.G.S. 

Peop.  W.  8.  Jevons,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 

Fbancis  Joubdan. 

Pbofessob  Leone  Leti,  LL.D. 

John  B.  Mabtin,  M.A. 

RiCHABD   BlDDULFH  MaBTIN,  M.A. 

Fbbdebio  John  Mouat,  M.D.,  F.R.C.S. 

Anthony  J.  Mundblla,  M.P. 

Fbancis  G.  P.  Neison. 

Robebt  Hogabth  Pattebson. 

Feedbbick  Pubdy. 

E  en  est  Geobge  Rayenstein,  F.R.G.S. 

SiB  Rawson  W.  Rawson,  C.B.,  K.C.M.G. 

Ebnest  Sbyd. 

CoBNELius  Walpobd,  F.I.A. 


Ibtxxtiaxxsi. 

Hammond  Chxtbb.  |  Robebt  Giffen. 

Pbofessob  W.  Stanley  Jevons. 


Fbedeeic  J.  Mouat,  M.D. 


e^itax  al  ^t  90uma(. 

Robebt  Giffen. 


Joseph  Whittall. 

J^uxSktxt* — ^Messrs.  Drummond  and  Co.,  Chabino  Ceoss,  S.W.,  London. 
2 


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STATISTICAL    SOCIETY. 

(KINa'S  COLLEaB  ENTRANCE), 

STEAND,  W.C,  LONDON. 

Jvne,  1880. 


NOTICES    TO    FELLOWS. 


ANNUAL  SUBSCRIPTIONS  are  due  in  advance,  on  the  Ist  of 
Jannary  in  each  year. 

A  Form  for  authorising  a  Banker  or  Agent  to  pay  the  Snbecrip- 
tion  Annually  will  be  forwarded  by  the  Assistant  Secretary,  on 
application.  When  conyenient,  this  mode  of  payment  is  recom-' 
mended. 

Drafts  should  be  made  payable  to  the  order  of  "  The  Statistical 
Society,"  and  crossed  **  Brwmmond  and  Oo" 


To  be  included  in  the  Ballot  at  any  particular  Ordinary  Meeting, 
the  Nomination  Papers  of  Candidates  for  Fellowship,  must  be 
lodged  at  least  six  days  before  the  date  of  such  Meeting. 


Fellows  who  may  desire  to  receive  Special  and  Separate  Notices  of 
each  Paper  to  be  read  before  the  Society,  should  indicate  their 
wishes  to  the  Assistant  Secretary. 


Members  borrowing  books  from  the  Library  are  requested  to  be 
good  enough  to  return  them  with  as  little  delay  as  possible,  but 
without  fail  at  the  expiration  of  a  month,  so  as  to  obviate  the 
necessity  otherwise  of  recalling  them. 


Members  changing  their  Addresses  are  requested  to  notify  the  same 
to  the  Assistant  Secretary,  so  that  delay  in  forwarding  communica- 
tions, or  the  JotMmalf  may  be  avoided. 

Bi  Order  of  the  Exbcutivb  Committee. 

3 

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HOWAKD   MEDAL  OF  1881. 


The  following  is  the  title  of  the  Essay  to  which  the  Medal  will 
be  awarded  in  November,  1881.  The  Essays  to  be  sent  in  on  or 
before  30th  June,  1881. 

"  On  the  Jail  Fever  from  the  Earliest  Black  Assize  to  the  last 
"  recorded  Outbreak  in  Recent  Times J*^ 

The  Council  have  decided  to  grant  the  sum  of  20/.  to  the  writer 
who  may  gain  the  "  Howard  Medal  *'  in  November,  1881. 

{The  Medal  is  of  hronzBy  having  on  one  side  a  portrait  of  John 
Howard,  on  the  other  a  wheatsheaf  with  suitable  inscription). 

The  following  are  the  principal  conditions : — 

Each  Essay  to  bear  a  motto,  and  be  accompanied  by  a  sealed 
letter,  marked  with  the  like  motto,  and  containing  the  name  and 
address  of  the  author ;  such  letter  not  to  be  opened,  except  in  the 
case  of  the  successfal  Essay. 

No  Essay  to  exceed  in  length  150  pages  (^vo.)  of  the  Journal  of 
the  Statistical  Society. 

The  Council  shall,  if  they  see  fit,  cause  the  successful  Essay,  or 
an  abridgment  thereof,  to  be  read  at  a  Meeting  of  the  Statistical 
Society ;  and  shall  have  the  right  of  publishing  the  Essay  in  their 
Journal  one  month  before  its  appearance  in  any  separate  indepen- 
dent  form ;  this  right  of  publication  to  continue  till  three  months 
after  the  award  of  the  Prize. 

The 'President  shall  place  the  Medal  in  the  hands  of  the  suc- 
cessful Candidate,  at  the  conclusion  of  his  Annual  Address,  at  the 
ordinary  Meeting  in  November,  when  he  shall  also  re-announce  the 
subject  of  the  Prize  Essay  for  the  following  year. 

Competition  for  this  Medal  shall  not  be  limited  to  the  Fellows 
of  the  Statistical  Society,  but  shall  be  open  to  any  competitor, 
providing  the  Essay  be  written  in  the  English  language. 

The  Council  shall  not  award  the  Prize,  except  to  the  author  of 
an  Essay,  in  their  opinion,  of  a- sufficient  standard  of  merit;  no 
Essay  shall  be  deemed  to  be  of  sufficient  merit  that  does  not  set 
forth  the  facts  with  which  it  deals,  in  part,  at  least,  in  the  language 
of  figures  and  tables;  and  distinct  references  should  be  made  to 
such  authorities  as  may  be  quoted  or  referred  to. 

Further  particulars  or  explanations  may  be  obtained  from  the 
Assistant  Secretary,  at  the  Office  of  the  Society,  Eling's  College 
Entrance,  Strand,  London,  W.C. 
4 


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CALENDAR   FOR  1880. 


« 

oi 

S 

fi 

CO 

pa 

1 

B 

i 

1 

2 

1 

OQ 

IS 

D 

g 

1 

6S 

OQ 

JAN. 

I 

2 

3 

4 

JULY 

I 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

II 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

II 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

FEB. 

I 

AUG. 

I 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

II 

12 

13 

14 

15 

9 

10 

II 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

23 

30 

24 
31 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

MAR. 

I 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

II 

12 

13 

14 

SEP. 

... 

... 

I 

2 

3 

4 

5 

15 

16 

17 

18 

^9 

20 

21 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

II 

12 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

13 

J4 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

29 

30 

31 

... 

... 

20 
27 

21 
28 

22 
29 

23 
30 

24 

25 

26 

APR. 

... 

... 

I 

2 

3 

4 

s 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

II 

OCT. 

... 

... 

I 

2 

3 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

'9 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

II 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

18 

25 

19 
26 

20 
27 

21 
28 

22 
29 

23 
30 

24 
31 

MAY 

... 

... 

• .  • 

I 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

NOV. 

I 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

10 

II 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

8 

9 

10 

II 

12 

13 

14 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

31 

... 

... 

... 

... 

... 

29 

30 

... 

... 

... 

... 

... 

JUNE 

... 

I 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

DEC. 

I 

2 

3 

4 

5 

7 

8 

9 

10 

II 

12 

13 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

II 

12 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

28 

29 

30 

... 

... 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

... 

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In  Monthly  Parts.       Price  325.  per  Annum.       Postage  Free. 

PRECIS 


OF 


OFFICIAL    PAPERS, 


BEING 


ABSTRACTS  OF  ALL  PARLIAMENTARY  RETURNS 

Directed  to  be  Printed  by  both  Houses 
of  Parliament 


SESSIOnST   1880. 

MESSRS.    W.    H.    ALLEN    AND    CO., 
13,   WATERLOO    PLACE,    LONDON, 


MEMORANDUM  WITH  REFERENCE  TO 

ADVERTISEMENTS 

POB  THB 

STATISTICAL    SOCIETY'S   JOURNAL, 

Which  has  a  wide  circiilation,  both  at  Home  and  Abroad, 


Suitable  Advertisements  will  be  inserted  in  the  Quarterly 
Parts  of  the  Society's  Journal,  at  the  undermentioned  rates  : — 


In  the  Four  Quarterly  Parte  of  the 
Journal — 

(FOUB  IlflSETIOm) 

One  Page  ••       ••  £10  10    0 

Half  Page..  6   6    0 

G 


In  one  Quarterly  Petri  of  the  Journal 
onljf^ 

(Om  Imnnov) 

One  Page  •  •       ..£330 
Half  Page  ..       ..       2    2    0 


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ISSUED   BY 

EDWAED    STANFOED, 

56,  OHARINQ  CROSS,  S.W. 


L  ATLA8ES  and  MAPS.— General  Catalogue  of  Atlases  and  Maps 
publiflhed  or  sold  by  Edwabd  Stahpobd.    New  Edition. 

2.  BOOKS. — Selected  List  of  Books  published  by  Edward  Stamford. 

Naval  and  Military  Books,  Ordnance  Survey  Publications,  Memoirs  of  the  Geological 
Surrey  of  the  United  Kingdom,  and  Meteorological  Office  Publications,  published 
on  account  of  Her  Majesty's  Stationery  Office. 

4.  LONDON  and  its  ENVIRONS.— Selected  List  of  Maps  of  London 

and  its  Environs,  published  by  Edwahd  Stakpobd. 

5.  ORDNANCE  MAPS. — Catalogue  of  the  Ordnance  Maps,  published 

under  the  superintendence  of  Colonel  Cookb.    Price  6d. ;  per  post  7d. 

6.  GEOLOGICAL   SURVEY  of   GREAT  BRITAIN  and   IRE- 

LAND.— Oatalosue  of  the  Geological  Maps,  Sections,  and  Memoirs  of  the  Geo- 
logical Survey  of  Gbeat  Britain  and  Ireland,  under  the  superintendence  of  Akdbew 
C.  Bambat,  LL.D.,  F.B.S.,  Director-General  of  the  Geological  Surveys  of  the 
United  Kingdom.    Price  6d. ;  per  post  'Jd, 

8.  ADMIRALTY  CHARTS.— Catalogue  of  Charts,  Plans,  Views,  and 

Sailing  Directions,  &c.,  published  by  order  of  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  the 
Adminlty.    224  pp.  royal  Svo.     Price  7a, ;  per  post,  7s.  4i. 

9.  INDIA. — Catalogue  of  Maps  of  the  British  Possessions  in  India  and 

other  parts  of  Asia,  with  continuation  to  the  year  1876.  Published  by  order  of  Her 
Migesty's  Secretary  of  State  for  India  in  Council.  Post  free  for  Two  Penny 
Stamps. 

10.  EDUCATIONAL.— Select  List  of  Educational  Works  published  by 

Edwabd  Stanfobd,  including  those  formerly  published  by  Yabty  &  Cox. 

11.  EDUCATIONAL    WORKS    and    STATIONERY.— Stanford's 

Catalogue  of  School  Stationery,  Educational  Works,  Atlases,  Maps,  and  Globes, 
with  Specimens  of  Copy  and  Exercise  Books,  &c. 

12.  SCHOOL  PRIZE  BOOKS.— List  of  Works  specially  adapted  for 

School  Prizes,  Awards,  and  Presentations. 

14.  BOOKS  and  MAPS  for  TOURISTS.  —  Stakford's  Tourist's 
Catalogue,  containing  a  list,  irrespective  of  Publisher,  of  all  the  best  Guide  Books 
and  Maps  suitable  for  the  British  and  Continental  Traveller ;  with  Index  Maps  to 
the  GoTemment  Surveys  of  England,  France,  and  Switzerland. 

*0*    With  the  exception  of  ttaore  with  price  affixed,  any  of  the  ahove  Catalognes  can  be  had  gratis  on 
Application;  or,  by  poet,  for  a  Fenny  Stamp. 


EDWABD  STANFOBD,  55,  Charing  Cross,  London. 

AgeiU  hff  Appointment  for  the  Sale  of  the  Ordnance  and  Geological  Survey  Maps^ 

the  Admiralty  Charte,  Her  Majesty* e  Stationery  Office  and 

India  Office  Publications^  etc. 


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Air  OUTLINE  OF  THB  OBJECTS  OF 

THE    STATISTICAL    SOCIETY. 


Thb  BtoMstical  Society  of  London  was  founded,  in  porsnanoe  of  a 
reoommendation  of  the  British  Association  for  the  Advancement  ot 
Science,  on  the  15th  of  March,  1834 ;  its  object  being,  the  carefnl 
collection,  arrangement,  discussion  and  publication,  of  facts  bear- 
ing on  and  illustrating  the  complex  relations  of  modem  society 
in  its  social,  economical,  and  political  aspects, — especially  facts 
which  can  be  stated  numerically  and  arranged  in  tables ; — and  also 
to  form  a  Statistical  Library  as  rapidly  as  its  funds  would  permit. 

The  Society  from  its  inception  has  steadily  progressed.  It 
now  possesses  a  valuable  Library  and  a  Beading  Room ;  ordinary 
meetings  are  held  monthly  from  November  to  June,  which  are  well 
attended,  and  cultivate  among  its  Fellows  an  active  spirit  of  inves- 
tigation :  the  papers  read  before  the  Society  are,  with  an  abstract 
of  the  discussions  thereon,  published  in  its  Journal^  which  now 
consists  of  forty-two  annual  volumes,  and  forms  of  itself  a  valuable 
library  of  reference. 

The  Society  has  originated  and  statistically  conducted  many 
special  inquiries  on  subjects  of  economic  or  sot^ial  interest,  of  which 
the  results  have  been  pablished  in  the  Jouimal,  or  issued  separately ; 
the  latest  instance  being  the  institution  of  the  "  Howard  Medal  *' 
Prize  Essay. 

To  enable  the  Society  to  extend  its  sphere  of  useful  activity,  and 
accomplish  in  a  yet  greater  degree  the  various  ends  indicated,  an 
increase  in  its  numbers  and  revenue  is  desirable.  With  the  desired 
increase  in  the  number  of  Fellows,  the  Society  will  be  enabled  to 
publish  standard  works  on  Economic  Science  and  Statistics,  espe- 
cially such  as  are  out  of  print  or.  scarce,  and  also  greatly  extend 
its  collection  of  Foreign  works.  Such  a  well-arranged  Library  for 
reference,  as  would  result,  does  not  at  present  exist  in  England,  and 
is  obviously  a  great  desideratum. 

The  Society  is  cosmopolitan,  and  consists  of  Fellows  and  Hono- 
rary Members,  forming  together  a  body,  at  the  present  time,  of 
nearly  nine  hwndred  Members. 

The  Annual  Subscription  to  the  Society  is  Two  Outneas,  and 
at  present  there  is  no  entrance  fee.  Fellows  may,  on  joining  the 
Society,  or  afterwards,  compound  for  all  future  annual  subscrip- 
tions by  a  payment  of  Twenty  Chiitieas, 

The  Fellows  of  the  Society  receive  gratuitously  a  copy  of  each 
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JOURNAL  OF  THE  STATISTICAL  SOCIETY. 

COST  OF  A  COMPLETE  SET  (if  not  out  of  peiht). 
1838-79.    (42  Vols.,  unbound.) 


f. 

d. 

]3 

b 

12 

- 

10 

- 

12 

6 

10 

- 

11 

- 

12 

- 

11 

6 

13 

- 

10 

* 

8 

-. 

17 

6 

15 

6 

19 

- 

15 

6 

U 

- 

Vol.    1.     (1838.)    9  Numbers  at  It.  6rf - 

Vol.  11.     (1839.)     3  Numbers  at  1«.  6d.  and  3  ParU  at  2«.  6d - 

VoU.  Ill— XI.    (1840-48.)     OtoIs.       lOt 4 

Vol.  XII.     (1849.)     Including  a  double  number - 

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Vol.  XX.     (1857.) - 

Vol.  XXI.     (1858.)    - 

VoL  XXII.     (1859.) - 

Vol.  XXIII.    (1860.)    ..„ - 

VoU.  XXIV— XXV.     (1861-62.)    2  vols,  at  15f 1 

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Vol.  XXVIII.    (1865.)    - 

Vol.  XXIX.    (1866.)    - 

Vol.  XXX.     (1867.) - 

Vol.  XXXI.     (1868.)    - 

Vol.  XXXII.     (1869.) - 

Vol.XXXUI.     (1870.)    

Vol.  XXXIV.     (1871.)    

Vol.  XXXV.     (1872.)  

Vol  XXXVI.    (1873.) '. 

Vol.  XXXVII.     (1874.)    

Vol.  XXXVIII.     (1875.) 

Vol.  XXXIX.    (1876.) 

Vol.  XL.    (1877.) t 

Vol.  XLI.    (1878.)    

Vol.  XLII.    (1879)  

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„  „  a863-72)    -  3  6 

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Association    op   the    Chambers    op  Commerce    op   the   United 

Kingdom,  Annual  Reports  of.     2,  3,  aini  6.     (1862-63,  aod 

1866.) 
Athenjbum.     The  first  seven  volumes.     1827-34. 
Bankers'  Magazine.     New  York.     Series  3,  Vol.  ii,  No.  7  (1868) ; 

Vol.  V,  No.  2  (1870) ;  Vol.  vii,  Nos.  6  and  7  (1872),  and  Vol.  viii, 

No.  6  (1873). 
Census  of  Berar.    1872. 
Census  op  Coorg.    1872. 
Central  Chamber  of  Agriculture,  Annual  Reports,  Nos.  1  and  2, 

for  (1866-67). 
CoMPTB  Q^n^ral  db  l' Administration  de  la  Justice  Civile  et 

Commercials  bn  France  pendant  les  Annies  1862,  1872,  et 

1873. 

COMPTE    OiN^RAL    DB   L' ADMINISTRATION    DB    LA   JUSTICE   CrIMINELLE 

BN  France  pendant  les  Annbes  1862,  1872,  et  1873. 
Economist.    The  first  three  volumes.    1843-45. 
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(1878);  Ann6e  7,  Vol.  i,  and  Nos.  1—50  of  Vol.  ii  (1879). 
Hunt's  Mbrchants'  Magazine.     (New  York.)    Vols,  i  to  xii,  and 

XV  to  xxvi. 
Investors'  Monthly  Manual.    First  three  volumes.    1871-73. 
Labourer's  Friend.    Nos.  230  (1869)  and  231  (1870). 
Liverpool  Literary  and  Philosophical  Society,  Proceedings  of. 

Nos.  1—5,  1844-45  to  1848-49. 
Manchester  Statistical  Society.    Transactions  for  1854-55. 
RivisTA  Europea,  Rivista  Internationale.      New  series.      Vols,  i 

to  iii,  and  Fasc.  1  of  Vol.  iv  (1877). 
Royal  Society,  London.    Indexes  to  the  Philosophical  Transac- 

TIONS.     4to.     Parts  I,  II,  and  III. 
Royal  Society,  London.    Catalogue  op  Scientific  Papers.   Vols. 

i  to  viii.     4to. 
Royal  Society  op  Edinburgh,  Proceedings  op.    Vols,  i  and  ii. 
Royal  Society  op  Victoru,  Transactions  of.    Vol.  v. 
Royal  Asutic  Society,  Journal.    Vol.  xiv  (1853-54). 
SuRTEES  Society.    Vols,  i  to  xxv,  xxvii  to  xxxii,  and  xxxiv. 
Tableaux  Q^n^raux  du  Commerce  de  la  Francb>  ArO.,  pendant  les 

AnniSbs  1846,  1847,  1850,  et  1868  k  1876. 
The  Times,  from  1845-63  and  1869-74. 
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LIST  OP  THE  FORMER 

OP  THE 

STATISTICAL   SOCIETY, 

From    its   Foundation,   on   I5th   March,    1834. 


P«riod.  ^ 

1840-61 — ^Hi8  Royal  Hiohnsss  The  Prince  Consort,  K.G. 


1834-86 
1836-38 
1838-40 
1840-42 

1842-43 
1843-45 

1845-47 
1847-49 
1849-51 
1851-53 
1853-55 
1855-57 
1857-59 

1859-61 

1861-63 

1863-65 
1865-67 
1867-69 
1869-71 
1871-73 
1873-75 
1875-77 
1877-79 


The  Most  Noble  the  Marquis  of  Lansdowne,  F.KS. 

Sir  Charles  Lemon,  Bart.,  M.P.,  F.R.S.,  LL.D. 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Earl  Fitzwilliam,  F.R.S. 

The  ^ght  Hon.  the  Yisconnt  Sandon,  M.P. 
(now  Earl  of  Harrowby.) 

The  Most  Noble  the  Marqnis  of  Lansdowne,  E.O.,  FJBJS. 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Viscount  Ashley,  M.P. 
(now  Earl  of  Shaftesbury.) 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Lord  Monteagle. 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Earl  Fitzwilliam,  F.R.S. 

The  Blghi  Hon.  the  Earl  of  Harrowby. 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Lord  Overstone. 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Earl  Fitzwilliam,  K.G.,  F.R.S. 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Earl  of  Harrowby,  F JI.S. 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Lord  Stanley,  M.P. 
(now  Earl  of  Derby.) 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Lord  John  Russell,  M.P.,  F.R.S. 
(afterwards  Earl  Russell.) 

The  Right  Hon.  Su-  J.  S.  Pakington,  Bart,  M.P.,  G.C.B. 
(afterwards  Lord  Hampton.) 

Colonel  W.  H.  Sykes,  M.P.,  FJR.S. 

The  Right  Hon.  the  Lord  Houghton. 

The  Right  Hon.  W.  E.  Gladstone,  M.P.,  D.C.L. 

W.  Newmarch,  Esq.,  F.R.S.,  Corr.  Mem.  Inst  of  France. 

WiUiam  Farr,  Esq.,  MD.,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S. 

WiUiam  A.  Guy,  Esq.,  M.B.,  F.R.S. 

James  Heywood,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  F.G5. 

George  Shaw-Lefevre,  Esq.,  M.P. 


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their  power  to  test  the  facts  inserted  in  this  Journal,  they  do  not 
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Vol  XUn.]  [Part  IL 

JOURNAL  OF  THE   STATISTICAL  SOCIETY, 

JUNE,  1880. 


On  the  Education  and  Training  of  the  Children  of  the  Poor. 
By  Frbdkeio  J.  Mouat,  M.D.,  late  Secretary  and  Member,  Council 
of  Education  of  Bengal ;  Member  of  the  Senate,  of  the  Faculties 
of  Arts  ancZ  Medicvne,  and  Fellow  of  the  University  of  Calcutta  ; 
Vice-President  a/nd  Foreign  Secretary  Statistical  Society^  ^c, 
^c,  ^c. 

[Head  before  the  Statistical  Society,  20th  April,  1880.] 


contents: 


PAOB 

Introdnction   184 

Who  and  what  are  Panper 

Children?  185 

I. — The  Past   188 

State  of  the  Question  prior 
to  the  passing  of  Poor 
Law  Amendment  Act  of 

1834  188 

II. — ^The  Pbesbnt 191 

(a)  Workhouse  Schools  ....  193 

(b)  Separate  Schools  196 

(c)  Certified       „       198 

(d)  Training  Ships 199 

(tf)   Boarding  Out  202 

(/)  District  Schools    206 

Cost  of  Education  in  the  Poor 

Law  District  and  Separate 

Metropolitan  Schools  209 

Bcsults  of  Education  in  Poor 

Law  Schools    212 

III.— The  PiTTUBE 220 

Why  the  District  and 
Separate  Schools  on  the 
Aggregate  System,  have 
not  fully  answered  the 
end  intended 221 

Reasons  for  preferring  the 
Cottage  Home  System 
in  all  future  Schools 
detached  from  Work- 
houses      224 

Edui'ational  Standards  of 
Elementary  Instruction  228 

Army  and  N^vy  Schools...  230 
VOL.  XLIII.      PART  II. 


Casual  Children 230 

Summary  231 

Condusion     233 

Appendix. 

Table  I. — ^Number  of  Children 
educated  and  Parliamentary 
Qrant  for  payment  of  Teachers, 
1861-78 236 

Table  IL — Qross  Expenditure  and 
Cost  per  Child  in  Metropolitan 
District  Schools,  1869-78  236 

Table  III.— Details  of  Annual 
Cost  of  above,  nnder  heads  of 
Provisions;  Necessaries,  Re- 
pairs, and  Furniture,  and  Edu- 
cation and  Industrial  Training     238 

Table  IV. — Parliamentary  Returns 
of  Numbers  of  Young  Persons 
educated  in  Workhouses  and 
District  Schools  who  returned 
to  the  Houses,  either  from  mis- 
conduct, or  from  causes  not 
involving  misconduct.  Sum- 
mary by  Counties 240 

Table  V.— Table  of  Young  Of- 
fenders admitted  to  and  dis- 
charged from  Certified  Reforma- 
tory Schools  from  1854-56 242 

Table  VI. — ^Number  of  Juvenile 
Offenders  committed  to  Refor- 
matories who  have  been  Inmates 
of  Workhouse  or  District  Schools 
from  1868-77 243 


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184  MouAT — On  the  EducaHon.and  Traming  [June^ 

IfUrodticHon. 

In  the  early  period  of  the  institution  of  the  Statistical  Society  of 
London,  few  questions  occupied  a  larger  share  of  its  time  and 
attention,  and  none  were  considered  with  more  care,  than  those 
connected  with  education,  eepeciallj  in  relation  to  the  elementary 
branch  of  that  important  subject ;  which,  in  one  of  not  the  least 
interesting  of  its  phases,  is  the  immediate  purpose  of  this  paper. 

Before  proceeding  to  the  consideration  of  the  subject,  I  deem 
it  right  to  mention  that  the  statements  and  views  contained  in  the 
paper  are  purely  and  entirely  personal,  and  must  not  be  considered 
to  have  any  official  significance,  from  my  connection  with  the  Local 
Government  Board,  under  the  general  direction  and  authority 
of  which  the  education  of  all  poor  law  children  in  England  and 
Wales  is  conducted.  My  qualification  for  considering  such  a  ques- 
tion is  based  upon  a  practical  acquaintance  of  some  fifteen  years' 
duration,  with  all  branches  of  education.  Li  Bengal,  from  the 
primary  elementary  schools  of  that  presidency,  to  the  institution 
of  Universities  in  Lidia,  based  upon  plans  proposed  by  me  some 
years  prior  to  their  adoption  by  the  State.  In  this  country,  I  have 
been  connected  with  the  poor  law  administration,  for  nearly  eight 
years.  I  conducted  two  great  inquiries,  which  are  published  in 
official  records,  into  the  schools  of  the  metropolis,  which  gave  me  a 
thorough  insight  into  their  management,  and  I  have  since  seen 
many  workhouse  schools  and  children  in  nearly  every  part  of 
England  and  Wales.  I  hope,  therefore,  that  I  do  not  come  quite 
unprepared  to  the  task  which  I  have  undertaken. 

A  committee  of  the  Society  was  appointed,  and  continued  for 
some  years  to  conduct  educational  inquiries,  of  which  the  results 
were,  from  time  to  time,  published  in  our  Journal.  They  are  a  mine 
of  wealth  on  the  subject,  and  of  considerable  historical  interest. 

These  investigations  only  came  to  an  end,  when  a  department 
of  the  State  took  up  and  continued  the  work  on  an  extended 
scale,  with  such  command  of  public  funds,  and  with  access  to  such 
abundant  and  instructive  sources  of  information,  as  rendered  it 
unnecessary,  as  well  as  inexpedient,  for  private  persons  to  continue 
to  labour  in  a  field  so  thoroughly  occupied  by  able,  active,  accurate 
workers,  charged  with  the  official  responsibility  of  a  public  duty  in 
the  matter. 

Of  all  the  unpaid  toilers  in  this  field,  no  one  was  more  earnest, 
devoted,  painstaking,  large  and  liberal  in  his  views,  and  clear  and 
candid  in  his  exposition  of  them,  than  the  late  Mr.  Joseph  Fletcher, 
for  some  time  Secretary  of  the  Society  and  Editor  of  its  Jowmal^  in 
several  volumes  of  which  his  vrritings  are  to  be  found.  His  admi- 
rable paper  on  the  Farm  Schools  of  the  Continent|  and  the  applica- 


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1880.]  Of  the  OhOdrm  of  the  Poor.  185 

tion  of  the  system  to  the  preventive  and  reformatory  education  of 
pavfper  and  erimiiMd  children — ^terms  which  were,  at  one  time,  nearly 
synonymous — ^was  reprinted  by  the  Society  last  year.*  If  the  great 
value  of  its  contents  were  better  and  more  widely  known,  it  woxQd 
have  been  eagerly  purchased  by  aU  interested  in  or  connected  with 
the  children  of  the  classes  to  which  it  relates,  as  containing  counsels 
of  wisdom  in  relation  to  their  management,  which  are  of  as  much 
importance  now,  as  they  were  when  written  so  long  since. 

Mr.  Fletcher's  paper  immediately  preceded  the  establishment  of 
district  schools  in  the  metropolis,  some  of  which  have  now  been 
more  than  a  quarter  of  a  century  in  existence,  and,  in  consequence, 
are  in  a  position  to  afford  positive  testimony  as  to  the  soundness  or 
otherwise,  of  the  views  which  led  to  their  institution.  It  therefore 
marks  an  epoch,  and  I  take  up  the  parable  where  Mr.  Fletcher  left 
it,  for  it  seems  to  me  to  be  an  important  function  of  such  a  Society 
as  ours,  to  continue  and  revise  its  work  from  time  to  time,  guided 
by  the  light  of  subsequent  experience,  in  all  great  practical  ques- 
tions. 

The  excellent  i^eports  of  the  Educational  Department  of  the 
Privy  Council,  show  how  well  its  work  has  been  done,  and  how 
largely  and  beneficially  the  fi»cts  and  figures  collected  by  its  officers, 
have  influenced  the  legislation  of  the  country  in  the  wise  direction 
of  its  public  instruction.  It  is,  I  think,  no  small  merit  fairly  due 
to  this  Society,  that  it  early  saw  the  importance  of  the  work,  and 
paved  the  way  for  its  continuance  in  a  manner  altogether  beyond 
its  own  power,  before  it  allowed  it  to  pass  out  of  its  hands. 

Before  I  proceed  to  the  immediate  development  of  my  subject 
I  must  say  a  few  words  as  to  who  and  what  are  known  as  pauper 
children,  and  to  indicate  precisely  the  nature  of  the  raw  material 
we  have  to  convert  into  good  stuff,  for  "  to  eradicate  the  hereditary 
'^  taint  of  pauperism,  would  be  to  annihilate  the  great  mass  of  the 
"  pauperism  of  the  conntry ;"  wise  words,  written  by  an  earnest  and 
singularly  single-minded  and  devoted  friend  of  this  class,  whose 
eminent  and  invaluable  public  services  have  not  received  the  public 
recognition  to  which  they  are  entitled :  I  mean  Mr.  B.C.  Tnffnelly 
the  late  inspector  of  the  Metropolitan  Poor  Law  Schools. 

What  are  termed  pauper  children,  are  the  offspring  of  destitute 
persons,  maintained  from  the  rates  in  union  workhouses,  district 
schools,  and  training  ships,  or  boarded  out  at  the  expense  of  their 
several  unions,  in  all  of  which  cases  they  are  dependent  from  the 
misfortune  of  thoir  birth  and  parentage,  and  from  no  &ult  or  cause 
of  their  own. 

^  "  Statistics  of  the  Farm  School  System  of  the  Continent,  and  of  its  Appli- 
**  cability  to  the  Preventive  and  Refonnatory  Education  of  Pauper  and  Criminal 
"  Children  in  England."    By  Joseph  Fletcher.    Edward  Stanford,  1878. 

02 


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1 S6  MouAT-^O^i  the  Education  and  Training  [  Jtme, 

Now,  as  the  term  "  pauper  '*  has  become  one  of  reproach,  and  is 
associated  with  moral  and  social  degradation,  I  hold  it  to  be  impo- 
litic and  wrong  to  brand  with  it  those  who  are  in  no  way  responsible 
for  the  unfortunate  position  in  which  the  destitution  of  their  parents 
has — ^to  whatever  cause  due — placed  them.  Thus  branded,  stig- 
matised, and  placed  in  a  class  apart,  the  child  has  not  a  fair  sts^ 
in  life. 

"  A  child  should  not  be  degraded  in  his  own  estimation  bj  being 
^'  a  member  of  a  despised  class.  A  child  cannot  be  a  pauper  in  the 
"  sense  in  which  that  term  is  commonly  understood ;  that  is,  he 
**  cannot  be  indigent  as  the  consequence  of  his  own  want  of  industry, 
"  skill,  frugality,  or  forethought,  and  ought  not,  therefore,  to  be 
"  taught  to  despise  himself.  The  pauper  apprentice  and  the  juvenile 
**  vagrant  were,  under  the  old  system,  brethren  of  the  same  class, 
**  outcasts,  neither  trained  by  frugal  and  industrious  parents,  nor 
"  by  a  well-devised  system  of  public  industrial  education. 

"  The  dependence  of  pauper  children  is  probably  the  natural 
"  consequence  of  the  crimes  or  follies  (but  it  may  also  be  of  the 
"  misfortunes),  of  their  parents;  and  in  any  of  these  cases  it  is  the 
**  interest  of  society  that  the  children  should  neither  inherit  the 
"  infamy  nor  the  vices,  nor  the  misfortunes  of  their  parents."* 

The  remedy  suggested  for  all  this  was  the  establishment  of 
district  schools,  in  which  the  children  should  be  taught  with  other 
children  not  received  from  the  workhouse,  nor  the  offspring  of 
pauper  parents. 

When  I  asked  in  Holland  for  information  regarding  their  pauper 
schools,  I  was  told  that  no  such  thing  existed,  and  that  the  appli- 
cation of  the  epithet  was  not  permitted.  Provision  for  the  educa- 
tion and  training  of  all  the  children  of  the  poor  was  made,  and  no 
section  of  them  was  treated  as  a  separate  class,  an  example  which 
it  would  be  wise  for  us  to  follow,  when  a  change  in  the  existing  laws 
permits,  and  the  education  of  the  whole  of  the  poor  is  gratuitous, 
as  well  as  compulsory,  a  change  which  I  venture  to  think  must 
come,  however  revolutionary  and  opposed  to  our  present  habits  of 
thought  and  manner  of  dealing  with  these  questions,  it  appears  at 
first  sight  to  be.  This,  however,  touches  the  whole  question  of 
elementary  education,  which  is  not  within  the  scope  of  my  paper. 
In  the  title  to  this  paper  I  have  advisedly  used  the  word  poor^  instead 
of  that  of  pauper^  because  the  term  is  already  employed  in  some  of 
the  acts  of  parliament  on  the  poor  laws,  and  because  it  will  be 
understood,  after  my  definition  of  what  the  children  referred  to 
really  are. 

Nowhere,  and  by  no  one,  has  this  class  been  better  described 

•  Dr.  Kay,  **  Reports  on  the  Training  of  Pauper  Children,"  &c.  London. 
8vo.,  1841,  p.  31. 


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1880.]  0/  the  Children  of  the  Poor.  187 

than  hj  the  late  Sir  James  Kay-Shnttleworth,  in  the  parliamentary 
report  already  referred  to,  when  writing  of  the  School  of  Industry 
at  Norwood. 

'^  As  they  are  chiefly  orphans,  deserted,  illegitimate^  or  the  off- 
"  spring  of  persons  undergoing  punishment,  for  crime,  they  are,  in 
"  fact,  children  of  the  dregs  of  the  pauper  population  of  London, 
'*  and  have  consequently,  for  the  most  part,  been  reared  in  scenes 
**  of  misery,  vice,  and  villainy.  Their  physical  conformation  and 
"  physiognomy  betray  that  they  have  inherited  from  their  parents 
"  physical  and  moral  constitutions  requiring  the  most  vigorous  and 
"  careful  training,  to  render  them  useful  members  of  society.  They 
'*  arrive  at  the  school  in  various  stages  of  sickness  and  disease : 
**  some  are  the  incurable  victims  of  scrofula ;  others  are  constantly 
**  liable  to  a  recurrence  of  its  symptoms ;  almost  all  exhibit  the 
"  consequence  of  the  vicious  habits,  neglect,  and  misery  of  their 
"  parents.  Visitors  invariably  mark  the  prevalence  of  a  singular 
**  formation  of  their  heads ;  that  the  boys  have  almost  invariably 
"  coarse  features,  and  that  the  girls  are  almost  all  plain.  To  the 
"  physical  coarseness  are  added  faces  of  suspicion,  obstinacy,  and 
"  gloom." 

My  own  observation,  based  on  an  examination  of  the  physical 
state  of  several  thousands  of  those  in  the  district  schools  of  the 
metropolis,  and  the  children  of  more  than  one  of  our  great  centres 
of  industry,  such  as  Birmingham,  Manchester,  and  Liverpool, 
brought  out  in  startling  relief  the  fact,  that  they  are  a  scrofulous, 
undersized,  badly-developed,  narrow-chested,  degenerate  class,  as 
compared  with  all  other  sections  of  the  population  urban  or 
rural ;  that  they  are  more  or  less  torpid  and  flaccid  in  mind  and 
body,  and  altogether  below  the  average  standard  of  those  in  town 
and  country  in  health  and  stature,  and  in  the  beauty  of  form  aud 
feature,  which  struck  St.  Augustine  so  many  centuries  since,  and 
which  still  happily  characterise  the  progeny  of  the  British,  nation, 
in  an  ethnological  point  of  view. 

Between  the  lowest  type  of  workhouse  child,  as  described  by 
Sir  James  Shuttleworth,  and  the  children  of  the  poor,  whose 
poverty  is  the  result  of  misfortune  and  not  of  vice  or  crime,  and 
who  have  seen  better  days,  there  is,  however,  nearly  every  gradation 
of  physical  development ;  but,  the  majority  are  generally  below  the 
usual  standard  of  beauty  of  form  and  healthiness  of  conformation, 
of  the  working  classes  of  the  population  at  large.  In  the  rural 
districts  sound  and  healthy  children  are  generally  found,  but  they 
are  in  a  painful  minority  in  the  great  masses  of  pauper  children 
throughout  the  country ;  and  I  am  afraid  it  must  be  accepted  as 
true  that,  as  a  class,  they  are  as  above  described. 

I  dwell  upon  these  points  strongly,  because  it  is,  in  my  opinion, 


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188  MouAT — On  the  Education  cmd  Training  [Jane, 

the  key  to  the  solutioii  of  the  problem,  of  how  best  to  deal  with 
them,  at  the  most  critical  period  of  their  lives. 

We  have  not  only  to  train  them  to  earn  an  honest  livelihood 
when  of  suitable  ages,  to  lead  useful  and  moral  lives,  to  recmit 
the  ranks  of  the  indnstrial  classes,  and  to  become  permanently  dis- 
panperised ;  bnt,  it  seems  to  me  to  be  of  almost  equal  importance  so 
to  conduct  and  regulate  their  training,  as  to  make  healthy  men  and 
women  of  them,  that  they  may  not  in  time  become  the  progenitors 
of  a  still  more  degenerate  race ;  inasmuch  as  it  is  now  accepted 
by  all  physiologists,  that  the  defects  which  are  transmissible  by 
heredity,  are  intensified  in  each  succeeding  generation. 

The  rapid  and  somewhat  alarming  gravitation  of  rural  popu- 
lations to  urban  centres,  moreover,  invests  the  subject  with  special 
interest,  for  the  children  of  the  poor,  bom  and  Inred  in,  or  trans- 
ferred to  towns,  rapidly  degenerate  and  become  scrofulous,  from 
overcrowding,  defective  food,  absence  of  the  means  of  healthy  recre- 
ation,  and  other  insanitary  conditions.  The  taint,  as  remarked 
above,  is  often  accompanied  by  the  coarseness  of  feature  and  other 
signs  of  mental  and  moral  degradation,  not  usually  found  in  the 
same  classes  of  the  country  population.  To  arrest  this  state  before 
it  becomes  permanent,  is  then  of  the  utmost  importance,  for  all  the 
consequences  of  scrofula  are  harder  to  remove  the  longer  it  lasts. 
In  the  second  and  third  generations  they  become  stereotyped,  and 
fill  our  institutions  with  the  halt,  the  blind,  the  epileptic,  and  the 
imbecile.  They  bear  out  the  view  of  some  of  the  most  careful  and 
experienced  of  the  earlier  writers  on  the  poor  laws  and  their 
administration,  that  pauperism,  and  the  diseases  begotten  of  it, 
are,  to  a  very  large  extent,  hereditary.  That  some  of  these  physical 
evils  are  on  the  increase,  appears  to  me  to  be  undoubted,  and  among 
the  causes  I  hold  to  be  the  condition  of  the  children  of  the  poor 
generally,  in  all  our  great  towns. 

With  this  unavoidably  lengthened  preamble,  I  proceed  to  the 
immediate  subject  of  my  paper,  which,  to  consider  logically,  I 
mast  divide  into  three  steps  or  stages,  the  past,  the  present,  and 
the  future,  so  as  to  utilise  the  knowledge  and  experience  of  the 
past  and  present,  in  the  guidance  and  direction  of  the  future. 

I.— The  Past. 

This  does  not  need  any  lengthened  demonstration,  for  its  evils 
were  long  since  recognised,  and  to  a  certain  extent  remedied. 
Wherein  the  remedy  has  fallen  short  of  the  desired  effect,  and 
further  measures  appear  to  be  necessary  to  carry  it  into  full  effect) 
I  shall  endeavour  in  my  concluding  remarks  to  show. 

The  commissioners  appointed  to  consider  and  report  upon  the 
working  of  the  poor  laws,   in  the  third  decade   of  the    present 


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1880.]  Of  iU  OhOdren  of  the  Poor.  189 

century,  whose  labours  cnlminated  in  one  of  the  most  beneficial  of 
all  oar  measures  of  domestic  legislation  of  modem  times,  in 
winding  np  their  work,  directed  attention  to  the  necessity  of 
attacking  the  evils  of  pauperism  at  their  source. 

They  said,  and  I  quote  the  whole  of  their  words,  for  they 
4mnnot  be  too  earnestly  and  frequently  impressed : — 

"  It  will  be  observed  that  the  measures  we  have  suggested  are 
**  intended  to  produce  rather  negative  than  positive  effects,  rather 
*^  to  remove  the  debasing  influence  to  which  a  large  portion  of  the 
'*  population  is  now  subject,  than  to  afford  new  means  of  prosperity 
**  and  virtue.  We  are  perfectly  aware  that,  for  the  general  diffusion 
^'of  right  principles  and  habits,  we  are  to  look,  not  so  much  to 
*'  any  economic  arrangements  and  regulations,  as  to  the  influence  of 
"  a  moral  and  religious  education.'* 

"  But  one  great  advantage  of  any  measure  which  shall  remove 
*^  or  diminish  the  evils  of  the  present  system,  is  that  it  will  in  the 
^  same  degree  remove  the  obstacles  which  now  impede  the  progress 
^of  instruction,  and  mitigate  its  results;  and  will  afford  a  fair 
"scope  to  the  operation  of  every  instrument  which  may  be 
^^  employed  for  elevating  the  intellectual  and  moral  condition  of 
"  the  poorer  classes.*' 

The  commissioners  went  on  to  observe,  that  as  the  subject  was 
not  within  their  commission,  they  would  not  dwell  further  on  it, 
and  that  they  only  ventured  on  the  few  remarks  above  cited,  for  the 
purpose  of  recording  their  conviction,  "  that  as  soon  as  a  good 
^*  administration  of  the  poor  laws  shall  have  rendered  further  im- 
**  provemeuts  possible,  the  most  important  act  of  the  legislature  is 
"  to  take  measures  to  promote  the  religions  and  moral  education  of 
"  the  labouring  classes." 

In  consequence  of  this  recommendation,  after  the  appointment 
of  poor  law  commissioners,  and  when  the  department  was  in  fVill 
working  order,  in  1839,  the  attention  of  the  commission  was  specially 
directed  to  the  subject  by  the  Home  Secretary,  and  instructions  were 
accordingly  issued  by  them  to  those  assisting  the  commissioners,  to 
make  ijiquiry  into,  and  report  as  to — 

1.  The  state  of  the  pauper  schools  before  the  passing  of  the 

Poor  Law  Amendment  Act. 

2.  The  improvements  introduced  into  those  schools  since  the 

passing  of  the  Act. 

3.  The  further  improvements  which  might  be  introduced  into 

the  pauper  schools,  and  the  obstacles  to  such  further 
improvements.   ' , 

Somewhat  detailed  instructions  were  given  as  to  the  great  points 
necessary  to  be  inquired  into  and  made  known,  and  much  minute 


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190  MouAT — On  the  Education  amd  Travrving  [June, 

and  valuable  information  was  soon  collected,  of  which  the  most 
important  was  printed  in  an  invalaable  report,  published  by  the  poor 
law  commissioners  in  1841.  By  very  far  the  best  of  all  the  reports 
were  those  of  Dr.  Kay,  and  Mr.  E,  C.  Tuffnell,  which  abounded  in 
carefully  collected  facts,  and  excellent  practical  suggestions  re- 
garding the  measures  necessary  to  remedy  the  evils  pointed  out. 
They  all  united  in  one  unbroken  chorus  of  condemnation,  of  the 
ante-poor-law  amendment  period.  These  schools  were  shown  to  be, 
as  a  rule,  efficient  instruments  of  evil,  with  few  redeeming  qualities. 
A  large  portion  of  the  criminal  population  was  supplied  from 
the  juvenile  inmates  of  the  workhouses  and  their  schools;  the 
system  of  apprenticeship  then  in  force  was  one  of  intolerable  abuser 
and  the  evidence  of  workhouse  masters  and  assistant  commissioners 
tended  to  show,  that  the  bad  results  of  the  system  were  in  so  great 
a  measure  due  to  the  associations  inseparable  from  the  immediate 
connection  of  the  schools  with  the  workhouses,  that  the  remedy  was 
to  be  sought  in  the  complete  separation  of  the  children  from  the 
adult  paupers,  rather  than  in  the  amendment  of  the  schools  them- 
selves. 

Some  of  the  more  flagrant  abuses  were  corrected  so  far  as 
correction  could  be  applied  without  going  to  the  root  of  the  evi}, 
and  there  was  found  an  occasional  oasis  of  good  and  efficient 
management,  in  the  dreary  desert  of  a  wrong  direction  in  the 
training  of  the  children  of  the  poor.  There  was  not,  however, 
sufficient  of  this  leaven  to  leaven  the  mass,  and  the  radical  remedy 
of  the  establishment  of  District  Schools  entirely  separated  from  the 
workhouses,  was  suggested  and  steadily  kept  in  view,  until  after 
much  discussion  and  inquiry,  the  public  were  sufficiently  educated 
to  induce  the  legislature  to  grant  the  necessary  authority  for  their 
establishment.  Large  schools  were  recommended,  on  the  groimd  of 
economy  of  management,  and  efficiency  of  education  and  training 
at  moderate  cost,  the  expense  of  the  material  and  agency  employed 
being  spread  over  a  large  sur^ce,  and  thus  lessening  the  outlay 
necessary  for  the  fair  start  in  life  of  each  individual  child. 

The  authors  of  the  plan,  however,  I  think  rightly,  deprecated  its 
being  considered  from  the  economic  side  only,  for  any  plan  which 
falls  short  of  efficiency  from  the  grudging  of  really  necessary  expen- 
diture of  money,  cannot  be  considered  to  be  economical,  in  the  trne 
sense  of  that  much  misapplied  and  misused  term.  The  conversion 
of  unprofitable  consumers  into  profitable  producers,  the  rescue  of 
the  young  from  augmenting  the  ranks  of  those  preying  upon  society, 
the  enormous  gain  to  the  commonwealth  of  a  virtuous,  well 
conducted,  industrious,  and  thrifty  population,  are  ends  that  justify, 
and  even  sanctify,  any  outlay  requisite  to  attain  them,  even  if  there 
be  not,  as  I  hold  there  are,  yet  higher  objects  than  are  mentioned 


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1880.]  0/  the  ChOdrm  of  the  Poor.  191 

above,  in  giving  to  the  unhappy  cliildren,  who  are  not  responsible 
for  their  lowly  lot,  the  best  education  and  training  it  is  in  our 
power  to  give,  consistent  with  the  position — the  honourable  position 
I  esteem  it  to  be — they  are  intended  to  occupy  in  the  great  army  of 
the  labouring  classes,  As  modem  society  is  itself  responsible  for 
many  of  the  evils  inseparable  from  civilisation  in  its  most  advanced 
development,  so  it  should  not  grudge  to  the  irresponsible,  the  means 
requisite  to  counteract  those  evils,  so  far  as  it  is  in  our  power  to 
remedy  them.  And  surely  in  no  direction  have  we  a  better  prospect 
of  success,  than  in  the  moral  and  industrial  training  of  the  offspring 
of  the  poor.  Rightly  regarded,  these  children  of  the  State  are 
invaluable  material  when  rightly  dealt  with.  I  do  not  believe  in 
the  practicability  of  making  men  sober  and  industrious,  and  women 
virtuous,  by  the  agency  of  acts  of  parliament;  I  attach  com- 
paratively little  importance  to  efforts  to  reclaim  those  steeped  in 
vice  and  crime,  in  the  maturity  and  decline  of  their  lives:  but 
I  do  believe,  most  heartily  and  unfeignedly,  in  the  moral  and 
industrial  training  of  the  young,  and  in  the  efficacy  of  education 
generally  as  efficient  agents  in  ridding  the  body  politic  of  the 
most  unwholesome  of  its  humours,  in  cutting  out  the  corrupting 
cancer  of  pauperism  from  its  deepest  attachments,  and  in  purifying 
the  turbid  stream  of  our  social  life  at  its  source. 

No  opportunity  was  neglected  by  the  poor  law  commissioners  in 
placing  the  question  fairly  and  fully  before  boards  of  guardians ; 
until,  by  the  passing  of  Act  7  and  8  Vict.,  cap.  112,  the  necessary 
powers  for  the  formation  of  school  districts,  were  granted  by  the 
legislature.  This  met  the  customary  opposition  to  all  new  measures 
intended  to  secure  uniformity  of  action,  but  in  due  course  of  time 
district  schools  were  founded  in  the  metropolis,  with  the  consent  of 
the  local  authorities,  and  without  the  enforcement  of  the  compulsory 
powers  contained  in  the  Act. 

As  I  am  not  writing  a  history  of  the  working  of  the  poor  laws 
since  the  passing  of  the  great  Act  of  1834,  this  brief  outline  is  all 
that  seems  to  me  to  be  necessary  to  record  regarding  the  past,  in 
relation  to  the  education  and  training  of  the  children  of  the  poor — 
and  it  naturally  brings  me  to  the  second  division  of  my  subject. 

n. — The  Peesent. 

There  are  now  six  recognised  methods  of  dealing  with  the 
children  known  as  the  pauper  class,  viz. : — 

(a)  In  Workhouse  Schools, 
(h)    „  Separate  „ 

(c)  „  Certified  „ 

(d)  „  Training  Ships. 

(e)  ,y  Boarding  out,  and 
(/)    „  District  Schools. 

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192  MoTJAT — On  the  Education  cmd  Training  [  Jnne, 

Of  tlie  schools  which  still  form  an  integral  portion  of  the  work- 
honses,  a  considerable  nnmber  send  the  children  for  instruction  to 
nationsJ,  parish,  board,  and  other  day  schools,  maintaining  them 
in  the  workhouse  after  the  time  of  instruction.  The  instruction  in 
all  the  schools  mentioned  is  based  on  the  standards  of  the  Educa< 
tion  Department;  and  is,  in  fact,  that  of  the  public  elementary 
education  of  the  country. 

It  is  impossible  to  ascertain  from  the  official  returns,  the  exact 
number  of  the  children  dealt  with.  The  number  of  those  taught 
in  district  and  workhouse  schools,  with  the  salaries  of  the  teachers, 
is  given  in  Table  I,  from  1851,  the  date  of  Mr.  Fletcher's  paper,  to 
the  last  published  report  of  the  Local  Government  Board.  There 
has  been  comparatively  little  increase  or  decrease  in  the  numbers  and 
cost,  which  have  been  carefully  compiled  from  the  returns  of  the  late 
Poor  Law,  and  the  present  Local  Government  Boards.  The  smallest 
average  number  under  instruction  in  any  one  year  was  30,654,  and 
the  largest  41,574. 

From  a  summary  prepared  from  the  returns  of  1877,  the 
following  figures  were  obtained,  there  were : — 

Number  of  in-door  pauper  children  on  the  f  sane. 47i59^ 

Ist  January,  1877  •.- \  insane ....         644 

48,140 

Of  these  the  number  of   the  orphans,  or  those  1       g   ^ 

relieved  without  their  parents,  was j     ^  '^^ 

A  considerable  number  of  the  above  were  infants  below  the  age 
at  which  instruction  begins.  Of  those  under  instruction,  the 
following  was  the  distribution  at  the  time  mentioned : — 


Knmber 

of 
Uoicms. 

How  Disposed  of. 

Daily  ATerage 

Attendance. 

Half-Year  ended 

L«iy-day,  1877. 

88 

Sent  their  children  to  9  district  schools    

5,59d 

8,711 

17,980 

2,080 

65 

416 

186     { 

Maintained  their  children  in  49  separate  schools 

Educated  the  children  in  414  workhouse       „      

Sent  their  children  to  national,  parish,  board,  and  1 
other  daj  schools,  average  attendance  at  J 

This  is  exclusive  of — 
Which  sent  the  children  to  an  industrial  school  .... 
Boarded  out  their  children 

1 
8 

34,377 

6 

Had  no  workhouses  or  in-door  oauners 

660 

The  above  figures  are  only  an  approximation  to  the  truth,  for 
the  number  of  the  large  class  of  casual  children  who  are  con- 


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1880.] 


Of  the  Children  of  the  Poor. 


193 


stantly  in  and  ont  of  the  workhonses  with  their  parents,  is 
extremely  difficalt  to  ascertain,  from  the  incomplete  records  pub- 
lished. 

There  is  also  some  flnctoation  in  the  numbers  themselves,  as 
shown  by  the  following  abstract  of  the  returns  for  1878,  the 
latest  for  which  I  have  been  able  to  obtain  the  figures.  The 
number  of  children  supported  out  of  the  rates  must  of  necessity, 
to  a  great  extent,  fluctuate,  in  accordance  with  the  variation  of  the 
pauperism  of  the  parents. 

Number  of  in-door  pauper  children  on  let  f  sane 5i>427 

January,  1878 L  insane ....         7 1 3 


Of  these  children  the  number  of  the  orphans  and  1 
of  children  relieved  without  their  parents  was  ....  J 


5**140 
30.714 


Of  those  actually  under  instruction  on    the  same  date,   the 
following  is  the  number  : — 


Number 

of 
Unkins. 

Manner  of  thdrDi^xMaL 

Daily  ArertKe 

Attendance, 

Half-Ycar  ended 

Lady-day,  1878. 

84 
36 

418 

166     - 

Sent  their  pauper  children  to  10  district  schools 

„                       f>                 28  separate     „      

Taught  their           „          in  415  workhouse  schools.. 

Sent  their  pauper  children  to  national,   British,  I 
board,  and  other  day  schools  j  the  arerage  atten-  • 
danoe  may  be  estimated  at 

6,206 

7,011 

20HOI 

2,870 

1 
3 

Union  boarded  out  its  in-door  pauper  children  

Unions  had  no  workhouse 

1 

Union  had  a  few  <!hildren  but  no  school    

In  the  training  ship  "  Exmouth  "  « 

Total  daily  arerage  attendance  in  school 

139 

649 

36,627 

(a) — Workhouse  Schools. 

From  these  returns  it  will  be  seen  that  by  far  the  largest 
number  of  the  children  are  still  retained  in  schools  which  are 
integral  parts  of  the  workhouses,  via.,  18,000  in  1877,  and  20,401  in 
1878. 

In  spite  of  all  that  has  been  said  and  written  on  the  subject 
since  1834,  and  notwithstanding  the  great  and  undoubted  improve- 
ments which  have  been  effected  in  the  internal  arraugements  and 
management  of  most  of  our  workhouses,  the  pauper  class  is  very 
much  the  same  now  as  it  was  then,  and  probably  ever  will  be,*  and 

*  "  Strange  as  the  assertion  may  sound  in  some  ears,  I  beliere  it,  nevertheless, 
to  be  quite  true  that,  of  the  many  millions  of  adult  men  and  women  in  England, 
scarcely  a  solitary  person  has  thought  of  asking  himself  this  vital  question  :  What 


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194  MoTJ^T — On  the  Education  a/nd  Training  [Jnnei 

the  evil  inflaences  of  pauper  example  and  associations  continue  to 
be  about  the  worst  to  which  a  child  can  be  subjected,  at  the  most 
plastic  and  impressionable  period  of  life. 

To  children  brought  up  in  a  workhouse,  however  well  managed, 
the  early  home  will  be  the  one  looked  to  with  greatest  affection 
throughout  life,  for  early  influences  are  the  most  lasting ;  and  the 
great  kindness  and  affection  with  which  they  are,  as  a  rule,  treated 
by  masters,  matrons,  and  workhouse  officials  generally,  will  seldom 
be  effaced  from  the  memories  of  even  the  careless  and  indifferent, 
and  those  whose  misfortune  it  has  been  never  to  have  known  real 
parental  affection,  or  home  life  beyond  the  dreary  walls  of  the 
union  house.  Where  such  a  feeling  exists,  the  wholesome  sentiments 
of  independence  and  self-respect  are  blunted,  and  in  most  cases 
probably  altogether  deadened.  The  chief  incentives  to  thrift  and 
economy  are  removed,  when  no  sense  of  disgrace  is  attached  to  the 
workhouse  as  a  refuge  in  times  of  distress,  in  old  age,  in  sickness, 
and  even  in  temporary  pressure  from  bad  seasons,  short  work,  strikes, 
and  the  other  incidents  of  the  career  of  the  improvident,  idle,  and 
ill-disposed  members  of  the  working  classes,  who,  unfortunately, 
are  far  too  numerous  in  these  times  of  high  pressure,  and  keen 
competition  at  home  and  abroad.  Parents  imbued  with  such  senti- 
ments have  no  scruple  in  abandoning  their  children  to  the  support 
of  the  public,  and  children  make  no  effort  to  maintain  their  parents 
in  old  age,  while  the  house  which  sheltered,  fed,  and  clothed  them 
in  early  life,  is  open  for  their  reception.  The  best  managed  work- 
house  schools  are  those  of  which  the  memory  will  survive  longest 
in  the  minds  of  those  who  have  been  trained  in  them.  Human 
nature  in  its  springs  of  action  is  very  much  the  same  in  all  classes, 
guided  as  much  by  early  training  and  influences  as  by  temperament 

becomes  of  the  wom-ont  and  nsed-np  moliitudes  of  the  criminal  and  dangerous 
classes?  When  they  can  plunder  and  plague  the  public  no  longer,  into  what 
holes  and  comers  do  they  slink  to  die  ?  Not  in  garrets  and  cellars — the  poor  die 
in  such  places  as  these — ^not  in  ditches  and  under  hedges,  but  in  union  work- 
houses. Where  else  should  they  wear  out  the  remnant  of  their  ill-spent  lives  P 
Where,  too,  do  the  children  of  the  dangerous  classes,  taught  to  steal,  sent  out  to 
beg,  witnesses  perforce  of  every  nauseous  vice,  full  to  the  brim  of  revolting 
experiences,  their  every  word  an  indecency  or  a  blasphemy ;  where  do  they  go  ? 
Where  must  they  go,  when  by  any  accident  they  fall  helpless  into  the  hands  of 
the  police  ?  There  is  but  one  answer.  They,  too,  must  go  to  the  union.  And  so  of 
profUgate  mothers,  when  their  time  of  trouble  comes;  and  so  of  the  tramping 
imbecile,  when  the  weather  is  not  to  his  taste.  These  and  every  other  variety  of 
vicious  manhood,  womanhood,  and  childhood,  must  find  their  way  to  the  union 
workhouse — must  take  part  in  the  education  of  those  with  whom  they  are  mad^ 
to  associate.  Let  who  will  do  the  work  of  instruction,  these,  and  such  as  these, 
must  bring  to  bear  on  all  around  them  the  terrible  force  of  example.  These 
must  carry  on  the  work  of  education.  Thus  does  the  union  workhouse  become 
inevitably  the  normal  school  of  all  the  vices." — <*  Walker's  Original,"  5th  edition, 
by  Dr.  Guy,  p.  218. 


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1880.]  Of  tlie  Children  of  the  Poor.  195 

and  constitiitioii,  modified,  as  they  probably  are  more  or  less,  by 
hereditary  and  transmitted  tendencies. 

All  wages  earned  in  excess  of  the  narrowest  requirements  cf 
daily  existence,  will  be  freely  spent  in  drink  and  dissipation — there 
will  be  no  heed  for  the  morrow.  Food,  a  fireside,  a  bed,  and  the 
constant  congenial  companionship  of  men  and  women  of  their  own 
stamp,  are  always  ready  for  their  reception  on  the  submission  of 
proofs  of  destitution.  What  more  do  they  want  ?  They  will  at 
once  resort  to  it  when  such  a  life  as  theirs  has  produced  its  natural 
result,  early  decay  and  indisposition  to  exertion.  Hence,  I  regard 
the  workhouse  as  the  best  possible  training  school  for  the  produc- 
tion, continuance,  and  extension  of  pauperism,  and  I  am  by  no  means 
sure  that  it  is  not  still  responsible  for  some  of  the  crime  of  the 
country.  A  comparatively  small  part  of  pauperism  is  due  to  true, 
misfortune,  and  the  failure  of  honest,  but  unprosperous  exertions. 
Every  class,  doubtless,  has  its  social  failures,  but  the  short*  and 
simple  annals  of  the  poor,  if  correctly  apprehended  and  honestly 
written,  would,  I  am  afraid,  show  that  the  majority  of  those  who 
become  a  permanent  burthen  to  the  community,  are  exactly  of 
the  type  which  a  workhouse  training  is  calculated  to  evolve. 

As  the  workhouse  test,  when  rightly  used  and  rigorously 
applied,  has  nearly  banished  the  able-bodied  from  all  well-governed 
unions,  and  left  the  houses  to  the  old,  decayed,  worn-out,  and 
feeble  in  mind  and  body ;  so  the  absolute  exclusion  of  all  children 
from  their  precincts,  would  cut  off  the  most  fruitful  supply  of 
paupers  at  its  source. 

Many  excellent  and  benevolent  persons  doubt  the  heredity 
of  pauperism.  I  do  not — but  this  is  a  side  issue  not  necessary 
to  my  argument.  Hence  I  shall  content  myself  with  its  mere 
mention. 

I  have  been  informed  by  a  gentleman  who  has  had  several 
years'  knowledge  and  experience  of  street  arabs,  and  who  has  long 
been  engaged  in  the  training  of  criminal  children,  that  by  far  the 
most  depraved  and  incorrigibly  vicious  children  who  have  come 
under  his  care,  have  been  those  who  have  been  in  workhouse 
schools. 

There  is,  of  course,  a  reverse  to  this  medal,  and  many  exemplary 
members  of  the  working  classes,  of  both  sexes,  have  been  trained 
in  such  institutions.  Yet  the  strength  of  any  system  must  be 
judged  by  its  weakest  point,  and  if  it  be  true  that  evil  communica- 
tions corrupt  good  manners,  such  communications  are  the  normal 
state  of  a  large  proportion  of  the  inmates  of  workhouses. 

That  children  can  be  properly  educated  and  trained  in  work- 
house schools,  with  the  necessarily  imperfect  machinery  that  can  be 
employed,  I  altogether  disbelieve,  and  assuredly  their  hereditary 


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196  MouAT — On  the  Education  and  Training  [  Jane^ 

physical  defects  are  not  to  be  corrected  either  by  the  sorroimdings, 
or  the  dreary  life  of  such  places. 

Children  out  of  school  hours  need  to  be  under  nearly  as  careful 
regulation,  as  when  at  their  studies.  If  left  to  their  own  devices, 
or  in  the  charge  of  adult  pauper  inmates,  they  hang  about  the 
most  objectionable  places  within  reach,  the  result  of  which  is  the 
reverse  of  any  beneficial  inflaence  either  on  their  morals  or  their 
manners.  They  also  require  to  be  taught  to  play,  and  to  benefit  by 
all  the  conditions  of  active  out-door  exercises,  which  are  so  neces- 
sary to  their  healthy  physical  growth. 

In  early  infancy  they  are  sometimes  placed  in  the  charge  of 
weak-minded  paupers,  who,  although  often  singularly  gentle  Mid 
kindly  in  their  treatment  of  their  young  charges,  are  about  the  very 
worst  persons  to  whom  a  duty  of  so  much  importance  should  be 
assigned.  Most  persons  of  weak  minds,  however  careful,  tractable, 
and  affectionate  they  may  usually  be,  are  at  times  uncertain  tem- 
pered, and  not  capable  of  self-control.  Their  habits  and  entire 
want  of  education  cause  them  to  teach  children  objectionable  tricks 
and  ways,  which  are  difficult  to  eradicate  at  a  later  period,  and  are 
not  improbably  the  source  of  some  of  the  nervous  and  similar 
disorders,  with  which  this  class  are  known  to  be  afflicted.  Some  of 
the  forms  of  epilepsy,  ending  often  in  complete  loss  of  reason,  are, 
I  have  reason  to  think,  due  to  previous  habits  acquired  in  early 
life.  From  tables  which  I  prepared  in  1874,  it  appeared  that  in  the 
year  in  question  there  were  in  the  extra-metropolitan  workhouses 
542  deaths  from  brain  disease,  258  from  epilepsy,  and  1,283  ^^^^^^ 
paralysis.  There  are  at  all  times  a  considerable  number  of  epileptics 
in  the  workhouses.  If  the  exact  history  of  the  above  casualties 
could  be  ascertained,  it  is  m^re  than  probable  that  many  of  them 
had  their  remote  origin  in  workhcmse  influences  and  conditions. 
Hence,  in  my  belief,  an  additional  reason  of  some  weight  why  pauper 
children  should  never  be  educated  and  trained  in  woi^diouses.  To 
many  of  them  the  remarks  published  in  1841,  by  the  late  Sir 
James  Kay- Shuttle  worth,  Mr.  Tufihell,  and  others  still  apply,  and 
to  their  reports  I  must  refer  those  who  desire  frirther  information 
on  the  subject. 

I  hope  that  the  time  is  not  far  distant,  when  by  the  formation 
of  county  boards  and  the  better  organisation  of  all  local  institutions, 
boards  of  guardians  will  be  brought  to  see  the  desirability  of  sepa- 
rating schools  entirely  from  workhouses,  without  a  resort  to  compul- 
sory legislation  in  any  form. 

(6) — Separate  Schools. 

These  are  schools  detached  from  the  workhouses,  sometimes  in 
their  immediate  vicinity,  but  for  the  most  part  at  a  distance,  and 


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1880.] 


Of  the  OhUdr&n  of  the  Poor, 


197 


ander  the  control  of  the  workhouse  authorities.  The  nnmbers 
taught  in  such  schools  range  from  7,000  to  8,000  and  upwards. 
Some  of  them  are  of  considerable  importance,  as  will  be  seen  hj 
the  following  lists  of  those  in  effective  operation  in  1878,  with  the 
number  of  children  in  each  : — 


Westminster  (Battersea)   iz7 

St.  Marylebone  (Soufchall) 3 1 8 

St.  Pancras  (Leavesden)   566 

Ia]iDgtx>n  (Hollowaj) 372 

Strand  (Edmonton)   410 

Holbom  (Mitcham)  540 

Bethnal  Ghreen  (Leytonstone)  ....  277 

St-Gteorge-in-the-East  (Plashet)..  267 
Mile  End  Old  Town  (Bancroft  1        ^ 

Eoad) /  *^^ 

Lambeth  (Norwood) »  465 

Brighton 247 

Petworth « 17 

Bamet loi 

Edmonton  156 

Wjcombe    54 


Oxford 98 

Hartismere 30 

Norwich  24 

Bristol 1 3 1 

Wellington 57 

Birkenhead 161 

Liyerpool 688 

Kirkdale  (girls) 66 

West  Derby  (the  boys  at  Kirk-  "1  _ 

dale) J 

Manchester  (Swinton)   966 

Newport  (Monmouthshire)   198 

Cardiff. 169 

Bridgend  and  Cowbridge  110 

Swansea   69 


Since  that  time  a  separate  school  for  Birmii^ham  was  occupied 
at  the  end  of  1879,  at  Marston  Ghreen. 

The  largest  of  these  schools  are,  in  all  essentials  aa  respects 
establishment,  teaching,  industrial  training,  and  management,  on 
the  footing  of  district  schools.  Some  of  them,  as  Kirkdale  and 
Swinton,  have  attained  high  proficiency  in  mental  cxdtare  and 
indostrial  training,  and  are  doing  a  great  and  important  work  in 
the  dispanperisation  of  the  children  of  the  important  industrial 
and  manufacturing  centres  in  which  thej  are  situated.  Those  at 
a  distance  from  the  union  houses  are,  taken  altogether,  absolutely 
free  from  workhouse  influences  and  associations,  and  the  successful 
subsequent  career  of  those  trained  in  them,  which  in  a  large  number 
of  instances  has  been  carefully  traced,  shows  that  they  are  con- 
ducted wisely  and  well.  Those  which  contain  large  numbers  in  big 
buildings  on  the  aggregate  system,  suffer  from  the  conditions  of 
such  aggregation  in  health,  and  in  the  enforced  absence  of  the 
study  of  individual  character,  which  is  the  only  really  sound  system 
of  educating  the  young.  But  as  they  share  those  disadvantages 
with  the  district  schools,  with  which  they  are  essentially  identical 
in  character,  I  shall  postpone  my  remarks  on  this  head  until  I 
come  to  them. 

Although  the  district  schools  come  first  in  logical  sequence,  from 
the  number  of  children — 5,000  to  6,000 — educated  in  them,  I  shall 
consider  them  last,  for  reasons  which  will  appear  anon. 

From  the  returns  it  appears  that  from  some  1 50  or  more  unions, 


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198  MouAT — On  the  Education  and  Training  [Jane, 

the  children  are  sent  to  national,  board,  and  other  schools  for  their 
mental  culture,  returning  to  the  workhouses  for  their  meals,  and  in 
all  other  matters  becoming  inmates  of  those  institutions.  The 
number  of  children  thus  disposed  of,  is  between  2,000  and  3,000. 

This  does  not  appear  to  me  to  be  a  satisfactory  arrangement, 
notwithstanding  that  the  instructive  staff  of  those  schools  is  superior 
to  the  teachers  found  in  the  smaller  workhouses,  and  that  the 
mental  training,  mode  of  thought,  and  the  glimpse  of  the  outer, 
self-reliant  world  obtained  by  the  children,  are  educational  in- 
fluences of  considerable  value.  All  these  advantages  are  neutralised 
by  the  workhouse  atmosphere  to  which  they  return,  and  irom.  which 
they  come,  and  the  association  with  adult  paupers,  which  no 
vigilance  can  prevent.  The  absence  also  of  industrial  training, 
which  exists  only  in  name  in  most  of  the  smaller  workhouses,  is  a 
cardinal  defect  of  the  system  for  which  nothing  can  compensate. 

It  would  be  far  better  for  the  guardians  of  all  the  unions  which 
adopt  this  system,  from  the  most  praiseworthy  nM>tives,  to  combine 
together  in  each  county  to  form  district  schools,  than  to  rely  upon 
a  plan  which,  seeming  to  be  advantageous,  leaves  the  vices  and  defects 
of  the  old  system  in  full  vigour,  during,  by  far,  the  greater  part 
of  the  lives  of  the  children  of  the  poor  committed  to  their  charge. 
In  some  instances,  what  are  called  industrial  trainers  are  em- 
ployed to  take  charge  of  the  children  to  and  from  school,  and  to 
look  after  them  in  the  workhouse.  In  other  cases,  the  same  duty 
is  performed  by  pauper  inmates.  The  root  of  the  evil  is  not 
reached  by  either  plan.  The  workhouse  and  its  associations 
overshadows  them  all,  and  little  that  is  healthy  can  grow  in  its 
shade. 

(c) — Certified  Schools, 

There  is  another  clas^  of  schools  not  specifically  mentioned  in 
the  tabular  statement,  which  deserves  a  passing  notice,  viz.,  schools 
certified  under  the  statute,  25  and  26  Vict.,  cap.  43.  These  are 
schools  under  private  management,  in  which  pauper  children  are 
taken  in  for  education  and  training  on  the  payment  by  the 
guardians  of  the  unions  from  which  they  are  sent,  of  a  fee  equal 
to  the  cost  of  maintenance  of  each  child  in  the  workhouse  school 
of  the  same  union.  Several  of  the  schools  are  for  destitute  Roman 
Catholic  children;  and  before  children  can  be  sent  to  them,  the 
school  and  its  management  must  be  certified  to  be  fit  for  the  purpose, 
by  a  local  government  inspector.  The  number  of  children  in  these 
schools  is  not  large,  but  they  are  doing  a  good  work  in  a  quiet, 
unostentatious  way,  and  although  the  standard  of  instruction  and 
industrial  training  in  them  is  not  so  high  as  it  is  in  the  district  and 
separate  schools,  those  which  I  have  seen  appear  to  be  fitting  their 


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1880.] . 


Of  the  OhMrm  of  the  Poor. 


199 


inmates  for  the  hnmble  poeitions  they  are  destined  to  occupy,  in  a 
^kirly  satisfactory  manner. 

On  the  1st  of  June,  1878,  according  to  a  return  moved  for  by 
Mr.  Salt,  Parliamentary  Secretary  of  the  Local  Government  Board, 
there  were  in  England  and  Wales  at  that  time  76  of  these  institu- 
tions containing  poor  law  children,  via. : — 


Number. 

InduBtrial  and  Training  InsfdtiitionB  .... 
InBtitntions  for  the  hlind  „.,.„.,.rT„ -r  .r,..T 

Boy.. 

Girii. 

TbUL 

87 
16 

116 
161 
no 

382 
47 

526 
181 

64 
809 

27 

64Z 
29Z 

691 
74 

11 
10 

„                deftf  and  dumb  .... 
omhanH    ....r. 

2 

„                  ur|iiuuui    

„                idiote    

76 

816 

1,067 

1,873 

Fifteen  of  the  above  are  exclusively  devoted  to  Roman  Catholic 
children,  viz.,  eight  industrial  schools,  two  institutions  for  the 
blind,  and  five  for  the  deaf  and  dumb. 

(d) — Training  Ships. 

One  of  the  most  satis&ctory  and  successM  of  the  methods  adopted 
for  the  training  of  some  of  the  children  of  the  poor  in  the  metropolis, 
is  ihe  solitary  training  ship  which  is  exclusively  devoted  to  that 
purpose.  In  1870,  the  last  report  of  the  late  Poor  Law  Board  stated, 
^  That  a  difficulty  is  often  experienced  in  obtaining  a  satisfactory 
'*  outlet  for  boys  brought  up  in  the  district  and  separate  schools,  and 
"  it  appeared  to  us  that  great  advantage  would  result  if  a  ship  was 
^'  founded  in  the  Thames  for  the  training  of  pauper  boys  from  the 
"  metropolitan  schools.'*  They  communicated  with  the  Lords  of  the 
Admiralty  on  the  subject,  who  expressed  a  willingness  to  grant 
the  use  of  the  "  Ooliath,"  then  lying  at  Sheemess,  for  the  purpose. 
A  provision  was  introduced  into  the  Metropolitan  Poor  Law  (1867) 
Amendment  Act,  to  enable  the  guardians  of  any  union  or  parish, 
and  the  managers  of  any  school  or  asylum  district,  with  the  consent 
of  the  Poor  Law  Board,  to  purchase,  hire,  or  otherwise  acquire  and 
fit  up  one  or  more  ships  for  the  purpose  of  training  boys  for  the 
sea  service.  The  "  Goliath  "  was  accordingly  obtained,  a  commander 
in  the  navy  appointed  to  her  charge,  and  she  was  anchored  o£E 
Grays  in  Essex.  There  she  lay  until  she  was  destroyed  by  fire  in 
1875.  She  was  placed  under  the  control  of  the  managers  of  the 
Forest  Gate  District  School,  as  two  of  the  unions  contained  in  the 
district  were  waterside  unions,  but  she  was  available  for  boys  from 
all  the  unions  and  parishes  in  the  metropolis  on  the  payment  of  a 
weekly  charge  per  head  sufficient  to  Cbver  the  actual  cost  of  main* 

VOL.  XLIII.     PIBT  II.  p 


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200  MoUAT — On  the  EdueaUon  and  TrcMng  ^Jane, 

tenanoe  of  the  cliildren,  with  a  fair  proportion  of  the  charges 
incurred  hy  the  fitting  np  of  the  vessel. 

In  the  first  report  of  the  Local  Oovemment  Board  it  was  stated 
that  "  a  sufficient  period  has  now  elapsed  since  the  establishment 
'*  by  the  managers  of  the  Forest  Gitte  School  District,  of  the 
"  '  Goliath '  as  a  training  ship  for  pauper  boys,  to  enable  an  autho- 
"  ritative  judgment  to  be  pronounced.  The  results  of  this  experi- 
'*  ment  have  been  in  all  respects  most  satisfactory.  A  marked  and 
^'  most  encouraging  improvement  has  been  observed  in  the  physical 
*'  development,  and  in  the  bearing  and  general  intelligence  of  the 
*'  boys  transferred  to  the  ship  from  the  metropolitan  unions.  The 
"  rapidity  with  which  some,  when  transferred  to  the  ship — ^town- 
"  bred  boys  of  stunted  growth — ^have  increased  in  stature  and  in 
'*  bulk,  has  excited  general  remark."* 

The  purchase  of  a  small  sailing  tender  was  sanctioned,  to  lessen 
the  cost  of  conveying  stores  and  water,  and  to  exercise  a  beneficial 
influence  on  the  boys  in  accustoming  them  to  the  sea,  and  in 
developing  habits  of  practical  seamanship. 

The  managers  were  also  empowered  to  receive  children  from 
unions  and  parishes  outside  the  metropolis. 

The  stunted  growth  and  imperfect  physical  development  of  the 
London  poor,  led  to  a  correspondence  between  the  managers  of  the 
ship  and  the  most  experienced  of  the  Local  Oovemmeiit  educational 
inspectors,  in  which  the  latter  fully  maintained  his  position,  that  to 
this  cause  alone  was  due  the  exclusion  of  most  of  these  boys  from 
the  royal  navy.f  The  boys  sent  to  the  "  Gbliath  "  were  the  pick  of 
the  London  district  schools,  and  all  were  rejected  who,  after  careful 
medical  examination,  were  found  to  be  in  any  way  unfit  for  a  sea 
life,  by  reason  of  physical  imperfections ;  and  yet,  even  from  this 
selection  of  the  fittest,  comparatively  few  attained  the  standard  of 
growth  and  development,  required  by  the  naval  authorities.  As  this 
is,  in  my  own  opinion,  based  upon  a  personal  examination  of  several 
thousands  of  these  children,  the  cardinal  defect  of  the  existing 
system  of  training  in  most  of  the  district  and  separate,  and  of  all 

•  First  "B«port  of  Local  Government  Board,  1871-72,"  p.  xxvi. 
t  In  the  prologue  to  an  entertainment  on  board  the  "  Ezmonth/'  in  December 
last,  occurs  the  following  passage : — 

**  And  yet  there's  one  thing  saddens  as,  and  that  is— 
That  we,  with  all  our  pudding,  beef,  and  g^vy. 
Can't  reach  the  standard  of  the  royal  navy." 

The  annual  reports  of  the  successor  of  the  "  Gbliath,"  the  "  Ezmouth,"  a 
lecture  by  Captain  Bonrchier  on  the  system  of  tnuniug  adopted  by  him»  read 
before  the  Society  of  Arts,  6th  March,  1872,  and  the  *'  Instruction  Book  of  the 
'Exmouth,'"  422,  published  by  Harrisons,  St.  Martin's  Lane,  are  deserving  of 
carefhl  consideration  by  all  interested  in  the  thorough  training  of  the  dass  to  which 
these  boys  belong. 


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1880.]  Of  ihe  ChOdrm  of  the  Foot.  201 

the  oiher  schools  of  every  kind  and  class  to  which  these  children 
are  sent,  I  dwell  npon  it,  because,  in  this  direction,  the  greatest 
change  is  required,  as  I  shall  show  in  my  remarks  when  treating  of 
the  fatnre  of  this  important  question. 

In  the  succeeding  year,  a  house  on  shore  was  hired  to  accommo- 
date boys  suffering  from  fever  and  other  infectious  diseases,  such  as 
are  certain  to  occur  when  large  numbers  are  congregated  in  a 
restricted  space,  without  a  more  perfect  system  of  sanitary  arrange- 
ment and  supervision  than  yet  exists.  The  little  attention  paid, 
heretofore,  to  such  matters,  and  the  universal  neglect  in  all  classes 
of  educational  institutions  in  Great  Britain  of  matters  relating  to 
the  hygiene  of  schools  and  colleges,  must  ere  long  force  its  attention 
upon  the  public,  in  such  manner  as  to  provide  the  necessary 
remedy. 

The  ''  Ck>liath  "  continued  to  advance  in  the  success  of  its  train- 
ing, until,  on  the  22nd  December,  1875,  it  was  totally  destroyed  by 
fire,  in  spite  of  every  effort  to  save  her,  of  both  officers  and  crew. 
There  were  on  board  at  the  time  $2$  persons,  most  of  them  boys  of 
tender  age,  and  she  lay  in  deep  water  and  in  a  tideway ;  yet  in  cold 
winter  weather,  as  a  result  of  the  admirable  discipline  maintained, 
and  the  excellent  training  which  produced  it,  but  2 1  of  the  ship's 
company  perished.  More  striking  testimony  of  the  value  of  such 
an  institution,  in  capable  hands,  could  never  have  been  afforded 
in  the  even  tenor  of  its  ordinary  life,  from  any  length  of  time. 

The  behaviour  of  the  commander  and  of  the  crew  excited  sym- 
pathy and  admiration  at  home  and  abroad,  and  the  incident  takes 
rank,  with  many  other  episodes  of  similar  character,  which  adorn 
the  annals  of  our  country. 

I  regret  that  the  space  at  my  disposal  will  not  permit  of  my 
extracting  from  the  official  records,  where  they  are  buried  so  far  as 
the  general  public  are  concerned,  the  very  striking  accounts  of  this 
incident,  which  I  hold  to  be  the  best  testimony  that  has  ever  been 
afforded,  of  poor  law  administration  when  directed  in  the  right 
channel. 

In  addition  to  the  proof  by  fire  of  the  "  Goliath  "  herself,  the 
sailing  brigantine  attached  to  her  as  a  tender,  underwent  as  crucial 
a  test  by  water,  of  the  good  stuff  into  which  Captain  Bourchier  had 
converted  his  indifferent  raw  materiaL  She  was  run  down  by  a 
steamer  in  a  strong  tideway,  and  not  a  soul  on  board  of  her  was  lost, 
every  boy  having  been  able  to  save  himself  by  his  activity,  and  by  the 
self-command  which  her  excellent  commander  had  instilled  into  them. 
If  history  be,  as  it  assuredly  may  be  made,  teaching  by  example,  do 
not  these  accidents  of  the  "  Goliath  '*  and  the  behaviour  of  her  lillipu- 
tian  crew,  taken  from  the  very  lowest  stratum  of  our  town  popula- 
tion, show  how  valuable  the  annual  supply  of  40,000  or  $0,000  of 

p2 

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202  MouAT — On  the  EducaUon  and  Training  [Jime» 

these  strays  and  waifs,  who  have  been  not  inaptly  termed  children 
of  the  State,  really  are,  and  how  they  may,  by  wise  direction  and 
travelling  ont  of  the  beaten  tracts  of  the  past,  which  are  not  now  fit 
guides  of  the  fntnre,  become  the  instruments  of  removing  some  of 
our  social  difficulties,  in  the  best  and  most  efficacious  of  all  manners. 
As  stated  in  the  last  report  on  the  **  Gh>liath,"  by  Mr.  Holgate,  the 
educational  inspector,  who  had  made  his  annual  official  examination 
a  few  days  before  the  fire : — "  The  instruction  carried  out  on  board 
"  was  not  limited  to  ordinary  schoolwork,  but  included  navigation, 
'*  seamanship  in  all  its  branches,  taught  by  careftilly  chosen  in- 
*^  structors  from  the  royal  navy,  swinmiing,  driU,  with  or  without 
**  rifles,  band,  and  singing ;  besides  the  industrial  work  of  tailoring, 
^  carpentry,  and  shoemaking ;  in  addition,  the  boys  had  the  great 
*'  advantage  of  learning  to  utilise  their  teaching  by  cruising  in  the 
*'  brigantine  of  i8o  tons,  attached  as  a  tender  to  Uie  '  Ooliath,'  and 
"  in  which  ihej  were  often  away  for  days  together,  in  all  sorts  of 
"  weather." 

About  1,645  ^7^  passed  through  Captain  Bourchier's  hands  in 
the  ''  Goliath,"  and  ip86  in  the  ''  Ezmouth ;  **  nearly  all  of  whom 
are  known  to  have  turned  out  well.  The  exact  figures  cannot  be 
given,  as  the  early  records  were  destroyed  with  the  ship.  There  are 
now  570  boys  in  the  latter  vessel. 

(e) — Boarding  Out, 

There  is,  probably,  no  question  connected  with  the  education 
and  trtdning  of  the  class  of  children  to  whom  my  paper  refers, 
which  has  excited  more  controversy,  than  that  of  boarding  out. 
Upon  it  the  philanthropists  and  all  who  approach  the  question  from 
the  sentimental  side,  are  hopelessly  at  issue  with  the  economists, 
and  those  who  are  guided  mainly  or  solely  by  public  policy 
in  the  matter.  To  consider  it  fairly  and  with  strict  impartiality,  it 
appears  to  me  to  be  necessary  that  the  real  conditions  of  the  ques* 
tion  should  first  be  clearly  apprehended  and  formulated,  and  then 
that  the  rules  of  policy  or  propriety  should  be  applied  to  its 
solution. 

I  shall  attempt  to  do  so,  with  the  confession  that  it  is  always 
difficult  to  determine  the  manifold  relations  of  any  great  social 
problem,  within  the  limits  of  an  aphorism  or  an  epigram. 

The  question  then  is,  how  to  educate  and  train  the  orphan 
and  deserted  children  of  the  poor,  in  such  manner  as  to  take  them 
permanently  ont  of  the  class  in  which  they  are,  with  special 
reference  to  their  own  interests,  and  to  the  general  administration 
of  the  laws  for  the  relief  of  destitution. 

To  take  these  conditions,  not  in  the  order  of  their  importance, 
but  in  that  in  which  they  are  usually  treated  by  the  advocates  of 


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1880.]  Of  ths  OhUdrm  of  the  Poor.  203 


the  system,  the  advantages  of  the  plan  as  regards  the  children,  \ 
that  it  removes  them  permanently  from  the  inflnenoe  of  the  work- 
house and  its  associations ;  tliat  it  gives  to  those  who  have  been 
denied  them,  from  no  fanlt  of  their  own,  the  comforts,  advantages, 
and  priceless  blessings  of  a  home ;  that  it  places  them  on  a  level 
with  the  members  of  the  class  to  which  they  really  belong ;  that  it 
affords  them  an  education  suited  to  the  future  position  they  are  to 
occupy ;  that  it  gives  them  a  fair  start  in  life,  without  the  pariah 
taint  of  pauperism ;  and  that  it  is,  therefore,  the  most  humane, 
thoughts,  and  considerate  manner  of  discharging  the  duty  of  the 
State  towards  them.  Pauperism  and  its  surroundings  are  in  &ct 
the  outcome  of  civilisation  itself,  and  it  should  be  the  sacred  task 
of  society  to  mitigate  as  much  as  it  can,  miseries  which  are  so 
much  the  creatures  of  its  own  creation. 

These  are,  in  a  few  words,  so  far  as  I  have  been  able  to  gather 
from  the  published  reports  and  writings  which  I  have  consulted — 
and  they  are  legion — the  cardinal  conditions  put  forward  by  the 
earnest  and  philanthropic  persons  who  are  advocates  of  the  system. 
The  public  policy  of  the  proceeding  is  very  generally  disregarded 
by  them,  and,  as  usual,  in  this  strictly  sentimental  view,  the  minor 
is  preferred  to  the  major. 

In  all  social  problems  private  must  of  necessity  yield  to  public 
interests,  however  much  apparent  individual  hardship  may  be  the 
result. 

From  a  poor  law  point  of  view,  as  stated  by  Professor  Fawcett, 
in  his  admirable  work  on  *'  Pauperism,  its  Causes,  and  Remedies," 
it  is  an  encouragement  to  improvidence,  to  immorality,  and  to  other 
social  vices;  it  rewards  the  improvident  at  the  expense  of  the 
thrifty ;  it  will  introduce  far  greater  evils  than  it  ^11  cure ;  and,  it 
will  exercise  a  demoralising  influence  which  will  most  powerfully 
promote  the  future  increase  of  pauperism. 

After  referring  to  the  rules  promulgated  by  the  poor  law  autho- 
rities, which  deserve  to  be  more  widely  known  than  they  are,  this 
eminent  Economist  proceeds  to  show,  that  it  places  the  orphan  and 
deserted  child  in  substantially  a  better  position  in  life  than  the  child 
of  a  labourer ;  that  it  encourages,  by  a  pecuniary  bribe,  the  neglect 
of  an  important  part  of  the  obligation  of  parents  to  maintain  and 
educate  their  children  during  their  lives,  and  to  make  provision  for 
them  after  their  deaths;  that  it  is  a  powerful  premium  on  illegitimacy, 
encouraging  it  in  a  manner  worse  than  any  of  the  conditions  of  the 
old  poor  laws,  as  shown  by  the  statistics  of  the  country  from  which 
it  has  been  imported — Scotland;  that  it  encourages  desertion  of 
the  children  bom  out  of  wedlock  by  their  mothers,  thus  severing 
the  strongest  of  all  natural  ties ;  that  it  is  equally  injurious  to  the 
class  of  legitimate  children,  in  affording  the  strongest  possibU 


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204  MouAT — On  the  EducaHon  and  TrcUning  [June, 

enoonragement  to  their  desertion  ;  and,  tbat  it  is  inconsistent  with 
a  proper  administration  of  the  poor  laws.  He  winds  np  by 
stating  that  those  who  disconntenance  it,  must  be  content  to  bear 
the  reproach  of  hard-heartedness  for  resisting  the  attempts  of  an 
nDwise  philanthropy  and  mistaken  benevolence,  **to  benefit  the 
"  yicioas  and  improvident,  at  the  expense  of  the  thrifty  and 
"  indnstrions." 

An  attentive  stndy  of  the  rules  to  prevent  the  abnse,  and 
regulate  the  nse  of  the  system,  shows  how  liable  it  is  to  the  objec* 
tions  so  forcibly  stated  by  the  anthorit^  above  referred  to,  and 
how  well  nigh  impossible  it  is  to  guard  it  from  inherent  dangers, 
beyond  the  pale  alike  of  economic  objections,  and  of  philanthropic 
motives. 

If  it  could  be  shown  that  the  classes  of  children  who  alone  can 
be  allowed  to  be  benefited  by  the  system  are  neglected  or  prejudiced 
by  the  present  management  of  district  and  separate  schools,  there 
might  be  some  foundation  for  a  small  fragment  of  the  philanthropic 
plan. 

But,  it  cannot  be  dem'ed  that  the  mental  and  physical  training 
are  really  superior ;  that  the  taint  of  pauperism  is  as  efEectually 
removed  ;  that  quite  as  fair  a  start  in  life,  with  better  preparation 
for  it,  is  given  to  them,  and  that  the  majority  do  well  in  their 
subsequent  career,  as  I  shall  show  anon.  While  this  manner  of 
dealing  with  them  is  strictly  consistent  with  the  correct  cardinal 
conditions  of  the  relief  of  destitution,  it  violates  no  principle  of 
public  morality,  and  is  altogether  removed  from  the  dangers 
inherent  in  boarding  out,  as  shown  by  the  terrible  scandals  which 
occasionally  come  to  light  in  its  working. 

The  solitary  advantage  then  seems  to  me  to  be  in  the  cultivation 
of  kindly  feelings,  and  the  love  and  affection  of  foster  parents,  the 
value  and  importance  of  which  I  have  no  desire  to  underrate,  or  to 
undervalue. 

But,  is  genuine  parental  affection  a  purchasable  commodity ;  is 
the  stray  waif  likely  to  supersede  the  child  of  the  house  in  its  mani- 
festations ;  and  can  it  in  any  case  be  regarded  as  an  equivalent  for 
the  better  mental  and  physical  culture  of  the  school  which  is  dis- 
severed from  all  pauper  associations  P 

An  admirable  word  picture  of  the  life  and  lot  of  the  children, 
male  and  female,  of  the  labouring  classes,  was  painted  by  the  late 
Sir  J.  Kay-Shuttleworth,  in  the  report  of  1841,  and  I  fail  to  find 
in  it  any  encouragement  to  bring  the  best  and  most  hopeful  classes 
of  pauper  children  within  reach  of  its  freedom  and  advantages, 
such  as  they  are.  All  parliamentary  and  other  authentic  reports  of 
the  agricultural  population  show  how  much  improvement  is  required 
in  their  dwellings,  manners  and  customs,  training,  and  the  other 


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1880.]  Of  the  Ohadrm  of  the  Poor.  205 

conditions  necessary  to  supplement  their  healthy,  virtnoasy  and 
otherwise  happy  lives,  to  enable  them  to  face  with  success  the  fierce 
struggle  for  life,  the  existence  of  which  has  been  revealed  by  the 
prevailing  agricultural  distress  and  depressiou.  Even  from  the 
sentimental  side  of  boarding  out,  I  am  not  convinced  of  its  advan- 
tages, apart  from  all  other  considerations. 

The  question  was  forced  upon  the  attention  of  the  poor  law 
authorities  in  1869,  who  stated  that  for  some  time  past  an  increasing 
number  of  applications  had  been  made  to  them  by  boards  of  guar- 
dians for  the  practical  adoption  of  that  system,  and  that  after  much 
deliberation  they  had  come  to  the  conclusion  that  a  fair  trial  ought 
not  to  be  refused  to  the  proposed  change.  They  saw  the  serious 
risks  attendant  upon  the  practice,  and  the  imperative  need  of  all 
possible  safeguards,  to  ensure  the  proper  education  and  general 
well-being  of  the  children.  They  sent  one  of  their  best  and  most 
experienced  inspectors  (Mr.  J.  J.  Henley)  to  Scotland,  to  collect 
information  as  to  its  working  in  that  country,  and  directed  similar 
inquiries  to  be  made  in  England  and  Wales,  wherever  the  plan  had 
been  tried.  Their  reports  were  published  in  a  separate  parliamen- 
tary paper  (No.  176,  Sess.  1870).  After  detailing  all  their  mis- 
givings,  they  wound  up  by  saying  that  they  quite  believed  the 
system,  if  well  conducted,  likely  to  benefit  pauper  children  in  the 
highest  degree;  but  that,  if  not  watched  with  unremitting  care, 
abuses  of  a  deplorable  nature  might  easily  surround  it,  and  result  in 
moral  and  social  evils  of  the  greatest  magnitude. 

After  accumulating,  and  carefully  considering  all  the  information 
they  could  obtain  on  the  subject,  they  authorised  the  guardians  of 
large  town  parishes  and  densely  inhabited  unions  to  board  out  their 
children  in  the  country,  and  sanctioned  non-resident  relief  to  enable 
them  to  eflfect  that  object.  They  discouraged  boarding  out  in 
towns,  and  framed  the  extremely  stringent  regulations  hereinbefore 
mentioned,  to  prevent  abuse.  The  order  was  addressed  to  forty 
unions  and  separate  parishes,  all  more  or  less  densely  populated,  and 
including  the  unions  and  parishes  of  the  metropolis. 

Thirty  boarding-out  committees,  composed  chiefly  of  ladies, 
were  established  under  the  authority  of  the  Board,  in  some  of  the 
principal  counties  of  England,  and  the  system  was  &irly  floated, 
and  has  continued  in  operation  to  the  present  time,  the  sanction  of 
the  Board  being  never  withheld,  when  careful  inquiry  has  proved  aU 
the  conditions  required  to  have  been  fulfilled. 

As  might  be  expected,  grave  cases  of  abuse  have,  from  time  to 
time,  been  brought  to  light ;  but,  on  the  whole,  the  plan  is  reported 
to  have  worked  fairly  well.  It  has  not,  however,  been  very  generally 
adopted  by  boards  of  guardians,  as  comparatively  few  of  the  chil- 
dren in  the  schools  have  been  brought  under  its  operation. 


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206  MouAT — On  ihe  EdueaHon  and  Trailing  [June, 

The  latest  retom  shows  that^  in  1879,  597  children, ont  of  abont 
30,000,  were  boarded  ont,  nnder  the  order  of  25th  November,  1870, 
from  twenty-five  nnions. 

I  have  not  referred  to  or  indnded  in  this  statement  children 
boarded  oat  in  their  own  nnions,  for  whose  better  care  regnlationa 
were  framed,  and  published  in  the  "  London  Cbsette  "  of  14th  Sep- 
tember, 1877.  It  is  so  entirely  a  mere  form  of  ont-relief,  as  to  place 
those  children  in  an  entirely  different  category  from  those  dealt 
with  nnder  the  order  of  1870 ;  and  is  not  accompanied  by  the  same 
saf  eg^nards  to  prevent  abuse.  Their  numbers  are  considerable,  and 
this  manner  of  disposing  of  them  is  liable,  in  my  opinion,  to  even 
graver  objections,  from  a  purely  poor  law  point  of  view,  than  thai 
mentioned  above. 

(f)— District  Schools. 

The  remedy  recommended  for  the  defects  of  the  old  system  of 
workhouse  schools,  and  the  removal  of  the  abuses  of  the  appren- 
ticeship of  pauper  children,  under  the  Acts  on  the  subject  prior  to 
the  legislation  of  1834,  was  the  institution  of  district  schools,  by 
the  union  of  the  authorities  of  several  unions  and  parishes,  in  pro- 
viding the  buildings  and  agency  for  the  accommodation  of  their 
children  in  large  numbers,  in  bnUdings  calculated  to  contain  them ; 
these  buildings  to  be  placed  in  healthy  oountiy  places  far  away  from 
the  workhouses  and  the  towns,  and  surrounded  by  a  sufficient 
amount  of  cultivable  land,  to  admit  of  farming  operations  being 
conducted  on  them. 

It  was  considered  that  by  this  plan  the  maximum  of  good  could 
be  accomplished  at  the  minimum  of  cost,  and  that  suitable  agency 
could  be  procured  at  a  fair  and  not  disproportionate  outlay,  to 
admit  of  the  introduction  of  a  well-devised  plan  of  education  and 
training. 

It  took  some  years  of  discussion,  and  the  granting  of  com- 
pulsory powers,  in  the  case  of  the  Metropolis,  to  secure  the  general 
adoption  of  the  plan  even  there.  In  several  unions,  however,  the 
number  of  children  was  safficiently  great  to  justify  the  establish- 
ment of  a  separate  school,  so  that  up  to  the  present  time  there  are 
but  eleven  district  schools  in  existence,  viz. : — 

Arerace  Number 
of  Cbiidrai. 

1.  The  Central  London,  at  Hanwell^  formed  by  the  City  1  « 

of  London  and  St.  Savionr's  Unions j       *^^ 

2.  The  South  Metropolitan,  at  Sutton i«58o 

(Taking  the  children  from  Camberwell,  Greenwich, 
St.  Olaye's,  Woolwich,  and  Stepney). 

8.  Famham  and  Hartly  Wintney 127 

(With  children  from  Alton,  Famham,  and  Hartly 
Wintney). 


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1880.]  Of  t\e  OhOdren  of  the  Poor.  207 

Arerage  Number 
of  Childnik—ConU. 

4.  North  Surrey,  at  Anerlej 8o8 

(To  which  Crojdon,  Lewisham,  Biohmond,  Wands- 
worth, and  Clapham,  Kensington,  and  Chelsea  con* 
trihuted  in  1878 ;  but  the  two  hist  haye  since  with- 
drawn). 

6.  Sonih-East  Shropshire  at  Quatt  152 

(Hare  children  from  Bridgnorth,  Cleobniy  Mortimer, 
Madelej,  Scriyen,  Newport,  Salop,  and  Shiffnal). 

6.  Beading  and  Wokingham,  at  Wargraye 185 

(Haye  children  from  Beading  and  Wokingham). 

7.  West  London,  Ashford,  Staines  682 

(Haye  the  children  from  Eeltham,  Paddington,  St. 
Gkorge*s,  and  Brentford). 

8.  Forest  Gate,  West  Ham   545 

(Fed  &om  Poplar  and  Whitechapel). 

0.  Walsall  and  West  Bromwich  249 

(Haying  diildren  from  Walsall  and  West  Bromwich). 

10.  Brentwood  535 

(Supplied  from  Hackney  and  Shoreditch). 

11.  The  training  ship  **  Exmouth,"  which  is  under  the  orders 

of  the  Metropolitan  Asylum  District. 

In  the  above  schools  there  was  an  average  daily  attendance  in 
the  half-year  ended  on  Lady-day,  1878,  of  6,345  children,  or  abont 
a  sixth  of  the  whole  nnmber  of  children  in  all  the  schools,  at  the 
time  in  question. 

In  these  schools,  which  are  all  condncted  on  the  half-time 
system,  the  mental  training  is  in  strict  accordance  with  the 
standard  for  elementary  schools  of  the  edacation  department,  and 
very  considerable  proficiency  has  been  attained  in  some  of  them,  as 
high  as  the  sixth  standard.  They  are  carefully  inspected  by  a 
special  staff  of  school  inspectors,  under  the  orders  of  the  Local 
(Government  Board.  Valuable  reports  by  these  gentlemen  are 
contained  in  the  annual  returns  of  that  department.  The  instruc- 
tive staff  varies  in  most  of  them,  and  a  large  part  of  the  teaching 
is  relegated  to  pupil  teachers — a  plan  which  I,  as  an  old  education 
officer,  regard  as  an  unwise  economy,  for  such  teaching  can  never 
be  effective,  especially  with  those  children  who  need,  but  never  get, 
the  very  best  instructors  who  can  be  procured,  viz.,  the  younger 
children  and  infants.  It  would  be  out  of  place,  even  if  I  could 
find  time  for  it,  to  discuss  the  very  important  subject  of  elementary 
education  in  a  paper  not  specially  devoted  to  it,  as  it  covers  a  large 
area  of  ground,  and  would  lead  me  far  a-field  in  my  exposition  of  the 
system  in  use  in  the  poor  law  schools.  The  great  and  crying  want 
of  the  country  is  a  sufficient  supply  of  competent  teachers,  and  these 


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208  MouAT — On  the  Educcdion  and  Training  [Jone^ 

schools  suffer  from  the  want  as  mnch  as  any  other  educational 
institations.  A  great  ontcry  is  always  raised  at  any  increase  of 
expense  in  sach  matters,  and  boards  of  guardians  are,  naturally  and 
properly,  anxious  to  practise  the  most  rigid  economy  in  their  estab- 
lishments. 

While  lavish  and  unnecessary  outlay  should  never  be  allowed 
for  any  purpose  whatever,  any  expenditure  which  is  really  necessary 
to  secure  efficiency  is,  in  reality,  a  profitable  application  of  funds. 
However  much  they  may  cost,  schools  are  less  expensive  than 
prisons,  and  tax  the  community  less  than  does  the  vast  amount  of 
money  required  to  maintain  the  expensive  agency  needed  for  the 
detection,  prevention,  and  punishment  of  crime.  The  correction 
of  most  of  our  social  evils  will  be  better  accomplished  by  education, 
than  by  any  other  agency  ;  hence  no  amount  of  money  required  to 
place  this  on  a  thoroughly  efficient  footing  should  be  grudged, 
however  lowly  the  objects  of  it  may  be.  The  industrial  training  in 
the  large  district,  and  the  more  important  separate  schools,  is  stated, 
and  appears,  on  the  surface,  to  be  sufficient,  to  secure  its  imme- 
diate object ;  but  this  seems  to  me  to  be  more  apparent  than  real. 
Tailoring,  shoemaking,  carpentry,  smith's-work,  and  the  menial 
duties  of  the  establishments,  form  the  staple  of  the  training  of  the 
boys,  with  instrumental  music  in  the  larger  schools.  For  the  girls : 
sewing,  mending,  and  making,  cooking,  and  household  work 
generally,  chiefly  occupy  their  time  and  attention.  With  the 
exception  of  instrumental  music  to  fit  the  boys  for  enlistment 
into  military  bands,  which  is  remarkably  well  taught,  none  of  the 
instruction  is  as  thorough  as  it  might  be  made,  if  instructors  of 
a  higher  order  were  entertained,  and  boards  of  guardians  were  not 
over  anxious  to  launch  their  children  in  life,  the  moment  they 
are  considered  in  any  way  qualified,  the  demand  being  in  excess  of 
the  supply. 

Farm  work  is  also,  in  some  schools,  well  carried  on,  and  is  of 
great  importance,  both  in  supplying  the  wants  of  the  institution, 
and  in  affording  the  most  healthy  and  invigorating  of  all  the 
varieties  of  manual  labour.  This  subject  is,  however,  scarcely 
carried  sufficiently  far  to  induce  the  boys  to  become  agricultural 
labourers,  except  possibly  among  those  who  emigp:tite ;  the  majority 
of  them  are  consequently  absorbed  into  the  town  populations. 

All  the  essentials  of  physical  training,  drilling,  gymnastics, 
the  mast,  and  swimming  are  practised  in  the  large  schools,  and  in 
some  few  of  them  girls  as  well  as  boys  are  taught  to  swim,  with 
remarkable  success.  If  time  permitted,  I  could  show  from  a  strictly 
hygienic  point  of  view,  how  exceptionably  valuable  all  of  these  are 
for  the  class  of  children  referred  to. 

In  the  above  respects,  the  best  of  our  district  and  separate 


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1880].  Of  the  OhUdr&n  of  ilie  Poor.  209 

Rcbools,  are  in  advance  of  nearly  every  one  of  the  other  classes  of 
institntion  for  elementary  education  in  this  country. 

This  is  by  no  means  an  exhaustive  account  of  the  schools  in 
question,  and  I  do  not  intend  it  to  be  so.  Should  any  of  those  who 
now  listen  to  me  desire  to  know  more  about  it,  I  counsel  them  to 
visit  the  North  Surrey  District  School,  at  Anerley,  near  the 
Crystal  Palace,  and  see  for  themselves  how  by  wise  and  liberal 
expenditure  on  the  part  of  the  managers,  it  has  become  a  model  of 
its  class,  in  the  health  and  training,  mental  and  physical,  of  the 
children ;  how  mental  culture  is  pursued  in  strict  relation  to  indus- 
trial training ;  how  cardinal  defects  have  been  remedied,  by  a  bold 
application  of  the  remedies  recommended ;  and  to  what  an  extent 
the  correction  of  physical  defects  has  been  effected  by  exercises, 
as  invigorating  to  the  mind,  as  they  are  strengthening  to  the  body, 
and  interesting  to  the  children  themselves. 

Another  school,  much  farther  away,  at  Swinton,  near  Manchester, 
as  a  model  of  what  a  separate  school  may  be  made  in  capable 
hands,  is  also  deserving  of  a  pilgrimage.  The  extent  to  which 
mental  training  and  farm  operations  are  carried  in  it  are  deserving 
of  all  praise ;  and  the  swimming  of  the  girls  and  boys  interested  me 
much  when  I  visited  it.  One  little  maid  of  13  years  swam  once  in  a 
prize  contest  most  gracefully,  accomplishing  a  couple  of  miles 
without  touching  ground,  and  without  the  least  sign  of  distress  or 
fatigue ;  in  fact,  she  declared  herself  ready  and  able  to  double  the 
distance,  had  it  been  allowed.  I  dwell  upon  these  matters  because 
I  hold  them  to  be  of  priceless  advantage,  both  in  their  relation  to 
health,  and  as  instruments  of  education.  The  drill  and  music  of  the 
boys  inculcate  order,  obedience,  unity  of  action,  and  the  classical 
softening  of  the  manners,  which  tempers  the  roughness  of  their 
natures.  The  swimming,  musical  and  dumb  bell  exercises  of  the 
girls  at  Anerley,  do  the  same  for  the  other  sex,  and  I  am  quite 
certain  that  if  our  educational  authorities  will  condescend  to  take  a 
leaf  out  of  the  poor  law  book,  break  away  from  their  standards  and 
traditions,  and  combine  industrial  and  physical  training  with  mental 
culture,  they  will  improve  the  elementary  education  of  the  country 
to  an  extent  which  can  be  measured  by  no  mere  money  standard.* 

Cost  of  Education  in  the  Poor  Law  District  cmd  8epa/rate 
Metropolita/n  Schools, 

The  cost  of  the  schools  still  attached  to  workhouses  cannot  be 
ascertained  from  any  of  the  published  returns,  as  they  are  mixed 

*  In  the  antamn  of  last  year,  at  a  meeting  held  at  Lansanne,  of  the  teachers 
and  others  engaged  in  primary  edncation  in  Switzerland,  the  whole  question  of 
the  urgent  need  of  combining  physical  training  with  mental  colture  was  discussed, 
and  resolutions  were  adopted  to  increase  the  former,  and  diminish  the  latter.     I 


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210  MouAT — On  the  Education  and  Tradmng  [June, 

up  with  the  expenditure  of  the  workhonses  themselves,  in  such 
manner  as  to  he  insusceptihle  of  separation.  One  of  the  grounds 
for  the  retention  of  the  children  in  the  houses  which  weighs  most 
with  many  hoards  of  guardians,  is  its  supposed  economy.  What- 
ever is  inefficient  and  insufficient,  is  dear  at  any  price,  and  of  all 
possible  methods  of  restricting  necessary  expenditure,  the  most 
unwise  is  in  the  primary  education  of  the  children  of  all  classes.  If 
by  means  of  education  crime  can  be  arrested  at  its  source ;  virtue 
and  sobriety  be  inculcated,  when  the  lessons  are  likely  to  be  of 
greatest  efficacy ;  habits  of  industry,  order,  regularity,  and  obedience 
be  implanted  at  the  ages  when  impressions  are  most  lasting,  and 
the  ranks  of  the  community  can  be  recruited  from  year  to  year  by  a 
well  trained  little  army  of  boys  and  girls  entering  upon  a  life  of 
independence  and  self-support,  what  may  not  the  future  of  the  great 
nation  to  which  we  belong,  become  ?  If  the  great  body  of  the  people 
rise  to  the  knowledge  and  conviction,  that  no  amount  of  money 
should  be  grudged  in  so  profitable  an  investment,  a  tithe  of  the 
sum  wasted  annually  in  drink,  or  in  unprofitable  foreign  loans  to 
impecunious  and  dishonest  nations ;  or,  even,  if  the  amount  of  money 
now  employed  to  the  least  advantage  in  many  of  our  charitable 
institutions,  from  absence  of  organisation  and  judicious  direction, 
were  more  wisely  bestowed,  it  would  be  sufficient  for  the  purpose. 

The  return  (No.  I  of  the  Appendix)  shows  that  in  the  twenty- 
eight  years  from  1861,  the  date  of  the  paper  of  Mr.  Fletcher,  which 
is  the  last  in  the  records  of  the  Society  on  the  subject,  an  annual 
average  of  32,159  boys  and  girls  under  15  years  of  age  were  under 
instruction  in  the  poor  law  schools,  at  an  annual  average  allowance 
from  the  parliamentary  grant  of  31,498^  towards  the  salaries  of  the 
teachers.     The  whole  amount  thus  expended  was  881,976/. 

This  represents  but  a  single  head  of  expenditure,  and  its  mention 
shows  how  inadequate  it  is  even  for  its  special  purpose,  in  the 
present  state  of  the  labour  market.  The  time  has  certainly  come 
when  the  value  of  the  teaching  element  in  the  whole  scheme  of 
elementary  education  should  be  properly  estimated ;  when  the  social 
status  of  the  teacher  should  be  raised ;  when  he  should  belong  to  as 
distinct  and  elevated  a  body  as  the  medical,  legal,  engineering,  and 
other  recognised  professions ;  and  when  the  great  truth  should  be 
recognised,  without  question,  that  properly  to  instruct  the  young  of 
all  classes,  needs  the  application  of  the  highest  powers  and  the  best 
training  in  the  teachers;  when  it  is  understood  that  all  such 
imperfect  agency  as  that  of  pupl  teachers,  and  similar  devices  for 
saving  money,  are  unwise  and  even  mischievous  errors ;  and  that 

hxve  been  unable  to  obtain  a  fnll  report  of  tbe  discnssion,  and  of  the  resolatlonf,  bnt 
the  abstract  pablislied  showed  that  the  views  entertained,  were  strictly  in  accor- 
dance with  my  contention. 


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1880.] 


Of  ihe  Children  of  the  Poor. 


211 


in  this  teaching  exists  the  best  and  most  appropriate  common  ground 
for  the  work  of  men  and  women,  each  in  their  own  sphere. 

How  few  are  able  to  write  children's  books  of  any  real  valne ; 
equally  few  are  those  competent  to  instmot  children  properly,  who 
are  procurable  now,  on  the  salaries  considered  sufficient  for  the 
purpose. 

In  1873  I  was  employed  by  the  Local  .(Joyemment  Board  in 
examining  into  the  cost  of  maintenance  of  the  district  and  separate 
poor  law  schools  of  the  metropolis,  and  my  report  on  the  subject 
was  published  as  a  parliamentary  paper  in  1876,  and  appended  to 
the  "  Fifth  Annual  Report  of  the  Local  Government  Board  for 
**  1875-76,"  No.  17,  Appendix  B,  pp.  95—129.  I  selected  a  period  of 
fiye  years  from  1867-73,  as  likely  to  give  a  more  accurate  result, 
than  could  be  obtained  from  the  expenditure  of  any  single  year. 

The  following  are  the  figures  which  represent  the  average 
yearly  number  of  children  under  instruction,  the  average  gross 
annual  expenditure,  and  the  cost  per  child  in  the  years  mentioned  : — 


8t  Pancras ~. 

Poreet  Gate,"GK)liafch" 

St.  LeoDard's,  Shoreditoh. 

Oentral  London 

St.  Marrlebone .. 

Korth  Surrey 

Bethnal  Qreen   

Holbom  

Forest  Qs,te  School   

Strand 

South  Metropolitan  

Westminster  

Islington 

St.  &eorge-in-the-East 

Lambeth 

Mile  End. 


ATttngo 
Number  of 
Children. 


393 
387 
380 

1,131 
43* 
823 
297 
431 
19 
371 

127 
^47 
403 
387 
a73 


Aremge  Gross 
Expenditure. 


£ 

14,472 
10,432 

9,667 
26,814 

9,937 
18,777 

6,499 

9,265 
16,490 

7,767 
26,623 

4,874 
7,699 
6,566 
4,517 


Arerage  Annual 

Cort 

per  Child. 


£  9. 

36  16 

27  - 

25  8 

23  19 

23  - 

22  16 

21  17 


2 


3 
6 

3 

4 
3 
I 
2 
2 
I 

19  15  10 
19  14  8 
18  17  I 
16  19  4 
16     10     - 


21  10 

21  - 

20  18 

20  5 


The  particulars  of  each  year  are  contained  in  Tables  11  and  III 
of  the  Appendix. 

They  inclnde  all  expenses,  except  those  of  loans,  and  repayment 
of  loans  with  interest.  The  causes  of  the  variations  of  the  cost 
are  explained  in  the  report,  and  the  results  must  only  be  regarded 
as  approximations  to  an  accuracy  which  could  not  be  attained,  from 
the  different  manner  in  which  the  accounts  were  kept  in  different 
schools. 

As  years  pass  on,  the  loans  are  repaid  with  interest,  and  the 
expenditure  is  thus  considerably  reduced,  the  cost  will  of  necessity 
he  less  than  in  the  years  mentioned.    That  considerable  economy. 


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212  MouAT — On  the  EdueaHon  a/nd  Training  {June, 

witihoat  dimination  of  efficiency,  could  be  practised  in  the  metro- 
politan schools  by  a  better  and  more  sensible  system  of  management 
IS  certain,  as  I  pointed  out  in  my  report. 

In  the  Local  Government  reports  of  the  two  last  years,  retnms 
of  the  expenditure  in  the  same  schools  are  published ;  and  for  1878 
the  cost  per  head  ranged  from  34/.  10s.  gd.ia  the  training  ship 
^^Ezmouth"  to  17Z.  3«.  9(£.  in  the  Mile  End  school,  giving  a  total 
expenditure  of  all  the  schools  of  222,955^,  or  23/.  gg,  ^d,  per  child, 
exclusive  of  loans  and  interest. 

If  time  and  space  permitted,  I  should  have  been  glad  to  have 
compared  this  expenditure  with  that  of  other  schools  of  the  same 
character,  but  of  different  classes.  I  must  leave  the  contrast  for 
others  to  expound  and  explain. 

Eesults  of  the  Education  of  Children  in  the  Foot  Law  Schools 
of  aU  Olatsei. 

The  results  as  regards  the  proficiency  attained  in  the  educa* 
tional  standards,  and  in  such  branches  of  industrial  training  as  can 
be  tested  by  examination,  are  contained  in  the  returns  of  tiie  poor 
law  educational  inspectors.  The  details  are  not  published,  nor 
are  they  of  any  special  use  for  my  paper,  which  is  to  ascertain  the 
ultimate  effect  of  the  system,  as  shown  in  the  ascertained  success 
in  life,  of  those  who  have  been  brought  up  in  the  poor  law  schools. 

The  reports  of  the  inspectors,  so  &r  as  they  are  published, 
show  that,  in  many  of  the  district  and  separate  schools,  a  very 
high  standard  of  proficiency  is  attained  in  education,  and  that,  on 
the  whole,  the  system  works  fairly  well. 

But,  as  respects  the  after  career  of  those  children,  we  have  a 
much  more  satisfactory  basis  of  comparison  of  the  past  with  the 
present,  in  the  facts  and  figures  contained  in  parliamentary  and 
other  records. 

In  Mr.  Fletcher's  paper  on  the  "  Farm  School  System  of  the 
"  Continent,"  read  before  this  Society  in  1851,  the  record  of  the 
number  of  juvenile  criminals  brought  up  in  pauper  schools  who 
were  in  the  prisons  at  home,  was  brought  down  to  the  year 
1849.  It  was  not  only  believed,  but  proven,  that  the  results  of  the 
training  of  children  in  workhouses  were  then  most  disastrous,  as 
may  be  ascertained  by  consulting  the  various  official  documents 
issued  in  connection  with  the  great  inquiry  into  the  working  of 
the  poor  laws  in  1834,  and  in  several  subsequent  years. 

Following  up  Mr.  Fletcher's  figures,  a  return  was  moved  for  by 
Mr.  Henley  in  the  House  of  Commons,  of  the  number  of  young 
persons  in  the  workhouses  of  England  and  Wales  in  1861,  who  had 
not  been  less  than  two  consecutive  years  in  those  institutions, 
within  the  ten  years  ending  on  the  last  day  of  1860,  and  who  had 


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1880.]  Of  the  GhUdrm  of  the  Poor.  21 3 

left  the  workhoofle  for  service  or  otber  industrial  occupation,  with 
the  number  of  those  who  had  returned  to  the  workhouse  by  reason 
of  their  own  misconduct,  the  number  of  those  who  had  returned 
from  causes  not  involving  their  own  misconduct,  and  the  like 
particulars  as  to  district  schools.  A  summary  of  this  impprtant 
and  interesting  return  forms  Table  lY  of  the  Appendix.  From 
this  table  it  appears  that  there  were  in  the  workhouses  of  England 
14,404  boys,  and  12,957  girls,  in  all  27,361,  of  whom  836  boys, 
find  1,663  girls,  in  all  2,499,  returned  to  the  workhouse  by  rea43on  of 
misconduct ;  and  1,264  hoys,  and  1,748  girls,  in  all  3,012,  returned 
from  causes  unconnected  with  personal  misconduct.  This  gives  a 
percentage  of  bad  behaviour,  calculated  on  the  whole  number 
in  the  workhouse  schools,  of  5*8  per  cent,  of  boys,  and  12*8  per 
oent.  of  girls. 

In  the  workhouses  of  Wales  there  were  529  boys  and  439  girls ; 
20  of  the  former  and  30  of  the  latter  returned  to  the  houses  on 
account  of  misbehaviour,  and  32  of  the  former  and  43  of  the  latter 
from  no  cause  of  misconduct. 

In  the  district  schools,  some  of  which  had  then  been  only 
partially  and  recently  occupied,  there  were  777  boys,  and  612  girls, 
in  all  1,389,  of  whom  24  boys,  and  63  girls  returned  on  account  of 
misconduct,  and  63  boys,  and  67  girls,  from  no  fault  of  their  own. 
This  gives  a  ratio  of  failure  of  boys,  3*08  per  cent.,  of  girls,  io'2  per 
cent. 

The  accuracy  of  the  return  has  been  questioned  on  grounds 
which  do  not  convince  me  of  their  validity,  although  they  show 
correctly  that  mere  figures  are  of  little  value,  unless  the  facts 
underlying  them  are  explained.  It  is  undoubted  that  many 
children  return  to  the  workhouse  from  no  fault  of  their  own,  hence 
I  exclude  them;  but  this  does  not  apply  to  those  the  cause  of 
whose  misconduct  is  ascertained  and  recorded  inmiediately  on 
their  return,  and  to  probably  not  a  few  of  the  others,  whose  training 
has  not  fitted  them  for  the  positions  they  were  sent  to  fill. 

In  the  same  year,  the  chaplain  of  the  largest  metropolitan 
district  school  stated  in  print,  ihat  22*2  per  oent.  of  the  children 
sent  to  places  from  those  schools  had  returned  to  them,  and  8*6  per 
cent,  to  the  workhouse.  On  the  other  hand,  the  chaplain  of  the 
Brighton  workhouse,  in  comparing  the  difference  of  the  system  of 
educating  the  children  in  the  separate  school,  which  was  established 
during  his  incumbency,  stated,  as  published  in  Mr.  TufEnell's  report 
for  1868,  "  that  the  character  and  history  of  the  Brighton  work- 
**  house  children  for  many  years,  is  frightful  to  think  of.  I  can 
'*  remember  as  many  as  44  persons,  members  at  the  same  time  ot 
"  the  able-bodied  ward,  all  brought  up  in  the  workhouse  schools, 
'*  most  of  them  thieves  and  prostitutes.     Thank  God,  there  is  an 


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214  MoTTAT — On  the  Education  and  Training  [Jtme, 

"end  of  this,  op  anything  approaching  to  it.  Of  50  girls  sent  out 
"  from  our  present  school,  I  know  of  only  one  fallen ;  of  about  the 
"  same  number  of  boys,  the  majority  are  justifying  the  hopes  of 
"their  teachers,  and  the  expectations  of  the  promoters  of  this 
"  important  charity.  In  Brighton,  at  least,  society  has  shaken  off 
"  a  great  scandal,  and  the  ratepayers  of  the  parish  a  heavy  burden. 
"  Here,  for  the  future,  the  pauper  schools  will  no  longer  be  the 
"  nursery  of  pauperism." 

Again  in  1862,  the  number  of  juvenile  inmates  of  the  prisons 
and  reformatories  of   England  and  Wales  was  19,955,  ^^  whom 
15,751  were  males,  and  4^04  were  females.     Of  the  total  number, 
646,  or  3*2  per  cent.,  had  been  brought  up  in  workhouse  or  distrio 
schools.* 

These  646  prisoners  had  been  in  workhouse  or  district  schools 
for  various  periods,  ranging  from  one  day  to  five  years  and 
upwards*  — 

22  had  been  in  sohool  from 1  to  6  days. 

48  ,1  1  »»  3  weeks. 

214  „  1  „  4  months. 

79  „  upwards  of  ....  6  years. 

25  for  unasoertained  periods. 

646 

These  again  are  not  formidable  figures,  and  for  the  great 
majority  the  schools  cannot  fairly  be  held  responsible.  In  any  case 
they  indicate  no  wide-spread  criminality,  considering  how  many 
workhouse  children  are  the  ofbpring  of  members  of  the  cnmim^ 


Attempts  are  sometimes  made  to  compare  the  social  failures  in 
higher  grades  of  life,  with  those  of  workhouse  children  who  have 
gone  to  the  bad.  These  comparisons  are  at  the  best  but  vague 
guesses  and  impressions,  with  no  substantial  foundation,  and  based 
on  conditions  so  entirely  different  as  not  to  admit  of  comparison. 

In  Table  Y  is  a  return  of  the  total  number  of  young  offenders 
admitted  into  and  discharged  from  the  certified  reformatories  of 
Great  Britain  from  1854  to  1876,  a  period  of  twenty-three  years. 
It  is  reprinted  from  the  "  Twentieth  Report  on  Eeformatory  and 
Industrial  Schools  "  (p.  206).  The  number  of  those  brought  up  in 
poor  law  schools  not  being  specified  in  this  return,  a  special  state- 
ment was  called  for  by  the  Local  Government  Board  for  the  ten 
years  from  1868  to  1877.     This  forms  Table  VI  of  the  Appendix. 

This  table  shows,  that  of  the  children  sent  to  reformatories  in 
1868-77  there  had  been  :— 

*  Parliamentary  Paper  494,  of  Sees.  1862. 

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1880.] 


Of  thu  ChUdrm  of  the  Poor. 


215 


BoyB. 

Girta. 

Total. 

England  and  WaleB-^ 

In  workhouses    

362 
80 

120 
32 

482 

1 12 

„  district  schools 

442 

152 

594 

In  woi*1thon<M)S     -,-,,...,,.„„„,,, 

25 
12 

15 

40 
12 

„  workhouse  schools    

37 

15 

5* 

As  many  thousands  of  cliildren  passed  through  these  schools  in 
the  years  in  question,  this  is  but  a  very  small  portion  of  them.  The 
returns  are  not  published  in  such  forms,  as  to  enable  me  to  get  at 
anything  like  even  an  approximation  to  the  exact  numbers  repre- 
senting the  movement  of  this  juvenile  population ;  but,  as  the 
greatest  number  of  the  children  are  from  its  fluctuating  element, 
and  are  the  offspring  in  too  many  cases  of  criminal  or  degraded 
parents,  I  doubt  if  the  schools  are  really  responsible  for  the  whole 
of  even  this  small  fraction.  In  some  of  the  larger  institutions  as 
many  as  500  of  these  children  have  passed  in  and  out  in  the  course 
of  a  single  year — some  of  them  as  many  as  half-a-dozen  times. 

When  compared  with  the  prison  returns  of  former  years,  these 
figures  appear  to  me  to  prove  indisputably,  that  the  education  of  the 
children  of  the  poor  is  gradually  stopping  the  supply  of  criminals 
at  the  right  end.  As  we  gather  from  the  first  of  these  tables,  from 
the  large  number  of  the  juvenile  members  of  the  poorer  population, 
the  whole  number  convicted  of  crime  amounted  to  only  25,612  boys 
and  6,200  girls  in  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  century,  and  from  the 
latter,  that  both  sexes  of  those  brought  up  in  workhouse  and  poor 
law  schools  contribute  a  little  over  600  in  ten  years,  a  very  small 
percentage  of  either  of  those  populations,  the  result  must,  I  thinks 
be  considered  of  an  encouraging  and  gratifying  nature. 

I  am  aware,  however,  that  these  figures  are  not  rigorously  exact, 
and  that  they  constitute  but  a  rough  approximation  to  the  truth, 
for  there  are  many  collateral  conditions  of  age,  parentage,  the 
antecedents,  and  other  circumstances  of  these  children,  which 
require  to  be  known,  before  any  strict  deduction  can  be  drawn  from 
them. 

It  is,  I  think,  much  to  be  regretted  that  the  legislature  does  not 
make  it  compulsory  on  ail  public  institutions  to  keep  their  records 
on  some  simple  uniform  principle,  which  would  gather  together  all 
the  leading  facts  requiring  to  be  known,  and  publish  them  from 
year  to  year  in  some  easy  form,  to  enable  us  to  jadge  of  the  progress 

VOL.  XLIU.      PART  II.  Q 

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216  MouAT — On  the  Education  a/nd  Training  [June, 

we  are  making.  It  wonld  entail  a  little  tronble  in  the  first  instance, 
but  wonld  soon  snbstitnte  a  sonnd  basis  for  the  solution  of  these 
great  social  problems,  in  the  place  of  the  spasmodic  and  unsatisfac- 
tory manner  in  which  we  are  compelled  to  deal  with  them  at 
present,  from  the  absence  of  continuous  authentic'  data. 

I  have  waded  through  the  Poor  Law  and  Local  Government 
Boards'  reports  for  many  years  past,  to  endeavour  to  compOe  from 
them  such  a  collection  of  facts  as  to  enable  me  to  speak  with  confi- 
dence  of  the  results  obtained,  but  I  have  failed  to  find  the  necessary 
data.  Here  and  there,  scattered  through  them,  are  many  carefully 
collected  figures,  which  may  be  accepted  as  proofs,  so  far  as  they 
go,  of  the  contentions  of  the  observers.  There  can  be  no  doubt,  in 
any  of  these  cases,  of  the  high  character,  good  faith,  and  qualifica- 
tions for  the  task  of  those  who  have  examined  into  the  question ; 
but,  there  is  in  some  of  them  evidence  of  a  strong  personal  biaa 
towards  particular  views,  and  in  others  a  controversial  character, 
which  somewhat  diminishes  their  value. 

It  would  be  a  waste  of  time  to  attempt  to  reduce  this  undigested 
mass  to  order  and  system,  or  to  deduce  from  it  strictly  logical 
conclusions,  as  all  sound  data  of  comparison  on  a  sufficiently 
extended  scale,  are  absent.  I  shall,  therefore,  content  myself  with 
selecting  some  of  the  best  authenticated  figures,  and  leave  you  to 
form  your  own  judgments  as  to  how  far  they  can  be  considered  to 
cover  the  whole  ground.  In  the  consideration  of  all  social  ques- 
tions there  are  so  many  sources  of  fallacy,  so  much  room  for  falsifi- 
cation  and  concealment,  and  so  many  conditions  for  which  no  moral 
barometrical  scale  has  yet  been  constructed,  that  any  conclusions 
arrived  at  must  be  regarded  rather  as  endeavours  to  arrive  at  the 
truth,  than  as  proofs  of  the  truth  itself. 

I  have  taken  the  figures  from  the  latest  reports,  as  they  most 
correctly  represent  the  present  state  of  the  poor  law  schools. 

In  the  report  of  the  Local  Government  Board  for  1872-73,* 
Mr.  Bowyer,  one  of  the  oldest  and  most  experienced  of  the  poor 
law  educational  inspectors,  collected  in  the  midland  districts,  from 
returns  procured  from  the  schools,  particulars  regarding  1,009  ^7^ 
and  1,170  girls,  in  considerable  detail. .  An  abstract  of  these  figures 
is  subjoined : — 

•  Pp.  101  and  102. 


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1880.] 


Of  the  Children  of  the  Poor. 


217 


TtAtl 
Knnber. 

Number 
of  Retumi 

to 
Workhouie. 

Number 

who 
Returned. 

CauMS  of  their  Return. 

Condition  in  LifiB, 

and  Repute 
when  lait  heard  of. 

1,109    .... 

176 

157    - 

Serions  faults 
Slight      „ 
No  fault    .... 

99  I 

Doing  well 1,008 

Not  doing  well ..       51 

Dead   11 

Not  known, or! 
still  in  school  J        ^^ 

Total    ....  1,109 

1,170    .... 

417 

303    - 

Serious-faults 
SUghfe      „. 
No  fault 

zoi  L 

Doing  well 987 

Not  doing  well..       98 

Dead   15 

Not  known 70 

Total 1,170 

The  same  inspector  oolleeted  in  the  preceding  jear  figures 
regarding  657  boys  and  621  girls  placed  ont  in  eleven  tmions,  of 
whom  605  of  the  former,  and  498  of  the  latter,  were  reported  to 
have  done  well.  In  fonr  other  unions,  of  which  the  returns  were 
mixed,  of  261  children  of  both  sexes,  248  had  done  well. 

The  most  valuable,  interesting,  and  instructive  report  ever 
written  of  the  training  of  girls  under  the  poor  law  system,  is  that 
of  the  late  Mrs.  Nassau  Senior,  published  in  the  report  of  the 
Local  Gbvemment  Board  for  1873-74.*  I  accompanied  her  in  her 
visits  to  some  of  the  metropolitan  and  other  institutions,  and  can 
testify  to  the  singularly  careful  and  conscientious  manner  in  which 
she  conducted  her  investigations,  and  the  almost  painful  anxiety 
she  exhibited  to  avoid  acquiring  erroneous  impressions,  or  arriving 
at  incorrect  conclusions  from  false  premisses. 

Although  I  dissent  from  the  main  conclusion  at  which  she 
arrived  in  favour  of  boarding  out,  I  think  she  hit  the  blots  in  the 
system  of  large  schools  for  girls,  and  that  her  proposal  to  sub- 
stitute small  schools  for  large  ones,  and  to  classify  the  schools  and 
their  inmates  with  regard  to  girls,  was,  in  principle,  thoroughly 
sound. 

Information  was  collected  by  her,  or  for  her,  of  girls  sent  out  to 
service  from  the  metropolitan  schools  in  1871  and  1872,  of  245  girls 
from  district,  and  245  from  separate  schools.  No  notice  was  taken 
of  girls  sent  to  their  famOies,  and  74  girls  from  district  and  106 
from  separate  schools  were  omitted  from  the  record,  aa  incorrect 
addresses  were  given,  the  families  had  removed,  or  the  letters  were 
unanswered. 


•  Appendix  B,  pp.  311—394. 


Q  2 

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218  MouAi' — On  the  Education  and  Training  [June, 

Of  those  personally  visited,  the  classification  was  as  follows : — 


Class. 

District  Schools. 

Separate  Sebools. 

Number. 

Percent 

Number. 

Per  Cent 

Good  

I. 
n. 
III. 
IV. 

28  -  11-42 

64  -  26-12 

106  -  43-26 

47  -  19-08 

61  —  20*81 

Fair 

81  -  33-06 

82  -  32-46 
81  -  12-65 

Unsatisfactory    

Bad 

246  -  99-88 

246  -  99-98 

If  all  the  published  tables  are  scrutinised  carefully,  it  will  be 
found  in  almost  every  instance,  even  the  most  fiavourable,  that 
there  is  a  larger  proportion  of  failures  among  girls,  than  among 
boys.  The  reason  why  it  should  be  so,  and  why  aggregate  training 
is  more  dangerous  to  girls  than  to  boys,  is  clearly  shown  in 
Mrs.  Senior's  remarks,  and  these  I  regard  as  one  of  the  most 
valuable  features  of  her  report.  No  man  could  possibly  approach 
the  question  with  so  thorough  a  knowledge  of  all  its  bearings,  and 
no  official  inquiry  that  I  know  of,  has  ever  been  conducted  in  so 
thoroughly  careful  and  painstaking  a  spirit,  as  that  of  the  gifted 
and  lamented  lady  to  whom  I  refer. 

In  the  report  for  1875-76,  the  Rev.  Dr.  Clutterbuck,  a  Poor 
Law  School  Inspector,  collected  figures  respecting  the  children 
sent  to  service  during  the  preceding  five  yeaii9,  from  all  the  Unions 
of  the  Western  District. 


1 

Number  of 
Unions. 

S 

Total  Number 
Sent  Out 

8 

Reported  as 
still  in  Place. 

or 
Doiug  Well. 

4 

DoubtfU 
or 
Bad. 

6 

Returned 
to,  and  stUl 

in 
the  House. 

6 

No 

Information 

as  to  Present 

CoiidiUon. 

7 
Dead. 

England  145 
Wales  ....  B9 

fBoys  2,329 
\  Girls  2,086 

/Boys     616 
1  Girls     568 

5,599 

1,809 
1,102 

848 
297 

96 
128 

30 
19 

66 
88 

11 
18 

839 

199 
i3* 

19 
7 

8 
2 

Total ....  184 

8,056 

273 

178 

2,026 

46 

Dr.  Clutterbuck  very  candidly  states,  that  these  tables  are  h&aed 
solely  on  figures  supplied  by  the  house  masters  and  matrons,  but 
gives  the  reasons  for  which  he  considers  them  reliable,  and  further 
on  states  that  the  "pauper  taint,"  the  **  workhouse  surroundings," 
may  be  summed  up  in  the  expression,  adult  influence:  hence  he 
thinks  that  the  schools  should  be  separated  from  the  workhouses. 
The  virtues  of  the  workhouse  school  proper  in  small  unions,  the 


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1880.]  Of  the  Ohildren  of  the  Poor.  219 

same  inspector  attributes  to  the  viidtvidual  treatment,  -whicli  is  pos- 
sible with  small  numbers. 

In  the  report  for  1876-77,  are  special  and  interesting  reports  on 
the  results  of  workhouse  school  education,  by  Messrs.  Murray 
Browne  and  Davy,  general  inspectors  of  the  Local  Government 
Board,  and  Mr.  Mozley,  one  of  the  inspectors  of  workhouse 
schools. 

Mr.  Murray  Browne's  report  is  a  continuation  of  one  made  by 
him  in  1874  He  selected  four  unions  as  the  subject  of  his  inquiry 
— Chester,  Tarvin,  Hawarden,  and  Wrexham.  These  unions 
comprise  together  an  area  of  185,268  acres,  and  a  population  of 
120,450. 

He  found  in  the  four  workhouses  but  1 1  paupers  who  had  been 
brought  up  in  workhouse  schools,  of  whom  5  were  imbeciles, 
3  more  or  less  disabled  by  chronic  disease,  and  j  who,  having  been 
brought  up  in  them  as  children,  were  then  inmates  through  their 
own  fault. 

He  then  investigated  the  history,  prior  to  their  leaving  the 
workhouses,  of  all  the  children  who  had  been  in  them  for  more 
than  two  years,  and  who  had  then  been  in  service  for  two  years  and 
upwards,  and  whose  ages  averaged  between  16  and  17  years.  Of 
the  total  number  answering  those  conditions,  there  were  49 — 
30  boys  and  19  girls.  Of  the  49,  3  were  unable,  from  physical 
causes,  to  support  themselves,  and  8  more  had  not  been  trained. 
Among  the  38  remaining,  of  the  21  boys,  i  had  failed,  giving  a 
ratio  of  476  per  cent.,  and  of  the  17  girls,  1  also  had  failed,  in  the 
proportion  of  6*35  per  cent.,  being  a  general  ratio  on  the  combined 
figures,  of  5*26  per  cent.  Adding  these  figures  to  those  of  his 
former  report,  of  a  total  of  93'  boys  and  84  girls,  215  per  cent,  of 
the  former  had  failed,  and  9*52  per  cent,  of  the  latter — a  mean 
ratio  of  5*65  per  cent,  in  the  boys  and  girls  combined. 

Messrs.  Davy  and  Mozley  visited  52  children  brought  up  in  the 
Swinton  schools,  taken  at  random  out  of  a  list  of  97  boys,  and  74 
girls.  According  to  their  scheme  of  classification^  of  the  32  girls,, 
they  found — 

21  yery  satisfactory.- 
II  satis&ctory. 
o  unsatisfaotoiy.. 


and  of  the  20  boys — 


13  yery  satisfactory- 
7  satisfactory, 
o  unsatisfactory. 


These  figures  are  evidently  too  small  for  any  sound  deductions 
to  be  drawn  from  them,  but  I  think  that  the  whole  of  the  figures, 
now  grouped  together  for  the  first  time,  show,  that  the  state  of  the 


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220  MouAT — On  the  Education  and  Training  [Jane, 

poor  law  schools  is  no  longer  the  same  as  that  so  strongly  denounced 
for  some  years  after  the  passing  of  the  Poor  Law  Amendment  Act 
of  1834,  and  that  tke  dispauperisation  of  the  balk  of  the  children 
termed  pauper,  is  seal  and  satisfactory. 

in. — The  Future. 

If  the  present  has  been  so  fairly  successful  in  its  instructional 
results,  and  in  its  dispauperising  effects,  in  district  and  separate, 
and  in  some  of  the  workhouse  schools,  why  not  extend  the  best 
parts  of  the  system,  instead  of  devising,  what  in  England  are  ^till 
regarded  as  new  and  untried  ways,  of  attaining  the  same  end,  which 
may  possibly  entail  greater  cost  ? 

I  will  endeavour  to  supply  the  answer. 

While  I  ap{»*ove  of  any  system  which  takes  the  children  out  of 
the  workhouses,  trains  them  to  earn  an  honest  liveKkood  in  posi- 
tions suited  to  their  class,  dispauperises  them,  and  in  some  cases 
enables  them  to  rise  entirely  out  of  the  class  in  which  they  «tart,  I 
am  of  opinion  that  sufficient  experience  has  now  been  acquired  of 
the  large  district  and  separate  schools,  to  show  that  there  are  some 
defects  inherent  in,  and  inseparable  from  them,  which  can  and 
o<]ght  to  be  remedied  in  all  future  schools  separated  from  work- 
houses. 

In  all  schemes  of  education  the  unit  is  the  most  important 
factor,  and  in  all  forms  of  society,  the  family  is  tke  foundation,  on 
which  we  should  endeavour  to  build. 

The  more  we  depart  from  these  cardinal  conditions,  the  more 
likely  we  are  to  err,  and  although  economic  considerations  may 
compel  us  to  modify  them,  they  should  be  as  steadily  kept  in  view 
in  the  education  and  training  of  the  children  of  the  State,  as  finan- 
cial circumstances  will  allow. 

Too  much  praise  cannot  be  accorded  to  the  late  Sir  J.  Kay- 
Shuttleworth  and  Mr.  Tuffnell,  for  guiding  public  ^opinion  and  the 
legislature,  in  the  greatest  advance  yet  made  in  the  elementary 
school  system  of  the  country,  and  I  should  not  counsel  the  smallest 
retrocession  from  the  position  attained. 

But,  some  careful,  far-seeing  observers,  pointed  out  at  the  time 
grave  objections  to  the  plan  of  collecting  the  poor  law  children  in 
large  numbers,  and  in  big  buildings.  The  experience  of  the  third 
of  a  century,  in  which  some  of  them  have  now  been  in  active 
operation,  has  proved  that  those  objections  were  based  on  correct 
views. 

There  is  a  weli-defined  limit  beyond  which  the  number  of  chil- 
dren under  the  control  of  a  single  head,  cannot  be  placed  with 
safety.  The  grouping  of  large  and  unmanageable  numbers  in 
school  rooms,  day  rooms,  and  dormitories,  causing  undue  pressure 


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1880.]  OJ  the  Ohildrm  of  the  Poor.  221 

upon  a  limited  area,  introdnces  new  conditions  of  health  and  disease, 
which  demand  the  most  serioos  care  and  consideration.  From  it 
have  resulted  outbreaks  of  ophthalmia,*  skin  disease,  and  similar 
very  destractive  and  injurious  consequences,  the  results  of  some 
of  which  are  life-long  in  their  prejudicial  influences.  The  worst 
forms  of  scrofulous  degeneration  have  thus  become  crystallised  and 
intensified,  and  are  likely  to  influence  generations  yet  unborn,  in 
ways  that  will  render  them  a  permanent  burden  upon  society, 
without  any  misconduct  or  malfeasance  on  the  part  of  their 
parents. 

So  much  for  the  physical  aspects  of  the  question. 

As  regards  its  jhotbI  side,  the  objections  appear  to  me  to  be 
quite  as  strong.  The  numbers  who  have  to  be  dealt  with  renders 
the  study  of  individual  character  and  personal  proclivities,  impos- 
sible to  the  immediately  responsible  authority,  of  any  of  these  over- 
grown schools.  The  absence  of  this  individuality  in  the  earliest  and 
most  plastic  period  of  life,  I  hold  to  be  £i>tal  to  any  sound  scheme 
of  education  in  its  true  meaning.  Education  is  not  the  teaching  of 
large  bodies  of  children  to  act  with  the  precision  of  machines,  or  the 
cultivation  of  minds  in  the  mass,  for  in  the  process  the  weakest  go 
to  the  wall,  and  the  selection  of  the  fittest  is  by  no  means  secured. 
The  formation  of  the  individual  is  the  true  aim  and  object  of  all 
education,  and  this  can  never  be  accomplished  by  the  herding 
together  of  children,  any  more  than  it  can  be  in  dogs  or  in  horses. 
The  physical  defects  of  the  children  influence  their  whole  lives  in 
their  higher  relations,  and,  although  some  of  them  attain  a  good 
position  in  the  educational  standards,  as  a  body  they  are  as  apathetic, 
dull,  and  helpless,  when  first  sent  out  to  earn  their  livelihood,  as 
they  are  stunted  in  growth,  and  ungainly  in  gait  and  manner. 
Their  powers  of  perception  and  observation  are,  in  numberless 
cases,  scarcely  developed  at  all,  and  certainly  in  no  way  proportioned 
to  their  book  knowledge.  All  persons  engaged  in  aiding  children 
to  emigrate,  and  the  rules  for  boarding  out,  show  that  it  is  useless  to 
attempt  to  correct  bad  habits,  and  to  form  character  after  10  years 
of  age ;  yet,  it  is  during  the  earliest  period  that  the  children  are 
under  the  charge  of  subordinate  agents,  who  possess  neither  the 
training,  the  knowledge,  nor  the  experience  necessary  to  develop  all 
that  is  good  in  them,  and  thus  to  correct  their  faults. 

The  domestic  economy  of  a  multitude,  and  their  implicit  reliance 
on  all  their  wants  being  supplied  with  unvarying  and  mechanical 

'^  Fide  reports  of  Dr.  J.  H.  Bridges  and  of  Dr.  Monat  on  Ophthalmia: 
"  Third  Annual  Report  of  Local  GoTemment  Board,"  1873-74,  Appendix  B, 
pp.  210—216.  Also  report  of  Professor  E.  Nettleship,  F.E.C.S.,  "Report  of 
**  Local  Qovemment  Board,"  1874-75,  Appendix  B,  pp.  65 — 168,  the  most  able 
and  exhaustive  account  of  Uie  subject  in  print. 


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222  MouAT — On  the  Education  and  Training  [June, 

uniformity  and  regularity,  are  destmctive  of  the  individual  energy 
and  prescience,  which  ought  to  be  cultivated  at  the  earliest  possible 
age.  It  is  this  quickness  of  observation,  readiness  of  resource,  and 
adaptability  to  new  circumstances,  which  sharpens  the  wits  of  the 
street  arabs  and  gamins,  and  renders  them,  unkempt  and  untrained, 
80  superior  in  the  art  of  taking  care  of  themselves,  to  the  well-taught 
workhouse  boy  or  girl.  This  helplessness  in  novel  circumstances  is 
described  in  more  graphic  language  than  I  can  employ,  in  one  of  the 
most  deeply  interesting  and  painful  narratives  I  have  ever  read ;  that 
of  a  success^  workhouse  boy,  recorded  by  Mr.  Tuffnell  in  his  last 
oflBcial  report.*  It  is  also,  I  am  afraid,  a  truer  picture  of  the  sad 
realities  of  the  workhouse  lives  of  children  in  many  more  of  those 
institutions,  than  those  in  which  it  occurred. 

The  cooking  and  laundry  work  of  these  great  places,  in  which, 
from  economy  of  cost  and  labour,  the  preparation  of  the  food  and  the 
cleansing  and  getting  up  of  the  linen  are  of  necessity  more  cheaply 
done  by  machinery,  are  no  fit  training  for  servants  of  all  work,  or 
for  poor  men's  wives ;  nor  are  the  employment  of  the  elder  girls  in 
kitchens,  for  the  preparation  of  the  officers'  food,  and  washhouses 
for  the  getting  up  of  their  linen,  <fcc.,  well  suited  for  the  same 
purpose. 

The  nature  of  the  industrial  training  generally,  of  the  great 
schools,  does  not  appear  to  be  sound  or  judicious ;  in  the  smaller 
workhouses  it  is  practically  absent.  There  is  a  great  deal  too  much 
of  tailoring  and  shoemaking,  and  of  cleaning,  scrubbing,  and 
keeping  the  huge  rooms  in  order,  and  too  little  of  carpentry,  smith's 
work,  printing,  farm  and  garden  labour,  and  such  industries  as 
develop  bone  and  muscle,  while  they  cultivate  the  understanding 
and  produce  ready-handiness.  Boys  should  be  taught  to  cook  as 
well  as  girls,  and  all  strictly  domestic  operations  should  be  assimi- 
lated as  much  as  possible,  to  the  circumstances  of  poor  men's 
homes.  This  cannot,  I  am  of  opinion,  be  accomplished  satisfactorily 
in  such  schools  as  those  I  am  considering. 

Another  plea,  strongly  urged,  of  the  superiority  of  these  schools, 
is  the  low  death-rate,  and  consequent  supposed  immunity  from  most 
of  the  ills  to  which  the  children  of  the  poor  are  liable.  This  I  hold 
to  be  a  fallacy.  It  is  undoubted  that  the  death-rate  is  very  low  com- 
pared with  that  of  the  poorer  classes  in  the  dens  and  overcrowded 
abodes  of  all  our  great  cities,  and  even  of  those  in  the  cottages  of 
many  of  our  villages,  which  are  known  to  be  in  an  undoubtedly 
unsatisfactory  state,  as  regards  their  healthiness.  It  could  easily 
be  shown  why  it  should  be  so,  but  that  the  death-rate  is  lower 
than  that  of  other  schools  in  which  care  is  taken  of  the  health  of 

•  "  Report  of  the  Local  Gtovernment  Board "  for  1873-74.  Appendix  B. 
No.  17,  pp.  247—269. 


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1880.]  Of  the  OhOdren  of  the  Poor.  223 

children,  and  their  ailments  are  attended  to  at  once,  I  altogether  doubt 
and  disbelieve.  I  know  of  public  institutions  for  European  orphans 
in  India,  with  the  management  of  some  of  which  I  was  associated  for 
many  years,  in  which  the  death-rate  was  much  lower.  In  them 
accurate  records  have  been  kept  for  many  years,  and  there  was  no 
room  for  conjecture  on  the  aabject.  In  the  Little  Boys'  Home  at 
Famingham,  in  children  not  specially  selected,  I  was  informed  that 
there  had  been  only  4  deaths  in  fourteen  years  among  an  average 
annual  population  of  300,  and  of  those  but  i  death  was  from  disease 
acquired  in  the  institution.  So  far  as  I  have  been  able  to  ascertain, 
the  deaths  in  the  farm  schools  of  the  continent,  some  of  which 
have  been  established  for  more  than  a  century,  are  fewer  even  than 
those  which  have  been  ascertained  for  similar  numbers  in  England. 
The  most  authentic  figures  regarding  the  metropolitan  schools  are 
those  of  Dr.  Bridges,  who  reports,  that  (excepting  the  deaths  of 
infants  under  2  years  of  age  at  the  Marylebone  schools),  the  total 
number  of  deaths  among  the  children  in  1873  was  102,  which  gave 
a  mortality  rate  of  12  per  i,cx>o.  Taking  the  death-rate  of  the 
children  in  the  whole  of  the  metropolis  at  the  corresponding  ages 
(2  to  15),  the  ratio  was  i4'i  per  1,000.  There  is,  however,  no  real 
ground  of  comparison  between  them.  The  fact  is  that  the  figures 
have  not  been  collected  with  sufficient  care  and  accuracy,  and  with 
an  analysis  of  all  the  collateral  and  surrounding  circumstances,  over 
a  sufficiently  extended  period,  to  determine  the  question  farther  than 
that  the  death-rate  is  really  low,  but  not  so  low  as  to  cause  surprise, 
or  to  justify  the  extension  of  the  system  on  that  ground.  That  it 
may  be  still  further  reduced,  when  the  hygiene  of  our  schools  is 
better  understood  than  it  is  at  present,  I  believe,  with  Dr.  Bridges. 
A  far  better  test  of  the  unwholesomeness  of  the  aggregation  of 
these  children  is  the  sickness  rate,  which  I  have  ascertained  to  be, 
in  some  cases,  as  high  as  2  j  per  cent,  of  the  inmates.  Ophthalmia, 
itch,  and  a  multitude  of  affections  of  the  skin  and  scalp,  have,  to 
my  certain  knowledge,  had  a  firm  hold  of  some  of  these  schools 
for  a  lengthened  series  of  years.  It  is  simply  impossible  to  gauge 
accurately  the  amount  of  misery  caused  both  in  early  and  after 
life,  by  defects  and  partial  or  total  loss  of  sight,  scrofulous  degene- 
rations, and  the  continuance  and  increase  of  hereditary  and  trans- 
mitted defects,  all  of  which  are  only  susceptible  of  mitigation  or 
removal  at  a  very  early  age.  The  stunted  growth,  impaired  general 
health,  and  feeble  bodily  powers  of  too  many  of  such  children,  are 
not  removed  or  corrected  by  massing  them  in  large  buildings  or 
bodies.  I  have  no  desire  to  over-rate  or  to  attach  too  much  im- 
portance to  snch  considerations,  if  it  be  possible  to  do  so ;  but  I  do 
deem  it  necessary  to  point  out  the  existence  of  the  evil,  and  to 
suggest  the  remedy  for  its  removal :  and,  that  it  can  be  removed,  I 


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224  MouAT — On  tJie  EducaHon  cmd  Training  [June, 

entertain  not  tlie  least  donbt.  It  is  not  alone  by  ascertaining  the 
greater  or  smaller  number  of  failures  in  this  class,  that  the  yirtues 
or  defects  of  the  system  can  be  folly  ascertained  and  explained. 
There  is  a  large  and  possibly  increasing  factor  of  imbecility,  idiocy, 
and  nervous  disorders  generally,  and  some  of  the  more  immediate 
results  of  scroAila  at  the  critical  periods  of  life,  which  may  be  due 
to  the  insanitary  conditions  of  this  orercrowding,  and  which  is  not 
touched  by  any  inquiry  yet  made.  There  is  still  another  objection, 
which  is  difficult  to  touch  upon,  and  yet  which  cannot  be  altogether 
ignored,  and  that  is  the  habits  of  immorality  which  are  inseparable 
from  accumulating  children  in  dormitories  which  cannot  be  pro- 
perly controlled  and  watched  at  night,  when  they  exceed  50  in 
number.  I  hare  seen  as  many  as  174  in  double  beds  in  a  single 
room,  in  one  of  these  schools.  It  is  true  that  the  children  were 
young,  but  the  precocity  in  vice  of  many  ef  the  casual  children  has 
been  frequently  remarked ;  and  I  have  seen  too  much  «f  it  myself, 
to  doubt  its  existence.  To  ignore  social  evils,  is  net  the  right  way 
to  remove  them. 

Now,  what  is  the  only  valid  reason  which  has  ever  been  assigned 
for  these  unnatural  and  unhealthy  accumulations?  It  is  solely 
and  entirely  one  of  economy,  and  a  more  pernicious  and  unsound 
reason  could  scarcely  be  advanced. 

The  saving  in  iike  oost  of  management  and  establishment  by 
spreading  it  over  a  larger  surface  is  purchased,  I  think,  at  too 
heavy  a  rate  to  countenance  tts  extension  to  the  future  separation 
of  schools  from  workhouses ;  fer  I  hold  that,  in  spite  of  its  many 
and  great  advantages,  it  is  responsible  for  evils,  which  no  plea  of 
economy  should  be  permitted  to  extend. 

The  remedy  then  is  to  break  them  up  mto  smaller  and  more 
manageable  bodies,  and  so  to  subdivide  them,  that  while  the  study 
of  individual  charac^r  and  domestic  training  can  be  carried  on  with 
as  fair  an  approach  to  a  home  as  can  be  secured  in  such  circum- 
stances, the  elementary  education,  industrial  training,  swimming, 
gymnastics,  and  all  the  advantages  of  the  distriot  and  separate 
schools,  can  be  carried  to  as  high  a  pitch  of  perfection,  as  has  been 
accomplished  in  any  existing  school.  That  this  can  and  ought  to 
be  done  in  a  school  of  500  er  600  boys  and  girls,  as  well  as  in  one 
of  1,500  or  1,600,  I  hold  to  be  beyond  denial.  That  it  will  cost  a 
little  more  in  establishment  is  probable,  but  that  the  oost  will,  or 
ought  to  be  immoderate  can,  I  think,  be  shown  to  be  incorrect. 

The  published  tables  show  that  there  are  maof^  thousands  of 
children  still  in  the  workhouses,  who  would  be  better  separated 
from  them,  and  to  them  I  intend  my  remarks  to  apply. 

In  a  letter,  dated  May,  1873,  addressed  to  Mr.  Stansfeld,  then 
President  of  the  Local  Qovemment  Beard,  and  to  the  chairman  of 


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1880.]  0/  the  OhUdren  of  the  Poor,  226 

a  Welsh  board  of  guardians,  Mr.  Andrew  Dojle,  late  an  Inspector 
of  the  Board,  suggested  the  establishment  of  district  schools  on  the 
Mettray  systeni,  in  some  of  the  Welsh  Unions  under  his  charge. 
He  believed  that,  admirable  as  are  some  of  the  separate  schools,  it 
could  hardly  be  doubted  ''that  a  gpreat  improvement  would  be 
"  effected  in  the  system  upon  which  such  schools  are  organised,  if 
''  instead  of  being  associated  in  large  numbers,  the  children  could  be 
"  separated  into  £EkBftilies ;  if,  for  instance,  for  huge  buildings  in  which 
"  several  hundred  dnldrem  are  massed  together,  you  could  substi- 
"  tute  «  village  in  which  they  might  be  distributed  in  cottage 
''  homes,  leading,  as  nearly  as  may  be,  the  lives  of  the  best  class  of 
"  cottagers'  children."  This  system  he  studied  at  Diiss^thal  and 
Mettray^  and  found  that  its  characteristics  are  based  on  family 
organisation,  and  agricultural  labour.  Mr.  Doyle  also  referred, 
quoting  largely  from  Mr.  Fletcher's  paper,  republished  by  this 
Society  last  year,  to  the  farm  school  9)r8tem  of  the  continent 
originated  by  the  celebrated  Pestalozzi  in  1746,  or  nearly  a  century 
and  a-half  ago.  For  all  the  deeply  interesting  details  contained  in 
these  reports,  I  must  refer  to  the  documents  <themselves,  which  are 
well  deserving  of  careful  study. 

I,  too,  some  years  before  Mr.  Doyle,  studied  the  system  at 
Mettray,  with  M.  Demetz,  and  examined  his  colony  most  care- 
fully, when  I  was  in  administrative  charge  of  the  prison  depart- 
ment of  BengaL 

The  outcome  of  Mr.  Doyle's  proposal  has  been  the  establish- 
ment of  four  of  these  cottage  homes  in  Wales.  They  are  in  full 
operation,  and  when  I  visited  them  last  year,  promised  to  answer 
the  anticipations  of  their  founders.  They  have,  however,  been 
too  recently  at  work  to  permit  of  auy  judgment  being  yet  pro- 
nounced upon  them.  Similar  schools  have  been  sanctioned  for 
West  Derby,  West  Ham,  and  Bolton. 

More  recently  the  Birmingham,  and  Kensington  and  Chelsea 
guardians,  have  adopted  the  village  home  system  for  their 
children,  and  the  former  commenced  work  at  Marston  Green  a 
short  time  since.  Each  of  4iheir  schools  is  for  about  6oo  children, 
and,  if  all  the  means  and  appliances  necessary  are  provided,  as 
they  doubtless  will  be,  we  shall  soon  have  an  opportunity  of  com- 
paring the  system  with  that  in  use,  on  a  sufficient  scale  to  determine 
which  is  best.  Both  are  mixed  schools  for  boys  and  girls,  as  all 
institutions  which  profess  to  imitate  the  family  system,  ought  to 
be. 

In  1878,  the  late  Captain  Bowly,  of  the  Royal  Engineers, 
then  an  officer  of  the  Local  Government  Board,  and  I,  were 
directed  to  visit  certain  schools  worked  on  the  home  and  cottage 
system,  and  to  report  as  to  how  far  we  considered  the  system  to  be 


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226  MouAT — On  the  Education  and  Training  [June, 

applicable  to  the  edncation  and  training  of  the  children  of  the 
poor.  We  visited  six  institntiona  answering  the  above  conditions 
more  or  less,  and  although  none  of  them  are  strictlj  comparable 
with  poor  law  schools,  we  had  no  difficulty  in  arriving  at  the  con- 
viction that  the  system  itself  is  perfectly  capable  of  adaptation  to, 
and  adoption  by  the  poor  law  department.  Our  report  was  pub- 
lished as  a  House  of  Commons  Return,  No.  285,  of  1878.  The 
report  is  accompanied  by  plans  of  the  schools  referred  to. 

As  to  cost,  we  ascertained  that  at  the  Princess  Mary's  Home, 
at  Addlestone,  the  cost  per  child,  on  an  average  of  155  girls,  in 
1876,  was  15^  I  $8,  6d. 

The  Little  Boys'  Home  at  Famingham,  on  an  average  of  510 
boys,  20L  8s.  11^. 

Philanthropic  Farm  School  at  Redhill,  on  an  average  of 
298^  boys,  23/.  17s.  9c?. 

In  all  the  other  institutions  visited,  the  actual  money  outlay  was 
so  much  supplemented  by  donations  of  various  kinds,  as  to  render  it 
impossible  to  gauge  the  individual  cost  with  exactness. 

Each  pair  of  cottages  at  Addlestone,  for  10  children  each,  cost 
400/.  to  build ;  and  one  approaching  completion,  in  a  block  for 
30  children,  in  three  comptu^tments,  cost  i,oooZ.  in  erection. 

At  Dr.  Bamado*s  Village  Home  for  Female  Orphans  at  Hford, 
each  cottage  for  20  children,  cost  500L,  which  included  its  share  of 
the  cost  of  the  general  drainage  system. 

At  Redhill,  the  s^arate  houses  contain  60  boys  in  each  ;  when 
originally  constructed  for  50  boys,  the  cost  was  about  i,20oL,  and 
the  subsequent  enlargement  to  hold  10  more  boys,  about  400/. 

It  is  obvious,  however,  that  all  estimates  of  the  cost  of  buildings 
must  vary  so  much  from  the  differing  circumstances  of  time,  place, 
price  of  material,  state  of  the  labour  market,  &c,f  that  no  fixed 
scale  of  cost  can  be  determined.  The  price  of  land  varies  even 
still  more.  But,  of  one  thing  I  am  certain,  and  that  is  that 
the  complete  organisation  of  a  mixed  village  home  school  for 
600  children,  complete  in  all  respects  for  education  and  train- 
ing, need  not,  and  ought  not  to  cost  much  more  than  a  school 
of  similar  dimensions  for  children  on  the  aggregate  system.  If 
the  moral  and  material  superiority  of  the  family,  over  the  aggre- 
gate system  could  be  gauged  by  any  mere  money  standard,  the 
question  of  cost  would  at  once  be  abandoned,  as  undeserving  of 
consideration. 

Again,  with  respect  to  the  extent  and  nature  of  the  establish- 
ments required  to  manage  such  institutions,  the  outlay  would  be  as 
low  in  the  one  as  in  the  other,  if  proper,  and  properly  paid  agency, 
were  employed  in  both. 

Nay,  I  am  disposed   to  go  further,  and  to  maintain  that  if 


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1880.]  Of  ths  Children  of  the  Poor,  227 

the  main  objection  to  the  cottage  home  system  is  that  of  cost,  on 
the  ground  that  yon  cannot  for  any  i*eaBonable  expenditure  form 
educational  villages  on  the  monstrous  scale  of  some  of  the  schools 
holding  from  i,ooo  to  i,6cx>  children,  I  should  regard  it  as  the  best 
possible  reason  for  preferring  them. 

I  have  not  been  able  to  ascertain  the  exact  cost  of  ground, 
buildings,  furnishing,  and  all  other  particulars  connected  with  most 
of  the  poor  law  cottage  home  schools,  which  are  in  course  of  con- 
struction. 

The  cost  of  the  Kensington  and  Chelsea  Village  Homes  at 
Banstead  is  60,000/.,  to  which  10,000/.  must  be  added  for  the  pur- 
chase and  laying  out  of  the  grounds  and  playgrounds. 

The  village  consists  of  8  cottages  for  boys,  12  for  girls,  and  2 
for  probationary  purposes,  in  addition  to  an  infirmary,  an  infectious 
hospital,  all  the  necessary  schoolrooms,  workshops,  offices,  and  a 
chapel  to  hold  400  persons. 

The  institution  is  calculated  for  672  children,  and  contains 
many  requisites  not  usually  provided  in  schools.  The  architects 
are  Messrs.  A.  and  C.  Harston,  who  have  already  constructed  some 
excellent  poor  law  buildings.  The  whole  outlay  will  be  at  the  rate 
of  about  100/.  a  child — all  told. 

The  Marston  Green  Schools  are  situated  about  seven  miles  from 
Birmingham,  and  cost  for  buildings,  including  roads,  architects' 
fees,  32,190/.  19^.  jrf. ;  furnishing  (not  yet  complete),  2,394/.  8«. ; 
and  purchase  of  land,  4,715/.  lis.  6(/.,  the  quantity  of  land  being 
44  acres  3  rods  i  yard. 

The  homes  are  fourteen  in  number,  seven  for  boys  and  seven  for 
girls,  divided  in  the  centre  by  the  workshop  block,  and  swimming 
bath,  (Sbc.  Each  home  is  complete  in  itself,  and  has  dormitories  for 
thirty  children,  ten  in  each,  with  kitchen,  scullery,  day  room,  store 
room,  and  the  abode  of  the  house  father  and  mother,  with  all  neces- 
sary out  offices,  and  play  yards. 

The  workshops  make  provision  for  shoemaking,  tailoring,  print- 
ing, carpentry;  and  on  the  land  provision  is  made  for  farming 
operations. 

The  architect  is  Mr.  Homeyard,  and  the  whole  cost  per  child 
will  be  about  100/. 

Some  of  the  Welsh  cottage  homes  have  been  built  for  less  than 
the  above,  but  they  are  not  so  complete.  A  less  costly  plan  of 
building  might  doubtless  be  adopted,  but  what  is  most  appropriate 
is  probably  the  least  expensive  ultimately.  I  myself  personally 
advocate  much  more  simple  and  inexpensive  structures  for  schools, 
hospitals,  workshops,  school  chapels,  and  all  places  where  large 
numbers  either  dwell  or  assemble,  on  grounds  of  health  as  well  as 
of  economy.      But  this  opens  up  a  large  question  of  an  entirely 


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228  MouAT— Of»  ike  Education  and  Training  [June, 

different  character,  which  this  is  not  the  place  to  discuss  or 
consider. 

If  the  exact  figures  representing  the  cost  of  the  great  district 
and  separate  schools,  as  well  as  that  of  the  land  on  which  they  are 
built,  could  be  got  at,  together  with  the  not  inconsiderable  ontlaj 
which  has  been  found  necessary  to  make  some  of  them  healthy,  I 
doubt  if  the  system  would  be  found  to  be  much,  if  anything,  cheaper 
than  that  of  cottage  homes. 

But,  be  that  as  it  may,  if  the  latter  were  twice  as  costly,  I 
should  still  prefer  it,  for  reasons  which  I  believe  to  be  unanswerable 
from  the  stand  points  of  individual  culture,  health  and  morality. 

BdMcaUonaX  Standards  of  Elementary  Ineiruetion. 

And  now,  before  summarising  my  conclusions  on  the  whole 
subject,  I  wish  to  take  advantage  of  this  opportunity,  as  an  old 
educationist,  who  has  occupied  the  executive  offices  of  professor, 
principal,  and  examiner,  and  the  administrative  control  of  the 
public  instruction  of  a  province  numbering  60  millions  of  people, 
to  say  a  few  words  on  the  standards  of  instruction  adopted  for  the 
elementary  education  of  the  children  of  the  poor  in  Great  Britain ; 
and  on  one  or  two  collateral  subjects. 

The  standards  of  the  New  Code  of  1878  do  not  appear  to  me  to 
be  altogether  judicious,  or  well  calculated  to  develop  in  the  right 
direction,  the  intelligence  of  children  of  the  poorer  classes,  who  are 
to  gain  their  livelihood  by  manual  labour,  or  in  the  various  posi- 
tions they  are  destined  to  fill.  An  adequate  knowledge  of  reading, 
writing,  and  arithmetic  are  doubtless  necessary,  and  so  may  be  the 
moderate  amount  of  history  and  geography  contained  in  the  code ; 
but,  they  are  at  best  but  a  deadly  lively  routine  of  study,  unless 
supplemented  and  relieved  by  some  acquaintance  with  the  nature 
of  the  objects  by  which  they  are  surrounded,  and  some  knowledge 
of  their  properties  and  uses.  The  manner  in  which  the  three  R's 
are  usually  taught  'in  those  schools  appears  to  me  to  be  simply 
deplorable,  and  their  relegation  to  pupil  teachers  and  all  such 
ill-paid,  unpaid,  and  incompetent  agency,  a  grave  error. 

On  the  whole,  I  prefer  the  Dutch  standard  of  elementary  instruc- 
tion, to  our  own.* 

The  Kinder-garten  system  for  infants,  and  a  more  varied  and 
interesting  course  of  instruction  for  those  more  advanced  in  age, 
with  as  little  as  possible  of  poetic  recitation  and  political  geography, 

*  The  Dut6b  Ryttem  of  elementary  initraetiQn,  wit^  lome  additiona  as  to 
phyaical  traimng,  appears  to  me  to  be  better  suited  for  our  poor  law  schools,  than 
oar  own  educational  standards. 

In  the  Dutch  law  of  1857,  which,  I  believe,  is  stUl  in  force,  it  is  divided  into 
ordinary,  and  more  extended  instruction. 


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1880.]  Of  the  Ohadren  of  the  Poor.  229 

and  the  banishment  of  grammatical  analysis,  wonld  be  of  ^  more 
nse  to  them.  As  soon  as  they  can  read,  write,  and  cipher  decently, 
and  learn  something  exact  about  the  world  in  which  they  live, 
their  subsequent  book  learning  should  be  strictly  and  immediately 
associated  with  their  technical  education,  all  such  instruction  being, 
from  first  to  last,  on  the  half-time  system.  If  these  schools  were 
properly  guided,  boards  of  guardians  were  not  in  such  a  desperate 
hurry  to  tnm  out  their  children  immature  in  mind  and  body,  and 
pK^erly  trailed  teachers  were  imperative,  there  is  scarcely  a  child 
of  average  capacity,  that  ought  not  to  be  brought  up  to  the  highest 
standard  necessary,  by  12  years  of  age.  What  is  now,  on  a  thoroughly 
hums  a  non  hicendo  principle,  denominated  industrial  training,  should 
be  placed  on  an  entirely  different  footing,  and  carried  on  for  at 
least  two  years,  with  all  the  mesuis  and  appliances  necessary  to 
render  it  effective,  and  with  competent  agency,  if  it  can  be  found. 

I  would  that  the  time  allowed,  and  the  space  you  can  give  me 
in  the  Jou/mal,  permitted  of  my  pointing  out  to  you  how  this  is 
managed  in  Holland,  in  what  are  called  there  "  Ambacht  Schools." 
These  are  industrial  schools,  based  on  the  joint  stock  principle,  in 
which  special  instruction  is  given  in  trades  and  handicrafls.  The 
funds  of  these  industrial  school  societies,  are  derived  from  the  con- 
tributions and  yearly  subscriptions  of  the  shareholders,  gifts  from 
those  who  take  an  interest  in  their  objects,  legacies,  bequests,  and 
assignments,  interest,  income  ^m  property,  school  fees,  and 
miscellaneous  receipts. 

Ordinary  instmction  inclndes  :— 
a.  Beading. 
J.  Writing, 
o.  Arithmetic 

d.  The  radimenta  of  morphology  (knowledge  of  form  in  general). 

e.  „  the  Dutch  language. 
/.              ,f                geography. 

ff  „  history. 

h,  „  natural  philosophy. 

f.  Smging. 

The  more  extended  instruction  is  considered  to  include : — 
k.  The  rudiments  of  the  modem  languages. 
{.  „  mathematics, 

m.  „  agriculture. 

n.  Gymnastics, 
o.  Drawing. 
p.  Needlework. 

Keeping  tedinical  instmction  and  industrial  training  apart,  a  better  graduated 
system  could,  I  yenture  to  think^  be  fashioned  from  this,  than  that  represented  by 
our  six  standards. 

From  the  ordinary  instmction  in  poor  law  schools,  most  of  the  geography, 
history,  and  natural  philosophy  should  be  eliminated ;  but  to  it  should  be  added 
music,  physical  exercises,  and  industrial  training  in  the  widest  sense  for  both  boys 
and  girls.  By  a  properly  graduated  system  of  schools,  a  much  higher  order  of 
technical  education  might  be  given  to  aU  the  more  promising  boys  and  giris. 


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230  MoUAT — On  the  Education  and  Training  [June, 

These  schools  are  of  a  higher  order  than  any  similar  institu- 
tions in  England,  and  I  know  of  no  good  reason  why  such  schools 
should  not  be  established  in  all  our  great  industrial  centres,  on  the 
co-operative  principle,  which,  when  correctly  applied,  is  one  of  the 
best  of  all  instruments  of  self-help  in  such  matters. 

One  or  more  such  schools  formed  in  connection  with  the  poor 
law  administration,  to  which  the  most  promising  of  the  pupils  in 
our  present  district  and  separate  schools  in  all  parts  of  the  country 
might  possibly,  under  the  existing  law,  be  transferred*  would  be  of 
incalculable  benefit  in  training  those  of  our  orphans  and  deserted 
children  who  exhibit  high  and  special  aptitude,  to  become  skilled 
artizans. 

Or,  what  would  be  better,  and  it  may  possibly  be  legal,  to  pay 
for  them  from  the  rates,  under  the  provisions  of  the  Elementary 
Education  Act  of  1876,  in  technical  schools  established  in  the 
centres  to  which  the  children  themselves  belong,  Manchester, 
Birmingham,  Leeds,  Bradford,  Sheffield,  Liverpool,  and  other 
important  places  of  similar  character. 

Why  rely  upon  great  corporations  and  State  support,  for  what 
can  be  much  better  done  by  the  people  themselves,  in  the  way  of 
technical  education,  of  which  so  much  is  said  and  written  just  now  ? 

Army  and  Navy  Schools. 

It  has  been  strongly  recommended  by  some  persons,  that  special 
training  schools  for  the  army  and  navy  should  be  connected  with 
the  poor  law  administration.  A  majority  of  the  boys  of  the 
"  Goliath  "  and  "  Exmouth  '*  already  pass  into  the  merchant  service, 
and  some  into  the  navy,  and  many  boys  from  the  schools  enter  the 
army  as  musicians ;  but,  even  if  their  stature  and  growth  admitted 
of  any  large  number  being  found  fit  to  shoulder  the  rifle  or  to 
mount  the  mast,  it  would  scarcely  be  right  to  put  a  pressure  upon 
them  or  to  compel  them  to  do  so,  should  they  have  elected  to  enter 
such  special  schools  at  an  age  when  they  are  not  capable  of  fixing 
their  own  destiny,  as  in  the  case  of  orphans  and  deserted  children, 
who  have  no  near  relatives  to  guide  them. 

To  train  and  educate  them  thoroughly,  is  the  best  possible 
preparation  for  either  of  those  callings,  and  it  is  wise  to  leave  the 
ultimate  choice  to  the  boys  themselves,  when  they  are  old  enough 
to  decide,  as  is  done  at  present ;  for  there  is  quite  enough  of  the 
old  spirit  of  fighting  among  them,  and  no  lack  of  attraction  in  the 
drum  and  the  blue  jacket,  to  entice  those  who  have  a  fancy  for 
them,  and  are  anxious  to  follow  those  careers. 

Casual  Children, 
The  number  of  these  is  very  great,  as  shown  in  the  few  parlia- 


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1880.]  Of  the  Children  of  the  Poor.  231 

mentarj  returns,  in  wliicli  an  attempt  is  made  to  specify  tbem. 
These  returns  are  of  too  old  a  date,  however,  to  be  of  any  present 
application ;  yet  in  the  workhouses  of  England  and  Wales,  from  700 
to  800  vagrants  under  16  years  of  age,  were  relieved  nightly  some 
thirty  years  ago,  when  a  special  inquiry  was  made  on  the  subject. 
The  children  of  Scotch  parentage  were  fewest,  and  those  from 
Ireland  most  numerous  in  the  tramp  wards  at  that  time.  The 
remainder  of  the  children,  those  of  the  poor  in  receipt  of  out- door 
relief,  are  still  more  numerous :  hence  the  question  is  one  which 
ought  to  be  fairly  faced,  however  difficult  it  may  prove  of  solution. 
A  more  difficult  matter  is  how  to  deal  with  the  children  of  the 
vagrant  and  profligate  fathers  and  mothers,  without  causing  greater 
evils  than  would  be  remedied,  by  the  State  taking  charge  of  them, 
and  relieving  their  natural  protectors  from  the  burden  of  their 
maintenance.  I  confess  that  I  do  not  see  my  way  to  a  satisfactory 
solution  of  the  difficulty. 

Summary, 

To  sum  up  then  briefly,  what  I  have  attempted  to  prove  in  some 
detail,  I  am  of  opinion : — 

1.  That  most  of  the  flagrant  abuses  of  the  manner  in  which 
the  children  of  the  poor  were  dealt  with  under  the  Poor  Laws  prior, 
and  for  some  years  subsequent,  to  the  passing  of  the  great  Act  of 
1834,  have  been  remedied,  by  the  separation  of  many  of  the  schools 
from  the  workhouses,  and  by  the  generally  improved  arrangements 
of  the  poor  houses  themselves. 

2.  That  a  very  large  number,  probably  a  majority,  of  the 
children  educated  in  the  schools  succeed  fairly  well  in  life,  and  are 
apparently  dispauperised,  so  far  as  they  have  been  traced. 

3.  That  a  majority  of  the  orphan,  deserted,  and  casual  children 
of  the  poor  are  still,  however,  retained  in  the  workhouses.  Although 
these  have  ceased  to  be  training  schools  of  crime,  their  inmates  are 
not  proper  associates  for  the  young,  and  the  surroundings  and 
atmosphere  of  such  places  are  in  every  way  undesirable  for 
children. 

4.  That  the  education  and  training  in  the  small  schools  of 
workhouses  are,  of  necessity,  incomplete  and  imperfect,  from  the 
impossibility  of  obtaining  competent  agency  on  the  salaries  which 
can  be  allowed.  Their  sole  feature  of  excellence  is  the  amount  of  care 
and  attention,  such  as  they  are,  which  can  be  bestowed  on  individual 
children. 

5.  That  the  provision  of  a  home,  which  is  the  principle  on 
which  boarding  out  is  based,  is  sound  in  itself,  and  that  it  is 
attended  with  benefit  to  the  individual,  when  carefully  watched  and 
controlled;  but,  that  it  is  liable  to  so  many  abuses  difficult  to 

VOL.  XLin.      PART  II.  R 


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232  MouAT — On  the  Educaiion  and  Training  [June, 

detect  and  prevent,  and  is  so  entirely  opposed  to  a  sound  system  of 
relief  of  destitution,  as  to  be  unfitted  for  general  adoption,  even  if 
it  were  practicable  to  obtain  the  agency  necessary,  on  the  scale  that 
would  be  required. 

6.  That,  while  the  principle  of  forming  district  and  separate 
schools  is  correct,  the  special  manner  in  which  it  has  been  advo* 
cated  and  applied,  is  not  equally  so :  inasmuch  as  the  aggregation 
of  very  large  numbers  of  children  in  great  buildings  is  attended 
with  evils,  moral  and  physical,  which  neutralise  much  of  the 
undoubted  excellence  of  the  instruction  given  in  them. 

7.  Consequently,  that  while  all  such  schools  should  continue  to 
be  mixed,  each  should  not  contain  more  than  500  or  600  boys 
and  girls ;  for  to  this  number  as  complete  mental,  and  much  more 
complete  moral  and  physical,  training  can  be  given  at  a  reasonable 
cost,  as  in  institutions  in  which  the  numbers  collected  are  altogether 
beyond  the  reach  of  the  satis&ctory  control  and  supervision  of  a 
single  head. 

8.  That  such  schools  should  be  on  the  village  home  or  cottage 
system,  with  central  buildings  for  instruction  in  all  its  branches,  in 
which  mental  culture,  industrial  training,  and  physical  exercises 
should  go  hand  in  hand,  and  be  united  with  farm  labour,  and  that 
the  domestic  arrangements  should  be  brought  as  much  as  possible 
into  harmony  with  those  of  the  homes  of  the  poor,  in  the  best  of  our 
villages. 

9.  That  the  educational  standards  applied  to  poor  law  schools 
should  be  better  adapted  to  the  future  lives  of  the  children  brought 
up  in  them,  and  be  more  varied  in  character,  without  increasing 
the  difficulty  of  working  up  to  them.  Hence  that  the  status,  emolu- 
ments, and  qualifications  of  the  teachers  should  be  of  a  higher  order 
than  they  are  at  present,  to  render  the  introduction  of  such  a  system 
possible.  Its  results  would  more  than  repay  any  additional  cost 
incurred. 

10.  That  the  instruction  of  the  infants  in  all  these  schools 
should  be  on  the  Kinder-garten  system,  as  that  best  calculated  to 
train  the  powers  of  observation  at  the  earliest  ages,  for,  as  recently 
remarked  by  Canon  Farrar,  "  When  a  child  is  allowed  to  gi-ow  up 
"  to  the  ages  of  5  or  7,  without  any  adequate  training  of  the 
**  power,  not  of  reading  and  writing,  but  of  the  important  mental 
•*  power  of  observation,  it  would  by  that  time  have  learned  many 
**  things  in  a  wrong  way,  which  would  be  detrimental  to  it  in  the 
"  future."  It  is  aJso  much  more  needed  for  workhouse  children 
than  for  the  children  of  any  other  class,  rich  or  poor,  as  it  is  in  the 
power  of  observation  that  they  are  naturally  most  deficient. 

11.  Lastly.  That  many  of  the  physical  defects  of  the  children 
can  be  removed,  as  they  were  in  the  hardy  crew  of  the  "  Goliath," 


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1880.]  Of  the  OhOdrm  of  the  Poor.  233 

and  as  thej  now  are  in  the  "  Ezmoutb/'  and  in  both  girls  and  boys 
at  Anerley,  by  the  mnsical  and  dnmb  bell  drill,  and  swimming  of 
the  former ;  and  by  the  drill,  gymnastics,  mast,  and  swimming  also 
of  the  latter,  combined  with  carpentry,  smith's  work,  farm  labonr, 
and  such  other  varieties  of  handicrafts  and  industrial  occn- 
pations,  as  may  fit  them  to  take  a  proper  place  among  the  working 
classes  of  the  country. 

OoncltUfUm. 

I  cannot  conclude  my  paper  in  a  more  fitting  manner,  than  by 
quoting  the  judgment  of  the  family  system  pronounced  by  the 
Managers  of  the  Children's  Home  in  the  Bonner  Boad,  after  some 
years  of  its  practical  working  among  identically  the  same  type  of 
children  as  are  found  in  the  Metropolitan  Workhouses.  To  this 
admirable  institution  none  are  denied  admission,  who  are 
'*  friendless,  fatherless,  or  destitute,  and  for  whose  moral  and 
**  material  welfare  no  provision  is  made." 

"Many  advantages,"  they  say,  "are  gained  by  this  plan.  It 
"  checks,  if  it  does  not  entirely  prevent,  the  evils  so  frequently 
"  found  in  very  large  gatherings  of  children,  evils  against  which 
"  special  precautions  are  needed.  It  renders  the  maintenance  of 
"  discipline  possible,  without  crushing  the  spontaneity  and  vivacity 
"  of  child  life.  It  secures  an  exactness  of  oversight  and  a  dealing 
"  with  individual  temperaments,  according  to  their  special  pecu- 
"  liarities,  which  in  other  circumstances  would  not  be  possible,  and 
*'  it  reproduces  as  nearly  as  may  be  that  home  life  which  is  God's 
"  grand  device  for  the  education,  in  the  best  meaning  of  the  word, 
"  of  the  human  race.  There  are,  moreover,  economical  advantages 
"  attached  to  the  system,  but  of  which  one  only  need  be  mentioned  : 
"  it  enables  the  institution  to  be  established  without  any  enormous 
"  outlay  for  buildings,  allows  it  to  grow  naturally,  and  by  a  succes- 
"  sion  of  comparatively  easy  efforts,  house  being  added  to  house  as 
"  the  families  multiply." 

What  higher  commendation  could  be  given  to  any  system  ? 


fi2 

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234  MouAT — On  ike  Education  a/nd  Training  [June, 


APPENDIX. 


SIX    TABLES, 

Showinq  THi   Amount  <yr  thx  Pabliambntast  Grant  for  thi 
Payment  of  Tiaohebs,  1857-58; 

Cost  of  the  Metropolitan  Poor  Law  Schools  ; 

Beturns  of  Children  sent  back  to  the  Workhouses; 

TouNQ  Offenders  Admitted  to  Beformatort  Schools,  1854-76; 

AND 

Number  of  Children  in  Reformatories  who  haye  been  in 
WoBKHOusis,  1868-77. 


Digitized  by 


Google 


1880.] 


0/  the  OhUdren  of  ihe  Poor. 


235 


Tablk  I. — JVtmher  of  Children  Educated  hy  the  Poor  Law  Authorities, 
with  the  Amount  of  the  Parliamentary  Grant  for  Payment  of  the 
Salaries  of  the  Teachers. 


Tmt. 

Taught  in 
WorkhooM  Schools. 

Tiraght  in 
District  Schools. 

Total  Number 

of  Childrm 

Edacated 

by  Poor  Law 

Aathorities. 

SalariM 
of 

Boyt. 

Giris. 

Boys. 

Girls. 

Teachers. 

1861 .... 

18,252 

16,151 

^_ 

__ 

84,408 

21,328 

'52.... 

17,289 

i5»579 

625 

373 

88,766 

21,848 

'68... 

16,277 

15,051 

1,096 

783 

83,207 

22,204 

'64.... 

17,278 

16,545 

1;007 

863 

86,698 

231013 

1855 .... 

18,455 

X  7,829 

1,129 

927 

38,840 

23,982 

'56 .... 

17,666 

17,416 

1,448 

1,284 

87,814 

26,616 

'67.... 

17,870 

16,999 

1,519 

x,352 

87,240 

29»398 

'58.... 

17,886 

17,069 

1,564 

x,349 

87,868 

30,857 

'60.... 

16,052 

14,842 

1,453 

1,229 

38,576 

3X,xi7 

I860.... 

14,344 

13,761 

1,870 

x,x79 

80,654 

3X,23i 

'61 .... 

15,290 

15434 

1,435 

x,3X7 

33,476 

3X,i88 

'62.... 

16,684 

16,987 

1,633 

x,475 

36,779 

32,124 

'68.... 

17,172 

"6,732 

1,669 

x,5i8 

37,091 

32,768 

'64.... 

16,568 

16,003 

1,585 

x,392 

35,648 

33,9>6 

1865 .... 

16,820 

15*425 

1,596 

x,366 

34,706 

34,220 

'66.... 

15,886 

15*304 

1,655 

1,421 

84,266 

34,322 

'67.... 

16,815 

16,124 

1,838 

x,5o5 

86,282 

34,xx7 

'68.... 

18,464 

17,640 

2,077 

1,669 

89,850 

33,838 

'69 .... 

19,318 

18,420 

1,961 

hS^6 

41,215 

35*474 

1870.... 

19,076 

17,5x9 

2,816 

2,163 

41,574 

36,X39 

'71 .... 

18,874 

16,463 

2,782 

x,973 

39,542 

36,778 

'72.... 

16,182 

14,800 

2,717 

x,898 

35,547 

36,222 

'78... 

16,374 

14,298 

8,008 

2,217 

34,897 

36,098 

'74.... 

14,699 

X3.459 

8,126 

2,293 

38,577 

35,5x8 

1875 .... 

14,120 

13,006 

8,894 

2^.23 

82,943 

34*405 

'76.... 

18,711 

12,781 

8,165 

2,4X7 

32,074 

34*636 

'77.... 

14,068 

X  2,595 

2,207 

2,388 

82,258 

33*494 

'78.... 

14,359 

X  2,925 

8,654 

2,690 

33,628 

35»xx6 

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236 


MouAT — On  the  Education  and  Training 


[Jane, 


Table  IL- 

-Annual  Average 

Number  of  Scholars,  Grose  Expenditure,  and 

Cost  per  Child 

Average  Number  of  Scholars  per  Baj. 

Total  Expenditure  for  all  Purposes.               1 

Nmne  of  School. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1878. 

Aver- 
aireof 
the  5 
Yean. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

Averagfi 
of  the 
5  Years. 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

St.  Pancrae  ... 

— 

— 

— 

389 

398 

393 

— 

— 

— 

14,562 

14,880 

14,472 

Forest  Gate,! 
"Gk)li»th"J 

— 

— 

— 

395 

379 

387 

— 

— 

— 

9,462 

11,403 

10,432 

St.  Leonard,! 
Shoreditch, 

404 

408 

364 

361 

363 

380 

9,783 

8»554 

12,032 

9,723 

8,192 

9,657 

Central  Lon-\ 
don    , ' 

1,042 

1,065 

1,227 

1,164 

1,166 

i>i3i 

21,796 

21,926 

27,408 

30,086 

32,863 

z6,8i4 

St.Mai7lebone 

436 

439 

432 

439 

416 

432 

9,966 

9»663 

9,806 

10,063 

10,186 

9,937 

North  Surrey .. 

823 

869 

864 

750 

807 

823 

18,891 

19,896 

17,176 

>5,5'8 

22,404 

18,77: 

Bethnal  Green 

143 

Z46 

361 

350 

894 

297 

3,111 

6,682 

7,377 

6,751 

8,676 

6,49^ 

Holborn    

— 

— 

— 

424 

438 

431 

— 

— 

— 

9,331 

9,200 

9,265 

Forest  Gkte" 
School   ..../ 

— 

881 

771 

698 

791 

79> 

— 

i5»97o 

16,429 

15,858 

17,703 

16490 

Strand  

361 

3^7 
1,272 

399 

377 
«»234 

360 

371 

7,922 

7,821 

7,289 

8,646 
26,008 

7,206 

7,757 

^uth  Metro-! 
politan  ..../ 

1,310 

1,216 

1,291 

1,265 

24,181 

24,661 

24,906 

28,368 

25.623 

Westminstep.... 

213 

238 

239 

223 

221 

227 

3,603 

4,146 

4,817 

4,3" 

6,835 

4*44- 

Islington  

246 

H7 

262 

H8 

241 

247 

4,224 

4,217 

4,484 

Syioo 

6,344 

4,874 

St.     G^eopge- ' 
in-the-East/ 

630 

488 

439 

290 

266 

403 

9,191 

8,301 

7,678 

6,550 

6,378 

7,59« 

Lambeth  

436 

416 

387 

350 

848 

387 

6,716 

6,629 

6,387 

6,532 

6,670 

6,56t 

Mile  End 

266 

267 

266 

286 

279 

273 

4,138 

4,4H 

4,661 

4,503 

4,877 

4.5»: 

Digitized  by 


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1880.] 


Of  the  Children  of  the  Poor. 


237 


of  each  of  the  District  and  Separate  Metropolitan  Poor  Law  SchodU  from  1869  to  1873. 


Total  Cost  per  Head  per  AnnQm. 

1869. 

1870 

, 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

Average  of 

tbe 
Five  Yean. 

NaaworScbooL 

£«.(«. 

£    ». 

d. 

£    e.    d. 

£    e,    d. 

£    a.    d. 

£    s. 

d. 

— 

— 

— 

57    8     8 

86    2    8 

36  16 

2 

St.  Pancra* 

— 

— 

— 

*3   «9     I 

80    1    9 

27     - 

- 

/Forest  Gate, 
1     "Goliath" 

24    4    8 

20    19 

4 

33    1     1 

26  18     8 

22  11    4 

15     8 

rSt.  Leonard, 
\     Shoreditoh 

21-8 

20  XI 

9 

22    6    9 

25  i6  11 

28    8  11 

»3  19 

fOentral   Lon- 
1     don 

22  18    2 

22      - 

2 

22  13  11 

22  18     5 

24  10  10 

23     - 

St.  Marylebone 

22  19    8 

22    17 

II 

19  17    6 

20  13   iO 

27  15    3 

22  16 

North  Surrey 

21  15    1 

27     3 

4 

21-4 

19     5  10 

21  15    4 

21   17 

Bethnal  Green 

— 

— 

22-1 

21-1 

21  10 

Holbom 

— 

18     2 

7 

21    6    2 

*2  H    5 

22    7    7 

21     - 

/ForeetGate 
I     School 

21    8  11 

21     6 

2 

18    5    6 

22  18     8 

20  11    9 

20  18 

Strand 

18    9    2 

19     7 

9 

20    9    7 

21     I     6 

21  19    4 

20    5 

/South  Metro- 
\     politan 

16  18    4 

17     8 

5 

20    3    1 

19     6     8 

24    2  10 

19  i5 

10 

Westminster 

17    4  10 

17     I 

6 

17  16  10 

20  11     3 

26    6    6 

19  14 

8 

Islington 

17    6  10 

17     - 

2 

17    6    2 

Z2    II      8 

28  19    7 

19    12 

% 

'  St.  George-in- 
■      the-East 

16    8    9 

15  18 

8 

16  10    1 

«8  13     3 

18  17    7 

16    19 

4 

lambeth 

15  11    1 

16  10 

8 

17  11    - 

15  14  10 

16    9    7 

16    10 

- 

Mile  End 

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MouAT — On  the  EducaHon  and  Travning 


[June, 


Table  III. — Cost  in  the  Metropolitan  Poor  Law  Schools  of  Provisions^  Necessaries^  dc 

under  Four  Diferent  Heads, 


Nameof  School 


Cottof ''ProfriMu"  pet Hotd  peri 


1869. 


1870, 


1871. 


1872. 


1878. 


Averamef 

tSe 
Fbe  Yean. 


Separate  Schools — 
Bethnal  Green,  Lejton- 1 

Btone    j 

St.  George-in-ihe-EMt^l 

Plaahet    / 

Holbom,  Mitoham 

Islington,  Homsej    

Lambeth,  Norwood  

Mile  End  Old  Town,! 

Bancroft  fioad  / 

St.  Marylebone,  Sonthall 
St.  Pancraa,  Leayesden.... 
Shoreditch,  Brentwood.... 

Strand,  Edmonton 

Westminster,  Battersea.... 

Jhstrid  Schools— 

Central  London 

Forest  (Hte    

North  Surrey 

South  Metropolitan  


Separate  Schools — 
Bethnal  Qreen,  Lejton- 1 

stone    J 

St.  Oeorge-in-the-Ea8t,1 

Plaehet    J 

Holbom,  Mitoham 

Islington,  Homsej    

Lambeth,  Norwood  

Mile  End  Old  Town,! 

Bancroft  Koad   J 

St.  Marjlebone,  Southall 
St.  Fanoras,  LeaTesden.... 
Shoreditch,  Brentwood , 

Strand,  Edmonton 

Westminster,  Battersea. 

District  Schools-^ 

Central  London 

Forest  Oate    

North  Surrey 

South  Metropolitan  


£    s.d, 
4    1  10 

8  19    6 

7-6 
6    8  11 

6  10    -1 


11    6    4 
8    6-1 
7  16    1 


7  15    9 

9    6    8 
7  11    1 


£   s,   d, 

8  ID    9 

648 
649 

6     2  10 

6  18     5 

8     1   iii 

7  8    4 
6    3     li 


7  5  8* 

6  12  li 

8  17  8 

7  10  5i 


£   s.  d, 

6  16  2 

8  14  9 

6  16  2 

6    9  8i 

6  9  6 

7  4  9 

7  18  6i 

6  19  2 

6  10  8 


7  6  2 

6  8  2 

8  18  6 

7  11  8 


£    s.  d. 
674 


11  14 


9 

4 


4i 

li 
li 
9 

19     li 

II  iif 
8  9, 
6  iii 

II     9 

-    5 


8  15     6i 

7  4  loi 

9  10    - 

8  2     5 


£    s,  d. 

6  8    4 

12    2    6i 

7  6    2 

7    6    8i 
7    7    7 

6  18    81 

7  2    -i 
6  18  11 

6  14    7 

7  17    -i 
7    16 


8  18    4} 
7  17  11 

9  6- 
7  18    2 


£  #.    d. 

5  16    - 

9  »9    9* 


7    -  I 

6  II  5 

6  15  1 

6  It  III 

7  4  3* 
7     I  4. 
7  16  7* 
7   12  6 
6  18  3 


8  -    4 
7-9 

9  3     5 
7  14    9 


Coet  of  ''Neceeiaiiee''  per  Head  per  Annum. 


£   s. 
4  11 


3 


d, 
9i 

2    21 


14    91 
14  11 

2  17  10 


4  10  4i 
2  16  -I 
2  10    6i 


3  18    1 

8-6 
3  11    1 


£  s.  d. 

a  18  4i 

2  14  4 

a  14  6\ 

2  18  4 

2  16  4 

4    -  8 


3i 
5i 

15  10 


3     6 
a    5 


3    5    9i 
a    4    3 
286 

3     9  II 


£  «.  <f. 

2    6  21 

8    7  81 

2  16  4 

8    2  2 

8  12  8 

4  16  - 


4  18 
2  9 
2  12 


8  17  2i 

2    1  21 

2  8  8 

3  9  6 


£  «.     ^. 

2-10 

5-7 
211 

3     a     1 

2  18     8 

a  13     2 

476 
$66 

3  10     6 

2  12     2 

3  I     I 


3  13   II* 

a    9     8i 
a     5     3 
3     8     2 


£  «.     d. 

3  8- 

2  19  lOi 

2  14    61 

3  16  10 
3  2    6i 

3  3 


6  12 
6  13 
4  9 
3  1 
6    2 


4  2  7i 
2  16  Hi 
4    17 

4    2- 


£   s,    d. 

3     -    -^ 


3     8   II 

a  7 
3  - 
2  19 


9i 

4 
6 


3-7 

4  14    -* 

5  10  II 
4    3     -i 

a  14  9 
3     4     6k 

3  14     6k 

28- 
a  15  If 
3  la     I 


Digitized  by 


Google 


1880.] 


Of  the  Children  of  the  Poor. 


239 


Table  III  CoiUd.'-Cost  in  the  Metropolitan  Poor  Law  SchooU  of  Furniture^  and  Repairs 
of  BuHdingSy  lAc,  under  Four  Diferenl  Heads. 


Cook  of «« Repain,  Famitore,  be/'  per  Head  per  Annom. 

NamoofSdiooL 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1878. 

ATerageof 
Five  Years. 

JSeparate  SchooU— 

.Betihnal  Ghreen,  Leyton- 1 

stone    J 

St.  G^rge-in-the-Bast,  1 

Plaahet    / 

Holborn,  Mitoham    

Islingtoiii  Homsej 

£    s,   d, 
10  19  11 

2    9    9 

2-10 
1-9 

16    8} 

4    4    8 
8  17    7 
2    8  10 

6    7    8 

8  18    7f 
8  16    1} 

£  s.  d. 

5    12    11 

2    4    3i 

*     1     3 

1  to      2 

2  lO    10 

4  II     6 

3  i6     9i 

4  10    5i 

3  19     a 

8     7     5 
2  i6     9 

4  3    4 
4    9  II 

£  #.  d, 

8  18    9 

2    7    8i 

2  11    2i 

1  9  11 

2  6    4i 

8  19  10 

9  7    9i 
2    4  10 
6  10    2 

6     1    9i 
2  12    8i 
2  17    8 

6    8    8f 

£    s.    d. 

1  8     8 

2  17     9\ 

6  i6  11 

3  15     li 

2  12      2 

-  19  iii 

3  4iii 

7  II  iii 
6  15  iii 
a    5     li 

4  8     1 

3  19     9i 

2  8    II 

3  8  loi 

5  8    4i 

£  s.     d. 
8  11    - 

2  15    6i 

6  18    8 
6  16    9i 

1  14  10 

2-8 

8    6    9i 
5    8    4 

2  -    7f 
2  12    - 

5  12    6i 

6  18    2\ 
2  12    2 

7  1    8J 
4  18    8 

£     S.     d. 
5*3 

2  10  II 

6  17     7 

3  9    -i 
1  13     * 

1  16  11 

3  15     9 
678 

5  5    i 

3  *    - 

4  II     9 

6  I   10} 

2  12     7i 

4  4  loi 

5  I     8 

Lambeth,  Norwood   

Mile  End  Old  Town,") 

Bancroft  Road  J 

St.  Marylebone,  Southall 
St.  Panoras,  Leayeeden .... 
Shoreditoh,  Brentwood.... 
Strand,  Kdmonton , 

Westminfter,  Battersea ... 

District  Schools^ 

Central  London 

Forest  Gste    

North  Suirey 

South  Metropolitan  

Cort  of  •*  iklQcation  and  Induitrial  Training  •*  per  Head  per  Annum. 

Separate  Schools^ 
'.  Sethnal  Green,  Leyton- 1 

stone    J 

St.  George-in-the-£a8t,\ 

Plashet    / 

Holbom,  Mitchn-m. ..r 

£    «.    d, 

-  9    21 

4    8  10 

-  14    1 
2-7 

19    1 

11- 

12    9) 
2-9 

-  16    5J 

8  18    7 
1-11 

£   s.    d. 

I       »      2i 

4  1*    -i 

-  i8  ifi 
I   i6     8 

1     9     3 
I     I     4i 

1  7     7} 

2  1      7 
-13     6 

4    1  loi 

-  3     li 

I     -    -t 

£  s.  d. 

-  11  11 

4    2  lOi 

-  19    7 
1  18    6 

1  10    6 

12    5 

1  6  111 

2  2    7 
-12    7i 

8    2    6} 

-  -    8i 

1    2    5i 

£  s,     d, 
-14    3i 
4  14    - 

I     -    6i 
I   18     9* 

I     9     3 

I     3     4* 
1  10    -i 
I    4    8J 
a     5     8 

-  14  10 

3     3     3i 

-  I     -i 

I     3     9 

£  s.     d, 

-  15    4J 

5    4    2 

18    6 
2    4  10 

18  7 

19  8 

1  8    8i 
12    9 

2  5    4i 

-  14    2 

2  19    li 

-  2    4i 

119 

£  s.    d. 
-  14    7 
411     4* 

-  19    4 

I  18  loi 

I     9     3i 
1     4     1 
'     9    4i 
1    4    7 
232 

-143* 

3     9     1 

-  I     9i 

LamBeth,  Norwood  

Mile  End  Old  Town,! 

Bancroft  Boad  J 

St.  Marylebone,  Southall 
St.  Pancras,  Leayesden.... 
Shoreditch,  Brentwood,... 
Str^Tid,  Edmonton 

Westminster,  Battersea.... 

District  Schools— 
Central  London 

Forest  (Hte    

North  Surrey 

South  MetropoHten  

1     I     9 

Digitized  by 


Google 


240 


MouAT — On  the  Education  and  Trainivg 


[June, 


Table  IV. — Summary  hy  Counties  Proper, 
[Abftract  of  PariiamenUry  Betvrn  of  Workhoase  and  District  Schoob,  No.  496,  dated  SOth  Jan.,  I86I.3 


County 

and 
Union. 


The  Number  of  Young 

Persons  who  were 

in  the  Workhouse  Schools 

of  the  several  Unions 

and  Parishes  in  Eng^land  and 

Wales,  for  a  period  oi 

not  less  than  Two 

ConsecutiTe  Years  within 

the  Ten  Years  ended 

the  81st  daT  of  December, 

1860,  and  who  have  Left  the 

Workhouse,  for  Serrioe 

or  other 
Industrial  Occupation. 


Males. 


Females. 


The  Number  of  such 

Young  Persons 

who  have  Returned  to 

the  Workhouse, 

bj  Reason  of  dieir 

own  Misconduct. 


Males. 


Females. 


The  Number  who 

have  returned 

to  the  Workhouse^ 

from  Causes  not 

inrolring  their  owm 

Misconduct 


Males. 


Females. 


England. 

Bedford 

Berks 

Bucks    

CoDibridge    

Cheetep 

Cornwall   

Cumberland 

Derby    

Deyon    

Dorset   

Durham 

Essex 

Gloucester 

Hereford  

Hertford    

Huntingdon 

Kent 

Lancaster 

Leicester    

Lincoln 

Middlesex 

Monmouth    

Norfolk 

Northampton    ... 
Northumberland 

Nottingham 

Oxford  

Butland 

Salop 

Somerset    

Southampton    ... 

Stafford 

Suffolk  

Surrey   

Sussex   

Warwick   

Westmoreland  ... 

wnte 

Worcester 

York  (E.  Biding) 

„     (N. 

»     (W, 


90 
818 
152 
220 
257 
161 
193 
195 
882 
135 
186 
455 
639 
128 
188 

54 

608 

1,132 

847 

455 

1,489 

84 
521 
817 
152 
234 
271 

22 
231 
530 
665 
307 
894 
652 
431 
196 

42 
881 
201 
177 

77 
390 


"3 
332 
177 
180 

173 
15* 
»59 
138 
716 

178 
186 
490 
5*3 
13* 
^9^ 
49 
679 

813 
254 
456 

i»33^ 
107 
476 
294 

174 
218 

15 
195 
457 
505 
34» 
410 

465 
384 
138 

3» 
346 

185 
116 

79 
377 


4 
14 
11 
13 
22 

5 

6 
14 
25 

7 

8 
12 
27 « 
13 

9 

8 
43 
87 

9 
32 
90 

5 
19 
25 

4 
24 
10 

27 
25 
24 
81 
44 
25 
28 

3 

2 

8 
27 

8 

3 
85 


6 
ai 
20 
16 
27 
17 
II 

«3 
38 
II 

51 
46 
16 

39 

10 

120 

"03 
21 

79 
175 

55 
59 
21 

38 
18 

30 

4* 

48 

119 

68 

51 

45 

8 

2 

45 

47 

12 

12 

6i 


15 

8 
29 
87 
14 
39 

2 
98 
13 

5 

38 
37 

5 
17 

2 

81 

214 

7 
80 
98 

8 
25 
16 

6 

14 
23 

2 
20 
67 
46 
29 
29 
84 
44 

7 

2 
86 
19 
16 

6 
32 


Totals  ... 


14,404 


i»,979 


1,663 


1,264 


20 
38 
10 

29 

40 

13 
22 

3 
118 

13 
8 

63 

80 

7 

22 

II 

107 

161 

6 

34 

161 

18 

47 
26 
26 
20 
30 

4 
27 
93 
88 
62 
22 
7* 
83 
23 

I 

4» 
26 

19 

8 

36 


1,748 


Digitized  by 


Google 


1880.]  Of  the  OliUdrm  of  the  Poor. 

Table  IV, —Symmetry  hy  Cotmties  Proper — ContcL 


241 


Coonty 

and 
Union. 

The  Number  of  Tonng 

Penoni  who  were 

in  the  Workhooae  School! 

of  the  leTeral  Unions 

and  Parishes  in  England  and 

Wales,  for  a  period  of 

not  less  than  Two 

Consecutive  Years  within 

the  Ten  Years  ended 

the  Slst  day  of  December. 

IMO.  and  who  hare  Left  the 

Workhouse,  for  Service 

or  other 
Industrial  Occupation. 

The  Number  of  such 
Young  Persons 

who  have  Returned  to 

the  Workhouse, 

bjBeason  of  their 

own  Misconduct. 

The  Number  who 

have  returned 

to  the  Workhouse, 

from  Causes  not 

involving  their  own 

Misconduct. 

Males. 

Females. 

Males. 

Females. 

Males. 

Females. 

Walks. 
Angleflea   

68 
9 
31 
21 
23 
100 
88 
13 
68 
96 
83 

5» 

4 
25 

10 

i7 

I02 

65 

ID 

37 
89 

17 

4 

2 

1 
2 
2 
4 

4 

1 

5 

4 

2 
3 

5 

4 
5 

2 

1 
1 

1 
3 
7 

9 
9 

1 

Brecon  

Cftrdisran   

Cannarthen 

OamarTon 

I 

Denbigh    

3 

5 
6 

2 

Hint 

Glamorgan    

Merioneth 

Montgomeiy 

Pembroke 

4 
9 
I 

Badnor 

Totals    

629 

439 

20 

30 

32 

43 

District  schools.... 

777 

612 

24 

63 

67 

105 

Totals        of" 
Bngland  and  • 
Wales 

16,710 

14*030 

880 

1,756 

1,363 

1,896 

Digitized  by 


Google 


242 


MouAT — On  the  Ed/ucatian  cmd  Tramvng 


[June, 


Table  Y.—TotdU  of  the  Number  of  Young  Ofender$  Admitted  into  and 
Discharged  fro9n  Certified  Reformatory  School*  in  Great  Britain^  and  the 
Mode  of  DitchargCy  up  to  Zlst  December,  1876. 


England. 


AdmUsion* — 

1864 

'56 

'66 

'67 

'68 

'69 

'60 

'61 

'62 

'63 

'64 

'66 

'66 

'67 

'68 


'70. 
'71. 
'72. 
'78. 
'74. 
'76. 
'76. 


Total. 


DiscTiargei — 
To     employment'! 

OP  seryice J 

To  friends 

Emigrated. 

Sent  to  sea   

Enlisted    

Discharged  on  ao- 1 

count  of  disease  j 
Discharged  as  in- 1 

corrigible  J 

Transferred 

Died  

Absconded    


Total. 


Under       detention  1 
81st  Dec,  1876....  J 

In  school  

On  licence 

In  prison  

Absconded,        sen- 
tence unexpired 

Retained  in  school,  1 
sentence  expired  J 


Protestant. 


Boyi. 


28 
164 
477 
711 
668 
706 
766 
869 
675 
643 
664 
763 
816 
860 
828 
863 
801 
790 
881 
863 
821 
773 
800 


Qirls. 


»4 

5* 

ICO 

X04 

^SS 
19a 
*59 
150 
149 
148 
ai3 
193 
201 

213 
199 
196 
182 
240 
204 
207 

150 
186 


16,034  3,718  4,682 


Eoman 
Catholie. 


B078. 


192 
247 
119 
148 
146 
163 
161 
106 
233 
268 
264 
270 
266 
222 
264 
248 
311 
306 
306 
228 
268 


3,649 

3,743 

1,608 

2,149 

861 

161 

182 

423 
274 
427 


12,707 


3,327 


2,786 

494 

11 

36 
2 


870 

37 


9S 

SO 

144 
90 
81 


1,477 
190 
697 
126 

63 

26 

66 

118 

98 


2,922  3,628 


796 


1,164 


666 
114 

4 


986 

161 

2 

16 


Girls. 


4* 
53 
40 
43 
46 
45 
54 
47 
46 
5i 
67 
43 
3» 
58 
66 

59 
63 
48 
57 
56 
33 


1,050 


463 
219 


5 

36 

79 


874 


176 


164 

9 

2 


Scotland. 


Protestant. 


Boys^ 


167 
161 
143 
120 
129 
174 
184 
186 
179 
179 
186 
207 
181 
186 
177 
174 
194 
186 
170 
216 
161 
166 


Girls. 


54 
49 
50 
48 
58 
50 
26 

55 
51 
48 
57 
40 
38 
51 
56 
44 
59 
39 
40 

35 
38 


3,816  1,009  ^1^1 


Catholic. 


Boys. 


60 
82 
47 
49 
63 
64 
60 
96 
68 
95 
72 
68 
76 
64 
48 
44 
61 


Girls. 


4 
17 
35 
18 
26 
20 
22 

15 
20 
28 
38 
17 

21 

19 

26 

31 
23 
10 

33 


4*3 


Total. 


Boys. 


28 
831 
820 
1,101 
792 
1,009 
1,146 
1,288 
1,069 
976 
1,119 
1,266 
1,827 
1,396 
1,837 
1,867 
1,301 
1,296 
1,403 
1,396 
1,386 
1,206 
1,275 


26,612   6,200 


Gills. 


I 
78 
H3 
»03 
196 
27» 
3*3 
348 
285 
267 
264 
337 
320 
310 

334 
330 
3^7 
319 
368 

3*3 
3" 
^54 
^75 


1,636 

752 

181 

134 

36 

36 

18 

107 
128 
176 


3,092 


723 


661 
64 


395 

^5* 
^5 


«9 

»3 

4" 
34 
94 


686 

161 

10 


18 


12 
40 
49 


873     881 


136 


122 
6 


200 


167 
30 

13 


149 

129 
12 


2 
18 

2 


316 


X07 


103 
3 


6,889 

6,133 

1,889 

2,980 

613 

267 

176 

607 
665 
740 


20,208 


6,404 


4,679 

739 

18 

71 
2 


i»47o 
18 


U5 

71 

**3 

221 

185 


4.985 


1,2x5 


>.o55 

«3» 

6 

>9 
3 


Digitized  by 


Google 


1880.] 


Of  ike  Ohtldren  of  the  Poor. 


248 


Table  VL—^aofwuy  the  Ntanber  of  Juvenile  Offenders  Committed  for  Detention  in  Reformatory  Schools, 
vfho  h(we  Previously  been  Inmates  of  Workhouse,  Union,  or  Poorhouse  Schools,  or  of  Pauper  District 
Schools,  for  the  Period  of  Ten  Tears,  ending  Slst  December,  1877—1868-77. 


Name  of  Beformatory  School 


Arno*8  Court girii 

•«  Akbw  ^.. ^  boys 

Bedford    « 

BirkdaleFann ^, 

Binnhighaiii    nrls 

Bolqm  Castle 

Bra4waU 

Buxton ^ 

CalderEann 

Castle  Howard   „ 

"  Clarenee" .««. 

"  Cornwall " 

Cumberiand 

DeroB  aad  EzjBter ^ 

Doncatter „ 

Essex boys 

Glamergan  ^, 

Hampstead «».....  nrls 

Hampshire  boys 

HaroWick ^ „ 

Hertfordshire » p 

Ipswich    i:irls 

KioKswoed 

Lancashire,  north 

Laocashire,  R.  C. girls 

Leeds    ^ 

Limpley  Stoke  (Bath) 

Liveifool Boys 

,,        .« ««....  girls 

Londen,  Home  in  tiie  East   boys 
Maocbeeterand  SaUbid..., 

Market  Weiehton  , 

Monmowthsnire 

Moant  St.  Bernard. 

Morthampton m 

North  Eastern boys 

Bed  Hill  ^ „ 

Red  Lodge  ......  girls 

Saltley  ^ 

Stoke  Farm 

Suffolk 

Sunderland girls 

Surrey 

roxtethPark , 

l¥andsworth    boys 

Warwickshire ., 

girls 

Wellington  Farm...... 

Wilts 

Woodbury  Hill  

Yorkshire,  B.  C girls 

SOOTLAVD. 

Aberdeen girls 

Dalbeth 

Dairy  Road 

Glasgow   boys 

[nvemees boys 

Kibble  

Did  MiU   

Parkhead 

Eloasie  ...#. 

Jtranraer 


Information  not  aTailable 

:|?|:|?|:|t|:| 


10 


data  to  go  upon,  but  manager  reco 
|-|1|-|-.|-|4|-|1|      ^     ■ 
Information  not  availabie 


m 

S 

s 

4 


i-i-i-in-i- 


No  record  kept 


m 

mformation  can  be  obtamec 


I 
No  record  kept 


•|l|-|l|-|   8|   a 


Ty>tal. 


1 

- 

1 

- 

- 

_ 

.. 

- 

— 

_ 

4 

— 

— 

_ 

1 

_ 

6 

a 

1 

H 

1 

6 

7 

1 

- 

8 

1 

- 

2 

_ 

_ 

ij 

— 

I 

a 

: 

- 

led  8  more  than  three 

2-13 

-     11-18  1- 

1 

- 

1 

6| 

- 

7 

- 

Hare  had  a  few  from  workhouses,  but  none  from  district  school 


No  record 

I 
I 


No  reoord.    Thirty  girls  now  hi 


the 


workhouses 


Reiormatonr  own  to  hare  been  in 


86 


87 


67 


482 


-l-l-l-lll-l- 


-       ♦     - 


-U  ? 


kIi- 

Nil 


|-|-|1|-|1|-|-|-|    8|- 


3-l---i-.-_ 

1 

_ 

6 

1     -     6     -     4     -     -     -     1     - 

1 

- 

12 

-     I     -     I     -     -     -     I     -    - 

. 

— 

__ 

1     -     -     -     1     -     -     -     1     - 

- 

_ 

6 

Nil 

-     -     -r      II 


2-     ill  8  1-18  I- 11 


NU 


IS 


40 


Digitized  by 


Google 


244  [June, 

Discussion  on  De.  Mouat's  Paper. 

The  Chairman  (Mr.  W,  Newmarch,  F.R.S.)  said  Dr.  Mouat  bad 
read  a  very  able  and  conscientious  paper,  upon  whicb  be  boped 
tbere  would  be  a  very  vigorous  discussion.  The  best  compliment 
they  could  pay  to  the  author  of  the  paper  was  to  contradict  him 
most  vigorously,  and  he  trusted  that  there  would  be  a  good 
response  to  that  invitation. 

Mr.  Edwin  Chadwick,  C.B.,  commended  the  high  spirit  and  ability 
of  a  large  proportion  of  Dr.  Mouat's  paper,  but  he  could  have  shown 
at  length,  had  time  permitted,  that  the  doctrine  propounded  of  the 
advantages  of  the  smaller,  or  even  of  middle  sized,  over  the  larger 
schools,  was  wholly  in  error  in  principle,  as  demonstrated  by 
comparative  results ; — that  the  larger  the  aggregation,  the  greater 
the  segregation  or  power  of  classification  and  of  class  teaching; 
the  better  the  physical,  the  intellectual,  and  the  moral  results,  and 
the  greater  the  economy.  Due  credit  had  been  given  to  the  kinder- 
garten— ^but  the  efficiency  of  the  infant  school  was  only  to  be  got 
usually  with  a  first-class  teacher — as  the  primary  and  most  im- 
portant part  of  a  large  school.  Dr.  Mouat  had  spoken  of  it  as 
a  disadvantage  of  a  large  school,  "that  the  numbers  collected 
together  are  altogether  beyond  the  reach  of  the  satisfactory  control 
and  supervision  of  a  single  head."  Why  this  was  precisely  the 
disadvantage  of  the  small  school,  of  the  single  mastered  school, 
that  its  numerous  and  disparate  classes,  some  six  or  seven,  were 
only  under  the  control  of  one  head ;  whilst  in  the  large  school  they 
were  under  the  supervision,  and  special  occupation  of  a  number 
of  heads ;  of  a  first  class  infant  school  teacher,  whose  service 
effected  a  saving  of  two  years  of  school  time  (a  saving  which  had 
not  been  noted) ;  then  of  some  twelve  pupil  teachers  of  different 
classes  for  one  class  after  the  other;  tiien  of  a  second  assistant 
teacher,  and  a  first  teacher,  and  of  a  head  teacher,  and  at  the  same 
time  of  a  drill  master — one  of  the  most  potent  and  formative  of 
masters — of  a  music  master,  and  of  a  trade  instructor,  all  of  whose 
services  were  brought  to  bear  upon  the  body  as  well  as  the  mind  of 
the  pupil  on  the  half-time  school  system.  And  what  was  the 
comparative  cost  of  all  this  teaching  and  training  power  in  the 
larger  systematised  organisation?  why  in  the  instance  cited  of 
the  Annerly  district  school,  as  in  others,  it  was  not  more  than  one 
pound  per  head  per  annum,  as  against  two  pounds  per  head  and 
more,  the  common  expense  of  small  schools  throughout  the 
country ;  but  on  the  half-time  principle,  including  the  in&nt  school, 
the  chUdren  of  the  lowest  and  slowest  type  are  got  well  through 
the  "  three  R's  '*  in  about  seven